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FROM THE LIBRARY 

OP 

PROFESSOR HENRY S. FRIEZE. 
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5| Presented to the University of Michigan by Mrs. Frieze 2 
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GAZETTEER 



OF THE STATES 



OF 



CONNECTICUT AND BHODE-ISLAND. 



,- -f 



WRITTEN WITH CARE AND IMPARTIALITY, FROM ORIGINAL AND AUTHE>'Trc 

MATERIALS. 



CONSISTING OF 

TWO PARTS. 

I.' A GEpGBAFHXCAL AND STATISTICAL SESCBIPTIOIT OT EAOH STATE ; EXKIBIJIVG A GENS- 
BAL yiEW OF TBEIB KOBE PBOKIirEirT TSATUBSS> BOTH 2IATUBAL ASD ABTIFICI AL. 

IL A GEH'EBAL GEOGBAPHICAL TIEV OF EACH GOITSTT, >Liri> A MINUTE AVO AMPLl. TOPOOBi* 
PUICAX SESCBIPTION AND STATISTICAL VIEW OF EACH TOWN, WITH T!iKlB CIVIL DIVIS- 
IONS, SOCIETIES, CITIES, BOBOUOHS AND VILLAGES, ALPHABSTLCALI.T ARRAXiT'n IN TnETQ 
BESPECTIVE COUNTIES : TOGETHEB WITH SUCCINCT BIOGBAPBICAL NOTJO.^i 4>E EMTNFST 
' DECEASED KEN. 



WITH AN ACCURATE AND IMPROVED Mil»P 
OF EACH STATE. 



1 . 



BY JOHN C. PEASE 

ANI» ^^ 

JOHNM.NILES. 



HARTFORD : 

PHINTED AND PUBLISHED BT WILLIAM 8. VABSB. 



1819. 




?l 



District of Connecticut, ss, 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the twelfth day o( 
') L^ s^ I June, in the forty-third year of the Independence of the 
( J United States of America, William S. Marsh, of the said 

district, hath deposited in this ofGce the title of a hook, the 
light whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words following, to wit : 
" A Gazetteer of the States of Connecticut and Rhode-Island ; writ- 
'* ten with care and iffipartiality, from original and authentic materi- 
" als. Consisting of two parts ; I. A geographical and statistical des- 
^* cription of each state ; exhihiting a general view of their more pro- 
" minent features, both natural and artificial. 11. A general geogra-^ 
" phical view of each county, and a minute and ample topographical 
*• description and statistrcal view of each town, with their civil divis- 
^' ions, societies, cities boroughs and villages, alphabetically arranged 
^' in their respective counties; together with succinct biographical 
*' notices of eminent deceased men : with an accurate and improved 
'' map of each State. By John C. Pease and John M. Niles." 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, enti- 
tled "An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing^ the co- 
^' pies of Hiaps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such 
'■^ copies, during the times therein mentioned." 

CHAS, A. INGERSOLL, 
Clerk of the district of Connecticut. 
A tcue copy of record, examined and sealed by me, 

CHAS. A. INGERSOLL, 
€llerk of the district of Connecticut^ 



* • 




A 






? 



PREFACE* 



lH offering the following volume to the public^ we have no apology to 
make ; and little to observe, either as to our own objects or the work itself. 
There are, perhaps, few departments of science of more general utility, than 
those of geography and statistics ; especially in this country, which possesses 
an immense territory, embracing different climates; a variety of soil, affonl* 
Ing different productions ; and where one united people, having, for the pur- 
poses of defence, foreign relations, commerce, and other national objects; a 
eommoa government, are divided into distinct and separate communities ; 
-which, as it respects the common objects of legislation and the various con- 
cerns of society, are subject to local, disHnct and independent authorities ; 
which, from the influence of positive institutions, must have a tendency, not 
only to maintain different characteristics, habits and manners in these distinct 
communities, but in some measure toobstmct the dissemination of local in- 
telligence, tt is evident, that the people of the several States cannot be too 
intimately acquainted with each other ; their local resources and advantages ; 
the most important interests, whether of agriculture, manufactures or com- 
merce; the most conspicuous departments of industry, and the 'prevailing 
local characteristics. A general diffusion of information upon these subjects 
will not only tend to unite us more effectually as one people, but may con- 
tribute to the genera] improvement. Several valuable works of this descrip- 
tion have already been published in the United States; and it is gratifying to 
observe, that others are contemplated, and that the subject of the topography 
of our country is everywhere receiving conspicuous attention. With respect 
to this volume, we can only say, tba£ it is the product of much industry ; and 
that it embodies a vast collection of facts, will not, we think, be denied. Per- 
haps there has been no work of the kind undertaken upon the same princi- 

'v pies, nor could the.^e principles have been acted upon with success, 

^ except in a work confined to a small territory. It was our design to obtain 

'(authentic and correct topographical, and the entire statistical information from 

[every town. This, as will be perceived, has given the work great uniformity ; 

. ^jwhich, by depriving it of variety, may have rendered it less interesting, but 
re think not less useful; as that kind of information, which comes within tlie 
riews of this work, can be found in the description of every town. ■ 

With the exception of the aid we have received (which we here would ac* . 
knowledge,) from a statistical and topographical view of New-Haven, by the 
late President Dwight, published in 1811 ; from a view upon a s\iv\U^x \>\\\v, 
of the towns of Litchfield, Norfolk and Washington, iulAkM\^\A co\m\^^\\N[ 



k PREFACE. 

Jamks Morris Esq.; and h historical and topographical ri^vr of the towns of 
Haddam and East-Haddam, by the Rer. David D. Field, publlshedin 1814 ; 
the work has been wholly compiled from original materials. Hie facts have 
been collected either directly by ourselves, or through the aid of correspond- 
ents. Every county, and almost every Important town In each Stale, has 
been visited ; and a circular letter, specifying the several subjects upon which 
information was requested, has been addressed to one or more of the most 
Inteliigent Inhabitants in every other town. • The great number of gentlemen 
who, In this way, have furnished information for the work, are entitled to our 
warmest acknowledgments. We are sensible, that information obtained iq 
^his mode may, in some instances, have been erroneous; butconsideriugthe 
respectable sources from whence it has been derived, we have no doubt, bat 
that in general It will be found correct. In noticing the sources of our Infor- 
mation, we should do injustice, were we to omit to state, that for the facts 
relative to the first settlements of towns and much other historical infdrma- 
tion, we are extensively indebted to '^ Trumbull's histdry of Connecticut ;" 
a work disclosing more research, and more indefatigable Industry, than al- 
most any other which has appeared in this State. 

In the arrangement or plan of the work, our object has been to render It as 
systematic and connected as possible ; the usual order of the counties anil 
towns having been preserved. 

With respect to biographical notices, as our limits did not admit of an in- 
sertion of all that might be deserving of preservation, we have selected such 
as we deemed most distinguished, and that could be obtained with the greatest 
facility ; having some regard to diversity of characters, with a view to give 
this part of the work as much variety and Interest as practicable. It wHI not, 
therefore, be understood, that all those individuals who have been noticed 
were deemed more distinguished, or a sketch of their lives more worthy of 
preservation, than many others, who have been omited. Should a second 
edition of the work be demanded, it might, in this as wdl as in other respects, 
receive considerable additions and improvements. 

It is generally considered, that works of this description caimot be very 
permanent, as most of the subjects of which they treat are constantly chang- 
ing. But from the condition of the improvements oi almost every descrip- 
tion In these two States, and the permanent and settled character of society, 
it is believed, that with the exception of some manufacturing Interests, both 
the topographical descriptions and the statistical details will remain essentially 
correct for a> length of time. It is from this consideration, that we have ob- 
served a minuteness and uniformity of description, which Is not usual In pub- 
lications of this character. Being confined to ^vlng an account of '' things 
as they are," we have aimed at no embelishments of style, elegance of dic- 
tion or richness and brilliancy of descriptions. That a work containing such 
a vast collection of facts should be free from errors, will not be expected ; 
and we trust that the intelligent and the liberal, being sensible of the difficnl* 
ties attending the undertaking, will view Its defects with proper Indulgence. 
After having devoted nearly one entire year to this work, and extended it| 
near 100 pages beyond the proposed size, It is ofiered to the pubKc with th< 
hope, that it will not be considered as altogether unworthy of the respectable] 
patronage Which it has received in almost every town In the two States. 

THE AUTHORS. 



Vi CONTENTS., 

New-London County - . - * Page 

New-ljondon - - - - - 

Norwich ^ . . - - - - 

Bo:5rah «..---- 

Colchester ..-.*- 

Franklin - - - - - 

Griswold - - - 

Groton ------- 

Lisbon ------- 

Lyme ------- 

Montville - - - - - 

North-Stonington ------ 

Preston - - - - 

Stonington ------- 

Waterford '- - - * - * - 

Fairfield CorxTY _ - - - - 

Fairfield - - - - 

Danbury - - 

Brookfield .---•■-- 
Greenwich - , - - - , - 

Huntington ----*"- 

New-Cfiinaan ^ . - - - - 

New-Fa' rfield - - - * 

Newtown ------- 

Norwalk - - - - - * - 

Reading - - - - " " " 

Ridgefield ------- 

Sherman '- - - -* 

Stamford - - - -' - 

Stratford ------- 

Weston - - - - - . ■ 

Wilton ------- 

Windham County - - - " - . - 

Windham ------- 

Ashford - ' ' 

Brooklyn - - - 

Canterbury - - - - 

Columbia - - 

Hampton ------- 

Killingly - * - 

Lebanon - - - - " " " 

Mansfield - - 

Piainfield - - - - " " " 

Pomfret ------- 

Sterling - - . - 

Thomp?on - - " ' * ' " ^^^ 

Voluntown - - " " " " ' "'t 

Woodstock - - - - . . - " 2x;rj 




:i 



cbury 
isbury 
iron 



i 

gONTENTi. VJl 

rcHFiELD County ... - Page 229 

chfield 231 

rkhamsted ------ 237 

thlem -.-.--- 239 

aaan • - - - - - - 240 ' 

lebrook - - . - - - • " 242 

rnwall ------- 243 

shen - - - - • -'" 247 

rwinton -. ' - - - - - " 249 

Qt - - ' - - - - 250 

w-Hartford - > - - - - 251 

w-Milford - - . - - - 252 

rfolk - 254 

mouth - - - - - - - 256 

- 257 

. - . - . - 258 

- 260 
rrington - - - - - - -261 

rren ------- 262 

shington • - - - ,- - 263 

tertown - - - ^ - - - 264 - 
Qchester - - - - - -265 

lodbury ------- 266' 

)DLESEX County - - - - - ' 269 

Idletown . - - - - - 271 

Warn - - - - - - - 275 

itham -i - - - - - - 278 

rham - - - - - - - 280 

;t-Haddam - - - - - - 281 

lingworth - - • - - - 283 

brook .--,--- 284 

LLAND County --.-•- 288 

Hand ------- 290 

ton ------ -, 291 

irentry - - • - - . - » t6. 

ington - - - - - - - 295 

iron - - - - •• - - tS. 

aers - - . - - ' - . 296 

fford - - - - - - - 297 

ion - - - - - - - 300 

rnon - * - - - - - 302 

IBngton - - • • - • • 303 



Pi 



CONTENTS 



OF THE STATE OF RHODE-ISLAND. 



General Geographical and Statistical View of the State of Rhode- %] 


Island . . . . . Page; 305 y ] 


Providence County 








32ir 


Providence 










324-: 


Burrellville 










335< i 

336 \ 

337 ^ 


Cumberland 










Cranston 










Gloucester 










339 


Foster 










340 


Johnston 










342 


North-Providence 










343 


Scituate • 










344 


Smithfield • ^ 










345 


Newport County 










349 


Newport 










351 


Jamestown 










355 


^Little-Compton . 




• 






356 


'Middletown 










357 


New-Shoreham . 










ib» 


Portsmouth 










358 


Tiverton 










359 


^Bristol County 










361 


^Bristol . 










363 


Barrington 










365 


Warren . 










ib. 


Kent County 










357 


East-Greenwich • 










368 


Coventry 










370 > 


Warwick 










37/^ 


West-Greenwich 


• 








37B 


Washington County 






• -1 




37lr 


South-Kingston • 
Exeter 


h 








! 3|0^ 


Charlestown » 








« 


sS : 


Hopkinton 










North-Kingston • 










ib^ 


Richmond 






* » * 




385 1 


Westerly . 




1 


I 




386/! 



GENERAL 



OGOdRAPHICAt AND STATISTICAL VlfiW OF THE STATE Of 



CONNECTICUT 



9BSSS 



CONNECTICUT is situated between 4l<> and 42<> 2' north lat« 
and between 71® 20' and 73® 15' west Ion. 

Its form is considerably irregular. It has an average length, baja^ts 
to west, of about 88 miles, and a mean breadth, from nortti to south, 
of about 53 miles, comprising an area of about 4664 square miles^ 
inclusive of navigable rivers, bays and harbour^. 

Connecticut is bounded on the norii) by the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts, on the east by the State of Rhode-Island, on the south by 
Long-Island sound, and on the west by the State of New- York. 

The State is divided into eight counties, of which the following 
Table exhibits a view ; the number of towns in each ; the seat of 
justice ; the incorporated cities, boroughs, &c. ' 

tncor. cities, &c« 
Hartford City. 
New-Haven City Si 
Guilford Borough. 
N. London & Nor- 
wich Cities, & Sto- 
nington Borough. 

Bridgeport Boro\ 

Litchfield Village. 
Middletown City. 



Surface^ Soil and Geoldgical Character* — ^Accuracy of geographical 
description, and a correct and minute delineation of the pbysiogno- 
niy of the earth, its surface, soil, mountains, rivers, bays, geological 
character, natural and agricultural productions, &c. are objects, pre- 
senting no ordinary difficultiee-, and which afford no prospect of at- 
tainment, without adequate and correct information, derived from au- 



Counties. 
Hartford. . 


Towns. 
18 


Seat of justice^ 
Hart&rd. 


New-Haven. 


17 


New-Haven. 


iiTew-London* 


14 


( N. London 
( and Norwich. 


Fairfield. 

Windham. 
Litchfield. 

Middlesex. 

Tolland. 


17 

15 

22 

7 
10 


( Fairfield and 
( Danbury. 

Windham. 

Litchfield. 
( Middletown 
( and Haddam. 

Tolland. 




GENERAL VIEW 

mmm^mmmmmmmmitmmmmmmm^mmmmmmmmmmmmm 



thentic sources, and tlie result of extetisive research aixd just observa-^ 
ttOD. The description of natural objects is attended with difficulties, 
in proportion to the Jiumber and variety of their features, aiid the in* 
distinctness of their connections and relations. Hence the difficulties 
of topographical description ; the smallest portion of the earth fre- 
quently presents a great variety of surface, soil and character, from 
the influence of local causes, and an apparent and incongruous con- 
nection of natural objects, which is almost every where to be observ- 
ed* At the base of a rugged granitic ridge, we often find a smooth 
and fertile plain ; the frosty and sterile hill is often connected with the 
warm and fertile dale ; Ae cniggy cliff is found approaching the wa- 
ter's edge, upon a stream, the border^ of which, elsewhere, are lined 
with beautiful alluvial ; and perhaps this very alluvial is bounded by a 
lofty ridge of mountain, and upop the summit of this mountain, though 
vastly elevated from the stream below, there may be embosomed an 
extensive sheet of water. From this surprising, and often marvellous 
connection and diversity of the physical features of the earth, it h 
difficult to give an accurate description of its surface, soil and chaf- 
racter, withovit a minuteness which could not be indulged, even if the 
materials could be obtained. 

But notwithstanding the prevalence of local varieties the effect of 
local causes, most sections of country are characterized by certairi 
distinct features, both as it respects their internal structure and ex- 
ternal appearance, which generally prevail, and distinguish them from 
other districts in the immediate neighbourhood. 

A concise notice of the several distinct districts of country, which 
this State presents, and their general and prominent characteristics, 
is all that can be expected in a general view of the State. Tlie ex- 
tensive argillaceous vale upon Connecticut river claims the first atten- 
tion in this view. This district commences at Middletown, and extends 
through the State ; being about 30 miles in length, from north to 
south, and from 10 to 16 in width, extending upon both sides of the 
river. The northern part of this tract bounds west upon the great 
greenstone range of mountain, and east upon the granitic range, in 
the eastern section of the State. This tract, with the exception of 
the alluvial upon the Connecticut, has an undulating »urface,« being 
pleasantly diversified with moderate hills and gentle declivities. The 
prevailing soil is a strong and fertile argillaceous loam, varying, in dif> 
ferent sections, from a hard, stiff clay, to a Hght, sandy loam, accord-, 
ing to the prevalence of aluminous or sahceoua earths. This noay be 
considered as the richest agricultural section, of die same extent, in 
the State, or perhaps in New* England. 

West of this, is the greenstone district, consisting of the declivii- 
ties of the greenstone mountain ; and the vales between its several 
branches, of which the Farmington vale, west of this mountain, is- 
the most considerable, commencing in the vicinity of New-Haven, 
and extending through the State, a distance of about 50 miles • it in 



^ 



OF C0NNEC5T1CUT. j 

/foin three to five miles in widtb. The vale of Quinipiack, id Wal^ 
lingford and Norlb-Haveo, about 15 miles io length, and fcomtwo 
to fire in breadth, belongs to this district, although the southein aec- 
tion of it is light and sandy* This tract is generally very fertile, and 
of an argillaceous character, and a rich farming district* West of 
the vale following the course of the greenstone mountain, in the north- 
ern part of the State, comoiencea th^ dechvities or subsidence of ttie 
extensive grankie mountain, extending through the State. Thisja 
an elevated, granitic, primitive region, generally rough and broken ; 
and «ome sections of it frosty and sterile, particularly the evergreen 
district:, in its northern part ; but in general it is a good grazing coun». 
try. West of this section, upon the borders of the Ousatontck, are 
calcareous vales of considerable extent, being from half a mile to five 
miles in breadth. This tract is very rich, and well adapted to a grata 
culture. 

The Connecticut river vale, upon the east, is lost in the declivitiea 
of the eastern gmnttic range, extending through the Slate. From 
this mountain eastward ly to Rhode-Island, it is generally a mountain- 
ous or hilly country, of a primitive, geological character ; but the 
prevailing soil is warm, strong and fertile, being excellent for grazing \ 
and upon the Quinibaug, Sheiucket, and their branches, there are nu- 
merous small but fi^rtile vales. The granitic district, from Lyme, east- 
vvardly, extends south to the sound; but westwardly, to the ex- 
tremity of the State, or to New- York line, there is a beautiful and 
interesting flat, upon the border of Long-Island sound ; being from 
one to three miles in widdi. The most extensive and valuable part 
of this flat, ia west of the Ousatonick river. The soil i» generally, 
a gravelly loam, very deep, strong aqd fertile, and some sections of 
marine alluviaK West of the Ousatonick, this flat is lost in a gra- 
dual rise, extending to the north and west, which becomes elevated- 
and hilly, but not mountainous. 

Mdtmtain^. — There are five distinct and considerable mountains in 
the State. Three of them are of a granitic, geological character, and 
two of greenstone. The western or Ousatonick nM>antain comme^ 
ces in the southwestern section of the State, and extends northwardly 
through it; its general course following that of the Ousatonick river. 
This mountain l^s no distinct continuous ridge, but consi^ls of a suc«- 
cession of eminences, and numerous spurs and branches* some of 
which are very elevated, partieuhirly U^unt Tom, situated between 
Litchfield and Washing^n, which Imis an altitude of 700 feet.. The 
general character of this mountain is granitic ; but its prevailing fes^« 
tares are in many respects different from ^ose of the other two gra-* 
nitic ranges. It is not continuous, and the suaamits of the eminences, 
although equally elevated, and more bald, are not so cold and frosty. 
Its declivities generally afford a warm, fertile soil; and the base of 
many of the eminences consitta of li«i«atQne> which als<^ aboundft in 



(\ 



4 GENERAL VI^W 



mi 



mmj of tbe ittterTening vales. This mofiDtain is rich in mineral trea- 
sures, particularly iron ore, which abounds in various places. 

Tbe next granitiq range, iii order, commences in the western sec- 
tion of New- Haven county, and extends northwardly through the 
State, into the interior of New^England. It consists of a continuous 
ridge, generally facing to the east. It js not very elevated, its sum- 
mits being principally covered with forests. The northern section of 
this range is clothed with evergreens ; hence it is here called the 
Greenwoods mountain. This evergreen region is cold, frosty andste'- 
rile. The northern section of this range is more dievated, its ascent 
more direct, and its declivities very rugged. 

The third is a greenstone range. This mountain rises near the 
sound, in Ae vicinity of New-Haven. It has, for some distance, two 
branches ; one of which commences at East and the other at West 
rock. The West rock branch extends some distance, and subsides. ^The 
west branch, and tbe east branch fl>r some distance, are a succession 
of eminences ; but the latter becomes continuous and elevated, at- 
tending in a northerly direction through the State, and far into the 
interior. This range has very conspicuous and peculiar features. 
It faces to the west, presenting, upon its west side, a bold, mural pre- 
cipice, which, near the summit, consists of naked rocks, exhibited in 
broken fragments. Upon the east it has a gradual rise, and affords 
extensive and fertile declivities. The greenstone strata of this range, 
in their general features and mineral treasures, correspond with &e 
trap or greenstone of the old world. They abound in minerals, par- 
ticularly copper ore, which is found in various places. This moun- 
tain may with propriety be called tbe great greenstone ranges 

The fourth range of mountain commences in the eastern section of 
New-^Haven, in the vicinity of Long Island sound, and extenids north* 
wardly, forming the western boundary of Middletown, and terminates 
at Rocky-hill, in Hartford. This range is of the same geological cha- 
racter as the last, but is. not continuous ; consisting of a succession 
of eminences or hills, which in general have but a moderate height ; 
but there are some very bold elevations, exhibiting the more promi- 
nent features of the great greenstone range. This has usually been 
called the Middletown mountain, but with more propriety might be 
called the lesser greenstqne range. These several mountains are all 
west of Connecticut river. 

The fifth mountain is the extensive granitic range east of Connec- 
ticut river, which forms die height of land that separates the wa- 
ters that fall into the Connecticut from those that run into the Thames. 
This mountain has, at ite commencement, two branches ; the principal 
of which rises in the eastern section of New-Haven county, and ex«* 
tends northeastwardly, and rising upon the east side of Connecticut 
liver. The other Iminch commences near the sound, in Lyme, and 
extends northwardly, nearly parallel widi' the river; but is not con-, 
tinuousy consisting of broken eminences. But after the union of these 



^ 



OP CONNECTICUT, 5 



■i 



bramcbes^ Ihe mountain becMaes a dklinct and continuous range, 
becoming more elevated as it extends to the north, affording some bold 
elevations, of which Bald mountain, situated between Somers and 
Sta£g>rd, is the most distinguished. The prevailing strata of this 
la^ge are primitive granite ; but in many of its declivtties micaceous 
schistas abounds. 

Miner ahgy*-^The mineral treasures of Connecticut are valuable 
and extensive; but thej have received bat little attention, with the 
excepttoiif of iron ore. This is the most important mineral in the 
State. It abounds in Salisbury imd Kent, and is of an excellent quaU* 
ty. It is also found in Sherman, Roxbury, Washington and ComwaUj 
and bog ore, of an excellent quality for castings, is found in StaiBfbrd. 
Copper ore abounds in various places in the greenstone range, particu* 
larly in Granby, Hamden and Cheshire. Iron pyrites has been found 
in Hamden and Berlin ; and there are indications of galena, or lead 
ore, in Berlin, Cheshire, Middletown, Brookfield and Killingly. Black 
lead, or plumbago, has been discovered in Cornwall and Mariborough. 
Porcelain clay has been found in New*Milford and Cornwall, white 
clay in Washington, and yellow ochre also in Washington and New- 
JVfilford. Recently a valuable cobalt mine has been discovered in 
ClKitham. From the examinations which have been made, the ore 
of this valuable mineral is extensive ; being found principally in mi- 
caceous vieins. This is a very valuable mineral, and promises to be a 
aourcie of great profit. 

Limestone abounds extensively in the western section of the State, 
particularly upon the bmnlers of the Ousatonick river, and in the vales 
intervening between the mountainous eminences and ridges, which 
characteri:^ this section of the State. Marble is found in New-Mi 1- 
fbrd, Washington, BrookfieU and Milford. That in the latter place 
ia clouded, resembling the Italian dove marble ; has a rich colour, an 
excellent texture, and sustains a very high polish. 

Quarries of freestone exist in various places, particularly within the 
argillaceous cBstrict upon Connecticut river. Hiose most deserving 
of notice, in a general view, are in Chatham, Haddam and East-Hart- 
ford^ Tl^reis also a quarry of excellent white fire proof stone in 
Stafford, suitskble for fiimace hearths; a singular coincidence, that 
stone, suitable for furnace healths, which is* rarely found; should exist 
in the neighbourhood of iron ore, of a suitable quahty for casting. 

Some small quantities of coal have been found in Berlin, and re- 
cently in Sttffield. There are 'also aome indications of coal in. Mid- 
dletown and Hartford. 

The mineral waters of the Std^e are numerous ; but there are ho 
watering places of much celebrity, except those of Stafford and Suf- 
field; The first of these has deservedly acquired a conspicuous re- 
fKitation, is a place of extensive resort^ and is provided with very am- 
ple accommodations ; the latter is also provided with conyenient ac- 



N 



(i GENERAL VIEW 



mmmmmmmmuBSBBBmaassmmmsm 



commod^itioiis, and at some periods has maintained considerable r^a- 
tation. 

Waters. --^TliQ watery of this State are abundant and Tarious, and 
afford alMhe advantages and conveniences wbiciVcan result froni an 
extensive sea-coast, safe and co»venient harbours^ numerous bays and 
inlets, large navigable rivers, and innumerable small streams, whtck 
intersect and fertilize the State in evoj'j direction, abounding in sites 
for bydraulic works. 

There arc three considerable rivers in this State ; the Connecticut, 
Ousatooick and Thames; which, together with their numerous 
branches, bays, and inlets, water a considerable section of the State. 

Connecticut river, from which the State takes its name, and which 
ranks among the most considerable rivers in the Atlantic States, inter- 
sects the State into Dcs^rly two equal sections, running through it in a 
southerly and southeasterly direction, a distance of 70 miles. The 
^treme head of its tide waters i^ just below the village of Ware- 
house-Point,, about 64 miles from the mouth of tlie river at Saybrook 
bar. Sloops ascend to this place, in the season of high water. This 
is one of the most beautiful rivers in the world ; flowing with a placid 
but majestic tid^, through an extensive vale, affording the most inter- 
esting scenery and landscapes, its borders being embeUished by ex- ^ 
tensive and deUghtfuI tracts of alluvial, unrivalled in fertility and 
heauty* This river affords very important facilities for navigation and 
commerce, and contains numerous shad fisheries, some of which are 
the most valuable in jthe United States. The principal branches of 
the Connecticut, within this State, are the Tunxis or Earmington river, 
a very beautiful and interesting stream, which comes from the west, 
and the Scantic, Hockanum and Salmon rivers from the east. 

The Ougatonick is the second river in this State. This river runs 
about 90 miles widiin the limits of Connecticut ; and, together with: 
its branches, waters the western section of the State. Its navigable 
waters extend to Derby, about 12 miles from its mouth, and boats as«- 
cend to Southbury, in. seasons of high water. 

There are some valuable shad fisheries in this river ; and in many 
sections its borders are lined with alluvial. Its principal braiiches are 
the Naugatuck and Shepaug. The practicability and expediency of 
a canal upon the borders of this river, extending boat navigation into 
the interior, have been su^ested, and we think are deserving of 
consideration* Navigation, upon this river, is very limited ; and a 
canal would supply thb deftict, and afford very important facijitiea to 
commerce, and essential advantages to agriculture and other impor- 
tant interests, particularly ibose of the manufacture and marketing of 
marble, hme, iron, timber, lumber, &c. ; articles that this region af-, 
fords in abundance, and which are bulky and heavy, requiring the ad- 
vantages of navigation to facilitate their transportation. 

The Thames is the third river in size in Connecticut. TW? river, 
with its two great branches, the Shetucket and Quinibaug, and their 



•^ 



OP CONNKCTtCUT- 

numerous tributary streams^ wat^r the eastern section of the State. 
The Thames admits of ship navigation to Norwich, the head of tide 
Water, about 1 4 miles from its mouth. The principal branches of the 
Sbetucket are the WiUimantic, the Nachaug and Hop rivers. The 
Shetucket, the Quinibaug* and their branches, afibrd some excellent 
shad and salmon fisheries^ Salmon are taken in the WiUimantic, as 
high as Willfngton ; and in the Quinibatig, as far up as Thompson. 

The most considerable harbours and bays in this State are those 
of New-Liondon, New-Haven, Bridgeport, Stonington, Black-Rock. 
Norwdk, Stamford, Killingworth, Guilford, Sachem's Head, JVliiford, 
Greenwich, Saugatuck, Mystic arid Niantic* These are all upon 
Long- Island sound ; in addition to which, there are numerous safe and 
convenient landing places upon the navigable rivers. 

C/imafe.-—ClinMite depends not only upon genera/, but also upon 
local causes* Of the former, general location, or the relation which 
a place has to the equator, is the most important, and has the most ex- 
tensive and uniform influence. There are, however, some other ge- 
neral causes ; such as the influence of the sea, of an extensive eleva- 
ted region, and of a settled and uniform current 0( the atmos- 
phere^ or course of winds. Causes, not of a general nature, con- 
sist principally of local situation ; the physiognomy and character 
of the country ; its being elevated or flat ; inclined to, or from the 
Equator ; being wet or dry ; the soil cold or warm ; and the surrounding 
country mountainous or level, covered with forests, or in a state of cul- 
tivation. From the influence of local causes, the climate of this State^ 
although possessing small territorial limits, is very various in different 
sections. The great vale of the Connecticut, and the borders of Long 
Island sound, enjoy a salubrious, mild and uniform climate, and will 
compare with the northern departments of France, and Devonshire in 
England; These sections are not subject to frequent storms, either 
in vnnter or summer, as is the case in many parts of the United States ; 
and there i& probably as much uniformity in the weather here, as at 
Philadelphia, or any other part of the Union. The rigours of winter 
continue from two to three months; and the rivers are usually 
"bound in chains of ice," for about thisptriod; and the earth 
is usually covered with snow, so as to afibrd sleighing, from five to se- 
ven wedks. 

In the clini^ate of ^hich we are speaking, the apple, peach and wa- 
ter melon come to the highest perfection. The grapevine grows 
spontaneously, and the mulberry tree flourishes with little attention. 
Destractive frosts are tarcly experienced ; two only are recollected 
within the last thirty years, that were extensively injurious to vege- 
tation. Severe droughts are equally rare; and it is believed that 
there is no part of our country, where the productions of the earth 
are more sure, or where the fruits of agricultural industry can bQ 
relied upon with more certainty. In the northwest section of the State, 
where the surface is mountainous and elevated, and particularly in thn 



S . GINERAL VIEW 

evergreen district, the climate is much more cold and frosty, the win- 
ters more rigorous, the usual quantity of snow much greater, and the 
weather has ]ess uniformity. And these observations are applicable, 
with some qualification, to the mountainous districts in the eastern part 
of the State. Peaches, water-melons and some other summ<er fruits, 
do not come to as great perfection here as upon Connecticut river, 
and the borders of Long Island sound. This, however, may not be 
entirely owing to the climate, as the soil is less congenial to their 
growth. 

Xatural and Agriadtural Productiom* — The forests of ConBecticut 
are principally deciduous ; consisting of oak, ch^^nut, maple, walnut, 
butternut, ash, elm, beech, birch, button-wood, bass, and various oth* 
er species of trees. They comprise also white and yellow pine, 
spruce, hemlock and other perennial trees. The oak, of which there 
are several different species, prevails most e:stensively^ and is of the 
greatest utility. It afibrds a valuable and diurable timber for various 
purposes required by the useful arts and the convemences of life. It 
makes excellent ship timber ; which, for strength aiid durability, is 
surpassed only by the live oak of tbe southern States; being equal to 
the boasted oak of England. The maple is a most valuable tree, 
not only for fuel and timber, but for the manufacture of sugar. This 
tree, which abounds extensively in some of our forests, is highly de^ 
serving of preservation, and ought to be regarded as an object of cul- 
ture and particular attention, by our farmers. In those parts of the 
State, where this tree flourishes, every farm ought to have, reserved up- 
on it, a suitable maple orchard ; which would be equally an ornament, 
and a source of family convenience and economy. The most exten^ 
sive and valuable forests, in this State, are in the towns of Guilford, 
Haddam, East-Haddam, Chatham, Southbury, Oxford, Woodbridge, 
Farmington, Killingly, Stafford, Union, Tolland, Goshen, Winchester,^ 
Colebrook and Barkhamsted. 

The agricultural productions consist of grain, of which rye and hx" 
dian corn are principally cultivated, although wheat and oats receive 
some attention ; and in some sections, the former is a leading crop ; 
butter, cheese, beef and pork. The raising of cattle, sheep and 
swine, is an object of geaeral attention. The products of our dairies, 
butter and cheese, are not surpassed by any in the United States ; 
and it is believed^ that the business is carried on as extensively and as 
advantageously here, as in any section of our country. 

The best grazing and dairy towns, in the State, are Pomfret, Brook- 
lyn, Woodstock, Lebanon, Stonington, NortfahStonington and Groton, 
east of Connecticut river ; and west of it, Goshen, Bethlem, Winches- 
ter, Norfolk, Tonington and Colebrook. Beades the articles of but- 
ter and cheese, the more direct products of the dairy business, large 
quantities of beef and pork are annually made in these towns^ and 
sent abroad for a market. The towns best adapted to a grain cul- 
ture, and in which the largest quantities of grain are usually raised, 




OP CONNECTICUT. 



H iJ ri|i(frlWii iTiiiii ill? -II Ml- r !■ ■■- 1 II ■ M ■! gggEgggggggBBSggS" 

Are East-Wiadsor, Enfield, Somere, Ellington, Southington, Farming- 
ton, Windsor, Simsbury and Granby, principally within the great vale 
of Connectient river; and Sharon, Salisbury and Canaan, upon the 
borders of tiie Ousatonick, in the western section of the State. 
These are rich and fertile townships, possessing extensive resources 
of soil, and affording great facilities of cultivation ; and it is believed, 
that there are few sections in the Atlantic States more favourable for 
a system of grain culture, particularly that of rye. It has been esti- 
mated, that 70,000 bushels of this grain have been raised in the town 
of East-Win^or alone, in one season. But, by mentioning these, it 
is not intended to have it understood, that grain is not successfully cul- 
tivated in otiier towns i it is raised advantageously in Cheshire, Wal- 
lingford, Southbury, Woodbury, Newtown, New-Milford, Danbury, 
Fairfield, Stmtford, Milford, Plainfield, Windham, Mansfield, Canter-* 
bury and others. Indian com is cultivat)ed most extensively and suc- 
cessfully upon the alluvial on the Connecticut, Tunxis and Quinibaug 
rivers^ and upon the borders of Long Island sound. 

Apple orchards in this State are extensive, and a source of conside-' 
rable profit. They abound most in Hartford and Middlesex counties, 
and in some towns upon the Ousatonick river ; but are to be found in 
every part of the State. The most numerous and valuable orchards 
in Hartford county, or in the State, are in Farnfiington, Simsbury, Can- 
ton, Granby, Berlin, Windsor and'Suffield. In these and in many 
other Ibwns, a greiat quantity of cider is 'annually made, which is used 
extensively, as a commcm drink ; and a small proportion of the sur- 
plus is exported ; but the principal part of it is manufactured into 
spiritous liquor, called cider brandy. There is probably no part of 
the United States, in which the growdi of the apple is so sure as up- 
on Connecticut river* Here it never ^entirely fails. Cider is an ex- 
cellent and wholesome beverage ; but its quality depends in a great 
measure upon the attention which is bestowed upon its ndanufacture 
and preservation ; and it is much to be regretted, that so important an 
article should in general be so much neglected. 

Although confiined to a general view, yet we cannot permit the cul- 
ture of onions, in the town of Wethersfield, to pass unnoticed. Of 
this rare and valuable root nearly one and a half million bunches have 
been annually raised in this town ; which is undoubtedly a greater 
quantity than is produced in any other town in the United States. Of 
other local agricultural interests, the cultivation of tobacco and hemp, 
in East- Windsor, water-^melons, and other vegetables for market, hi 
East-Hartford^ and garden-seeds, raised for market by the Shakers in 
JEInfield, are deserving of notice. 

Roads.-^ln zMiiion to iixe public roads, which are numerous, and 
generally well made, Ihb State is intersected in every direction 
by turnpikes. The tunapSce roads belong to, and were constructed 
by, incorperafed eompanies. They are generally well constructed, 



20 GENERAL VIEW 

and kept in good repair, and afford ^reat facility to travelting, in tbe 
rough a];id mountainous sections of the State* 

The whole n\imber of incorporated turnpike companies in the State 
is about seventy ^ and the whole capital invested is between eight amd 
nine hundred thousand dollars. The first turnpike coHip$ny was ior. 
corporated in 1 79 1 ; since which, they have been coD^tantly increat- • 
ing ; so that, it is believed, there u no section of the United States sa 
well accomm.odated with roads as Connecticut. 

Bridges. — Both upon the public and tqr^pHce roads, there^tre sub- 
st^antial and convenient badges across the small strea^^ in every part 
of the State ; and there are several bridges across the large rivers*. 
Of these, the Hartford, bridge, across Connecticut river^ at the city 
of Hartford, clain^s the first notice. This is one of the most eleg«Dt> 
and expensive bridges in the United States. For a descrtptioa of it, 
we must refer the reader to the article of Hartford. Next to, thisy 
are Enfield bridge also across the Connecticut, connecting the towns' 
of Enfield and SuffieM ; and Washington bridge, upon the Ousatonickv 
connecting the towns of Milford and Stratford; for a description of 
which, the reader is referred to the articles of Enfield and Milfoird. 

Progressive Populations Character and Manners of the Pcop/c.*— This 
has always been one of the most populous States in the Union, accord- 
ing to its territorial limits.. As eaHy as 1756, the population of Coa*' 
necticut amounted to 130,611 souls; in 17T4, to 197,365; and iff 
1782, to 209,150. The inconsiderable increase, during thfs peri^* 
od, was owing to the ravages of wger. In 1790, there were 237 j946f 
iiihs^bitants in the State; in 1800, 250,002; and in 1810, 261,942; 
being 57 persons to a square mile, which exceeds any other State m, 
the Union, excepting Rhode-Island. 

National character has generally been considered as depending bot^ 
upon physical and moral causes ; but we are inclined to the opinion, aa 
ably maintained by Hume, that the influence of physical causes ought 
to be rejected altogether. Among the moral causes, aflfecting tbe 
general character of communities, those of the difficulties or facilities: 
of obtainiug subsistence, arising from the natural resounceg of the 
country, and their peculiar character, as giving a direction to 
industry ; established institutions, of a political, religious and literary 
nature; and the manners, customs and prejudices of the first settlers,, 
are the most important. The influence of the latter is much greats 
er than would be supposed ; as jt is often observed, that the first set^ 
tiers of a place give it its general character, although tbey may form 
but a small proportion of its inhabitants. From the causes here no- 
ticed, we can trace the more prominent characteristics of the people 
of this State, and of the other New-England States; which, in most 
respects, exhibit great uniformity ; and the variety that is observable 
will be found to correspond with the difference of these and other ob« 
vious moral causes. The puritanical character of the first settlers of 
this State has had an extensive influence, which has not yet subsi- 



^ 



OF CONNECTICUT. 11 

ded ; afid that the early institutions must have had a permanent and 
lasting influencey upon the general character of the populatioi:^, is evi- 
dent, from the consideration that they have been maintained to the 
present day, without any very essential changes. The ru^ednes^ 
and hardness of nmny sections of the State rendering great industry 
necessary ^o procure subsistence ; the extensive navigable waters 
whitb the State possesses, afibrding important facilities to trade and in- 
tercourse abroad ; the extensive, unimproved agricultural resources, 
to the south, the west, and formerly to the ilorth, inviting cultivation, 
and pronttsing an easy subsistence, and the rapid acquisition of wealth ; 
these and other causes have contributed to render the people of this 
S^te remarkable for their industry and enterprise^ which form their 
mmt impoftaat characteristics. 

The enterprise of the people of Connecticut has disclosed itself 
through various channels ; but more conspicuously by a spirit of traf- 
fic and emigration. The spirit of emigration, which has prevailed so 
extensively in this State, disclosed itself previously to the Revolu- 
tionary war ; emigration at this period being directed to the present 
counties of Dutchess and Columbia, in the State of New-York, and 
the counties bordering upon Connecticut river in the State of New- 
Hampshire. After the war, the spirit of emigration revived, and tvas 
principally directed to the western section of New-Hampshire, and 
the territory now comprising the State of Vermont ; a large proportion 
of the original inhabitants of these sections of our country being 
from Connecticut. Within the4ast thirty years, the current of emi- 
gratibn from this St&te has swelled to a torrent, and has been directed 
prineipallyto the westward. In the States of New- York, Pennsylva- 
nia, Ohio and the immense region of the southwest, an extensive wil- 
derness, recently th^ frightful abode of wild beasts and the fero- 
cious savage, ai^ which presented innumerable obstacles, that seem- 
ed insuperable barriers to the inroads of civilization, has been con- 
verted into fruitful fields, by the bold and active enterprise, and the 
hardy and persevering industry of Connecticut emigrants. In contem- 
plating tbe^e extensive and flourishing new settlements, it may verily 
be aaid, that the '^wilderness has blossomed as the rose,'^ and be- 
cdlHe as fruitful as the ^rdens of Hesperides. What is a more in- 
teresting and sublime object, than to observe the progress of civili- 
2lition-^its rapid inroads upon the domains of the wildikn^ss, driving 
Mck its priinitive inhabitants, the wild beast and the savage^ — the for- 
ttiation of new settlements— the growth of towns — the sudden rise 
of villages, and the general extension of social improvements ? These 
are the valoable fruite of enterprise and industry, in the honour of 
which Conne^icut can claim its full Ihare. It may be safely estima- 
ted, that at the present time the emigrants from Connecticut, and 
llieir. descendants, amount to more thkn 700,000 souls. 

A spirit of traffic has long formed a trait in the character of the 
people of this State. Enteipri^e, directed to this channel, has pro«^ 



n 



12 GENERAL VIEW 



»*^*'WWpW^*Ti<#»ii» | i^ - l l.wU. W' J I » i « ^W lWI I < i 1IP^ W^' W I ^ 



t* 



duced tlie most important results. It has led thousands of our citi- 
zens abroad. Prompted by a spirit of pecuniary adventure, they ar^ 
to be found in every clime and among every people ; no hazards have 
deterred, no obstacles discouraged, and no disasters impaired, the 
boldness of mercantile adventures, ?ind the ardour with which they 
have been pursued. This spirit of trade, having, in some instan- 
ces, elicited in individuals dispositions inconsistent with those priaci* 
pies of integrity which it is necessary to rnaiutain between man and 
man, has, with the illiberal, the prejudiced and the ignoran^t, cast a 
stain upon the character of the State. But nothing can be oiprie 
unjust, than to judge of the character of an entire comsnunity, from 
the conduct of a few individuals, to whom necessity, ar ii^ordinate mer- 
cenary views, may have given the character of desperate adventur- 
ers. ^B well might it be said, that because there were some cotrnter- 
fetters^ or other felons in community, the whole population de- 
served that character. Notwithstanding the inffuence of a spirit of 
traffic, which generally prevails, the people of this State are ,iw>t 
behind their neighbours in personal integrity. And if thi$ spirit is 
considered as having any unfavourable moral tendencies, the exten- 
sive intercourse which it occasions contributes essentially to introduce 
and diffuse social improvements and refinements aniong every class of 
^people. The people of this State arc, in aji eminent degree, sober, 
peaceable and regular in their conduct, and less given to violence th^n 
roost other communities. This arises from our institutions,, and the 
regular system, and general advantages as to education, whereby, all 
classes, and almost every individual, obtains a common education* 

The people of this State have been considered as remarkably big- 
oted ; and, from the extent and general prevalence of this opiniion, 
have been exposed to the sneers of the illiberal and the uninformed, 
from the Reviewers of Edinburgh and London, to the newspaper para- 
graphists in the neighbouring States. Whatever may have fonnerly beea 
the case, at the present time these opinions are entirely unfounded. 
They are to be ascribed to the puritanical character of our ancestors, 
and to that systematic regularity, that scrupulous decorum, which i« po 
where so conspicuously to be observed among the mass of the peo-. 
pie, as in this State* But, as licentiousness is no evidence of liberality 
of sentiment, so on the other h^tnd, precision of conduct i$ not to be . 
regarded as .prpcecding from prejudice, or limited and illiberal views. 
Ignorance is acknowledged to be the parent of prejudice ; yet at the 
same time that the reproach of bigotry is attempted to be affixed to 
the people of Connecticut, they are acknowledged to be more gene- . 
rally intelligent and enlightened than almost any other community <, 
But this absurdity does not exist. At the present time, freedom of 
inquiry, liberality of sentiment, independence, of thinkiflg and speak- 
ing, and a general spirit of toleration and cliaritv, arc perhaps no 
whore more conspicuous thj^n in Connecticut. , 



OF CONNECTICUT. 13 

The people of this State have heretofore been regarded as rcmark- 
aWe for the general prevalence of a litigious spirit. This opiniop 
also is ifleofrect. Th6 citizens of this State are not now more giv- 
en t6 litigation than their neighbours, and probably not as much so 
as iJiose of the States more recently settled. 

If there are any prevailing or peculiar vices belonging to the in- 
habitants of this State, we think tfiat an avaricious or mercenary 
spirit i» the most conspicuous. This probably is owing in part to the 
prevailing spirit and habits of trade; but principally to civil institu- 
tions, add the e^tabKshed principles and customs of society, which at- 
tfich an undeserved importance to property. These causes are not 
peculiar to this State ; yet, perhaps, from their connection with oth- 
ers, their influence may have been more extensive. 

Commerce &nd Tonnage,- — ^From the situation of Connecticut, being 
ill the neighboilrhood of New- York, the great emporium of the Uni- 
ted States, and from other causes, its foreign trade has always been 
Itmfited^ What there is, is principally confined to the cities of New- 
Haven, Hartford, New-London and Middletown, and the boroughs 
of Bridgeport and Stonington, and the town of Fairfield. But the 
principal navigation business consists of a coasting trade, earned 
on with the southern States, New- York, Boston, Providence, the sou- 
thern shofe of Massachusetts, and the District of Maine. The prin- 
cipal articles of exportation are Indian com, rye and oats, which are 
sent to the eastward in lai^e quantities; and some cider, butter, 
cbeese and various manufactures to the southern States ; shad, beef, 
potiStoes, &c. to New- York; and horses, beef, pork and lumber to 
the West-'IndiA or other foreign markets. 

Of articles of manufactures, which are sent abroad for a market, 
spiritou^ liquors, distilled from* domestic materials, particularly gin 
and eider brandy, are the most important. Gin forms a large and 
valuabje staple for exportation, greatly exceeding any other manu- 
factured article in the State. These articles are sent to New- York, 
Boston, Providence, the southern States, and in some cases to foreign 
countries* Large quantities of tin ware are manufactured in the 
State, which is principally sent abroad for a market, mostly to the 
southern States. Hats, shoes and other manufactures of leather are 
articles of exportation to the southern States. Clocks, both of wood 
and metal, and buttons, of metal and ivory, are articles of exportation ; 
and ako ploughs, waggons and carriages, particularly the former, of 
which large quantities are annually sent to the southern States. The 
products of the iron manufactories, castings, hollow ware, anchors, 
&c. are articlefii of exportation ; also muskets, pistols and swords, sad- 
dles and harness work, cabinet furniture, combs, brooms, candles and 
soap, machineiyv cards, wooden ware, powder, glass ware, woolen and 
totton cloths, marye, freestone, wood, timber for building, ship tim- 
ber and lumber, are comprised among the exports of the State.The 
commercial interests, unconnected with navigation, are respectable. 



14 GENERAL VIEW 



mm^mmmmmmm^ 



The whole amount of tonnage in Connecticut, in 1815, was 50,^58* 
Since that period, there maj have been such additions as to make an 
aggregate of 60,()00 tons of shipping of etery descrij^tion. 

Fisheries. — The fisheries of Connecticut consist principallj of the 
smack fisheries of New-Loftdon county, and die shad fisheries of the 
Connecticut and Ousatonick rivers. The shad fisheries in Middlesex 
county are a source of profit, and form a large item in the exports <rf 
the county. Connecticut river shad are of a better quality than any 
other in the United States, and are worth more in market. They «.re 
sent to New- York, iand most of the sea-ports in the Union. Con^iide^ 
rable quantities of mackerel and black fish are taken in New-Loncbii 
county, a portion of which are sent abroad for a maiket. Ctf the shell 
fislieries, upon Long Island sound, the Oyster fishery is the most impor- 
tant. These are marketed in this and ttie neighbouring States. 

Jtfant{/tfc^?/rc5.— Manufactured in Connecticut conistihtte an impor- 
tant interest. A manufacturing spirit was early disclosed in this Static ; 
and, with the exception of Rhode-Island, there is no State in the Un^ 
ion where it has been cherished with so much attention^ or directed to 
so many objects. The establishment of manufactures depends essen- 
tially upon a dense population ; which, occasioning a surplus of in- 
dustry, leads to a diversion of it from agriculture, th^ first as well asr 
the most important occupation of Society. 

From the limited territory of the State, the densen^ss of its popu^^ 
lation^ the enterprise and industry of its citizens, the numerous water 
privileges, which abound in.almost every section of it, and the great fa- 
cilities which it possesses for intercourse abroad, Connecticut has su- 
perior advantages for manufacturing pursuits ; and it isi)elieved tba;t it 
cannot fail of becoming, at no distant period, an extensively manu- 
facturing community. Already condderable progress has been made 
in various branches of manufactures ; and it may be safely assertodf 
that, with the exception of Rhode- Island, the aggregate manufacturing 
industry of this State is greater, in proportion to its populaitioii, tiian 
that of any other State in the Union. 

Of the various manufactures of the State, those of domestic spi- 
rits, consisting principally of gin and cider brandy, cteim the first rank 
as articles of exportation, and for their aggregate valuo« The prilici'- 
pal seat of the gin manufacture is in the county of Hartford, particu^ 
larly in the towns of East- Windsor, Enfield and WtHdsor. There 
are, in this county, 21 gin distilleries, some of which are iifw)n an ox* 
tensive scale. The business is pursued extensively and advantageous- 
ly, and employs a great amount of capital. The gin manufactured 
in the aforesaid towns is of an excellent quality, and is mostly- sent 
abroad for a market. These towns, harin^ engaged so extensivelyiin 
this manufacture, an^ taken the lead of all others, it is not improba- 
ble, that some one of them may ultimately become the ^ Sch^idain ot 

* £ town in Holland^ f&motts for its manufacture of gin. 



OP .CCMf NECTICUT. 15 



mammmmammmmBammmm 



ip gMMfc i« W >pi nr « m . . T -»iiii^. 



America. This business fi^rnisbes a ^eady and advantageous market 
for grain and wood, and contributes in no ^malLde^e to the agricul- 
tural prosperity of the county. In addition to the spirits manufactur- 
ed at these establishments, lacge quantities of beef and pork are fat- 
t^ied. It has been estknated, diat nearly IQOO head of beeves have 
been fattened at the several distilleries in Hartford county^ in one 
season, besides a great n^imber q£ &wine. > 

V Tin-ware forms another extensive manufacturing interests This 
manufacture is pursued principally in the towns of Berlin, Meriden, 
Southi^on, Simshuxy and others, id Hartford and New-Haven coun- 
ties^ ^k ware is vended in almost every part of the United States, 
furnishing employment for a great number of persons, both at home 
and abroad; Clocks, buttons and shoes are manufactured for exporta- 
tion id the towns of Waterbury, Plymouth and Wallingford. Hats 
are maiku&ctured in Danhury, extensively ; and shoes in Guilford, 
Durham and New-Canaan; both of which also form articles of ex- 
p^rtation^ 

The tanneries in Connecticut are numerous, and at many of them 
the business is pursued upon an extensive scale. Lai^e quantities of 
leather are annually manufactured, a considerable proportion of which is 
sent abroad for a market. Large quantities of saddles and harness work 
are annually exported from Hartford, Bridgeport, many towns in Fair- 
field county and other parts of the State. There are several morocco 
leather manufactories in Hartford, New-Haven, Norwich, &c. 
. Of &e ina^ufactures of wood, ploughs claim particular notice, con- 
sidered as an article of exportation. The seat of this business is 
in the town of Enfield, where very lai^e quantities of ploughs are 
annually manufactured, and sent to the southern States. Carriages 
and wagons ar^ built in and exported from the towns of New-Ha*' 
ven, Burlington, Enfield and many others. 

Litchfield county is the principal seat of the iron manufactuire. The 
whole number of forges io the State is 48 ; of which 39. are in this 
county. The principal seats of the iron manufacture, in this county, 
are i^ the towns of Canaan,, Winchester, Salisbury, Kent, New-Mil- 
foiKl, Washington, Norfolk, Cornwall and Litchfield* In addition 
to the various and valuable products of the forges and furnaces, which 
fi^cm the most important interest in iron manuiacture, sleigh-shoes^ 
gun-barrels, axes, hoes, nail-rpds and cnt-nails are manuiactured in 
various towns io Urn county. 

There are also valuable iron ;manufaciuEe& in Staf&rd ; particularly 
hollow-ware and castings of various kinds. There are 15 furnaces 
in the Steute^ of every description; bui the principal hollow-ware 
manu&ctory kinStaffi>rd,. which possesses, the advantages of bog ore, 
of an excellent quaUty for casting,, that ahouqpis in various places iu 
tbe town* Steelryai^ and augers are manuiactured in Mansfield, 
rifles and swords are manufactured ia MiddLetown, and muskets, in 
large quantities for exportation, at the extensive, gun factory in Ham- 



16 GENERAL VIEW 

den, near New«Haven. Pistols, silver^-pkLte atid jewelry are manu- 
factured as articles of exportation, in Berlin, the two first also in 
Middletown; and the copper and silver s^ith business is carried 
on extensively in Hartforci^, and several other towns. Horn and 
ivory combs are manufactured in Saybroqk, Mansfield and Middle^ 
town ; machine and hand cards extensively in Hartford, and ma- 
chinery, for carding &c» in New-Hartford, and various other towns* 
The manufacture of powder has received considflrable aHentioo. 
There are 11 powder mills in the State, a considerable number of 
which are in East-Hartford^ The manu&cture of paper has also re- 
ceived great attention. Th?§ manufacture is carried on principally 
at East-iiartford, Norwich, Windham and Covientry. There are ^4 
paper mills in the State; and there is a paper-hanging manufactory 
at Hartford, which pursues the business upon an extensive scale. 

The principal seat of the glass manufactures is in East-Hartford 
and Coventry. There are four glass factories in the State ; they ma- 
nufacture bottles, and glass ware of other descriptions, which areprJn- 
cipally sent abroad for a market. 

The cotton manufacture in Connecticut is already an important in- 
terest, and promises to become an extensive business; opening a wide 
field for industry, aiTording employment to a vast, amount of capitaly 
and contributing essentially to the general prosperity of the State, by 
keeping its citizens and capital at home. There are, at this ttme,^ 
67 cotton factories in the State, some of which are upon aa extensive 
scal^. The cotton manufacture commenced about fifteen years ago, 
and has experienced various vicissitudes, and had to encounter great 
difficulties ; and although the business has at times sufiered great de- 
pression, yet, in general, it has ^' grown with its growth and strength- 
ened with its strength.^' The btiisiness was very flourishing durii^ the 
war, but has been greatly depressed since the peace. It has been re- 
viving, however, for some time past ; and now exhibits renewed vigoiir 
and activity. New companies are forming, and additional capital is in- 
vested in the business ; and those establishments which discontinued 
their operations after the late peace, and were suffered to decay, have, 
in general, been repaired and put in operation, many of them having 
been transferred to other hands. This, as well as most other great 
national interests, seems likely to owe its permanent establishment 
and ultimate prosperity to the ejuterprise and sacrifices of individu- 
als. Like the vanguard of an army, those who go forward in most 
kinds of majQufactures, are destined to be sacrificed for the general 
good. 

In the cotton manufacture, Windham county takes the lead ; there 
being in this county 22 cotton factoried, most of which are upon a larg^ 
scale. The extent o|r the business here., the amount of the capital 
invested, and the employment which it affi>rds, gives it a rank, second 
only to that of agriculture, in the interests of the county ; and whilst 
it contributes to its prosperity, it cannot fail of having a salutary cf- 



^ 



OP GOimiCTICUT. 17 

feet in checkiug the spirit of emigration, and of maintaining ita popu- 
lation at home* 

. The wool^ mann£ictore haa already become an important business 
if} this State. There are 66 woolen fuctories ; some of which are up- 
on an extensive scale, and employ a lai^ capital and considerable in- 
dustry. Some of these establishments were among the first in the 
..United States, and have acquired a reputation which has, perhaps, 
not been attained by any other ; particularly those of Humphreys- 
. viUe, Middletown and Wolcottsville. The cl<^s manu&ctured at 
these estJBd>iislu»ents have united a &ie texture with an elegant finish- 
ing ; and while they have been superior, in strei^h dnd firmness, tbey 
have been considered as scarcely inferior, in style of manufacture, to 
first rate English cloths. The woolen manufactories of this State, in 
« common with those of others, have experienced great depression since 
the peace, but are now beginning to revive; and it is believed that 
they will generally be able to resume their operations, and that it will 
soon become a prosperous and important business, and a source of 
profit as well as of industry. While upon the subject of woolen ma- 
n^ufactures, the attention is invited to those which are more emphdti- 
caliy of a domestic character. , The domestic manu£ictures in this 
Stiate are e3i:tensive and important, and consist of woolen, linen and 
cotton; but the former is the most important* With the exception 
of the Cities, almost every family manufactures the substantial woolen 
fabrics, for their own consumption. The domestic or household md-* 
^nofacture of woolen cloths is greatly facilitated and promoted, by 
the tHimber of carding machines and cloth dressing establishments 
^hich abound in every direction, and which, within a few years, have 
•become greatly improved in the business. Of the latter, there are iii 
this State more than 200 ; and of the former, about 2[50. 

Oovernment. — Itia well known, that for nearly thirty years, Corf- 
necticut and New- Haven formed two distinct cc^lonies, having sepa- 
rate and independent governments. In the year 1639, the inhabit- 
aiits of the towns of Hartford, Windsor and Wethersfieid formed and 
entered into articles p[ association, which constituted the basis of the 
government of the colony of Connecticut, until 1662; lliis year, 
a number of the most distinguished citizent^, having made application, 
obtained of Charles IL* King of Great-Britain, a charter, constituting 
the colony of Connecticut, the limits of which were defined, a civil 
Corporation, and investing it with the power of self-go verninent 5 the 
authoritybeing entrusted to a Governor, Deputy Governor, twelve As- 
sistants and the freemen of the colony. The provisions of this char- 
ter were vague and defective, considered as the basis of a civil go- 
vernment, and many of them scarcely intelligible. It however 
granted important privileges for a colonial government; there being 
no other restriction upon the authority of the colony, than that its 
laws mu§t not contravene those of the parent country. 



18 GENERAL VIEW 



99 



The colony of New-Haven, which had heretofore been distinct ani^ 
independent, was included within the colony of Connecticut, as defin- 
ed by the charter ; and after a resistance of several years, they ac- 
kjnowledged the authority of the government of Connecticut estab- 
lished according to Uie charter. 

By the organization of the government under the charter, the le- 
gislative power was vested in two branches ; one called the Council, 
consisting of the Governor, Deputy-Governor and twelve Assistants, 
and the other the House of Representatives, composed of the depu- 
ties of the freemen, of which the ancient towns were entitled to two 
each. The General Court, as these t^vo branches were called, was 
authorized to make laws, to constitute judicatories, and to exercise all 
the essential powers of government. 

After the declaration of independence, this State did not follow 
the example of most of the other States, and adopt a written consti- 
tution, but continued the government according to the ancient form ; 
a statute being enacted the session following the memorable 4th July, 
1776, which provided that the government should continue to be 
organized and administered according to the provisions of th^ char- 
ter. It was apparent, that this statute could have Ho more authority 
than any other act of the General Assembly ; and that it might be 
repealed at any subsequent session ; yet, by the common consent of 
the people, the government was acquiesced in, and contittue^ in tbk 
. form until the recent formation of a constitution. 

By the ancient government, the freemen met semi-annually, in Apxil 
and in September. The Governor, Deputy-Governor and twelve As- 
sistants were elected in April, for one year; and the deputies were 
el<?cted both in April and September; being chosen only for six 
months. Until some years since, the Council coti^tituted the su-' 
preme judicial tribunal ; being a Court of Errors* But for some 
years, this power has been lodged in diffei'eht hands ; the several 
juc^es . of the Superior Court having been constituted the Supreme 
Court of Errors. With this exception, the government continued 
without any essential alteratioti, untiHhe 1 dth of September 1 81 8,when 
the pre;sent constitution of government was framed by a conven- 
tion of Delegates, elected by "aie people for that purpose. The Dele- 
gates of this convention were elected in pursuance of a Resolve of the 
General Assembly, at the preceding May session ; each town electing 
the same number that it did Representatives to the Assembly. By a 
resolve of the convention, it was directed that the constitution should 
be submitted directly to the people ; and that if a majority of the 
qualified electors approved of it, it should become the constitution 
and supreme law of the State. It was accordingly submitted to the 
electors, assembled in their respective towns, on the 5ih day of Oc-- 
tober, and was ratified by a majority of 1554. From the importanqe 
of this instrument, we have thought it better to embody it entire, than t 
to attempt to give an abstract of its provisions* 



^ 



CONSTITUTION 



OF THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 

PREAMBLE- 

The people of Conniecticut acknowledging with gratitude, the good 
providence of God, in having permitted them to enjoy a free govern- 
ment, do, in order more effectually to define, secure and perpetuate 
the liberties, rights and privileges which they have derived from their 
adcestors, hereby, after a careful consideration and revision, ordain 
and estiablish the following Constitution and form of Civil Govern- 
ment. 



DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. 

That the great and ess^itial principles of liberty and free govern- 
ment may be reco^ized and established, 

WE DECLARE, 

§ 1, Th^t ^11 men^ when they form a social compact, are equal in 
rights; and that no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive public 
eaioluments or privileges from the confimunity. 

§ 2. That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free 
governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their 
booefit ; and that they have at all times an undeniable and indefea- 
siblje right to alter their form of gavernment in such manner as they 
may think expedient. 

§ 3« The exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and wor- 
ship,, without discrimination, shall forever be free to all persons in 
this State, provided that the right hereby declared and established 
shall not be so construed as to . excuse acts of licentiousness, or to 
justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of the State. 

§4# No preference shall be given by law to any christian sect or 
nK>de of worship! 

§. 5. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his senti- 
ments on all sul^ects, beuig responsible for the abuse of that liberty. 

§ 6. No law sliall eyer be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of 
speech or of llie press. 

§ 7. In all prosecutions or indictments for libels^ the truth may be 
given in evidence, and the jury shall have the right to determine the 
law and the facts, under the direction of the court. 



n 



20 GENERAL VIEW 



^mmmmmmmmimmmmmmmfmmmmmmmm 



§ 8. The people shall be secure in their persons, liouses, papers 
and possessions from unreasonable searches and seizures ; and no war- 
rant to search any place, or to seize any person or things, shall issue 
without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable 
cause, supported by oath or affirmation. 

§ 9. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have a right to 
be heard by himself and by counsel ; to demand the nature and cause 
of the accusation ; to be confronted by the witnesses against him ; to 
have compulsory process to obtain witnesses in his favour ; and in all 
prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by 
an impartial jury. He shall not be compelled to give evidence against 
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, but by due course- 
of law. And no person shall be holden to answer for any crime, the 
punishment of which may be death, or imprisonment for life, unless 
on a presentment or an indictment of a grand jury ; except in the 
land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service, in tioke 
of war, or public danger. 

§ 1(X No perse*' 1 shall be arrested, detained or punished, except in 
cases clearly warranted by law. 

§ 11. The property of no person shall be* taken for public use, 
without just compensation therefor. 

§ 12. All courts shall be open, and every person, for a:n injury dom 
him in his person, property or reputation, shall have remedy by due 
course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, deni- 
al or delay. 

§ 13. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines im- 
posed. 

§ ^4. All prisoners shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient 
bureties, except for capital offences, where the proof is evident, or 
the presumption great ; and the privileges of the writ of habeas cor- 
pue shall not be suspended, unless when in case of rebellion or inva- 
sion, the public safety may require it ; rtor in any case, but by the le- 
gislature. 

§ 15. No person shall be attainted of treason or felony, by the le- 
islature. 

§ 1 6. The citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble 
lor their common good, ahd to apply to those invested with the pow- 
ers of government, for redress of grievances, or other proper purpos- 
es, by petition, address or remonstratice. . 

§ 1 7. Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defence of himself 
and the State. 

§ 18. The military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict 
subordination to the civil power. 

§ 19. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any housc^ 
without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a man- 
ner to b^ prescribed by^ law. 



to 



^^■"■■•"^ •^^:<j: 



•ji 



OF CONNECTICUT. ei 



«■ 



§ 20. Nofaereditarj emolaments, privileges or honours, shall ever 
be graisted) dr conferred: in this State. 
4 21 • The E^ht of trial by jury shall remain inviolate. 

%ttidt Jbttmti. 

OP THE DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS- 

The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct de- 
partineiits, and each of them confided to a separate magistracy-^to 
wit— those which are Legislative, to one ; those which are Executive 
to ai^otber^ and those which are Judicial to another* 

OF THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT, 

§ 1. The Legislative poirer of this State shall be vested in two dis- 
tinct booses or branches 5 the one to be styled The Senate, the other, 
The House or Rei»resentatives, and both together, THE GENE- 
RAL ASSEMBLY. The style of their laws shall be, Be it enacted 
by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Assembly con^ 
venedi 

4 2. There shall be one stated session of the General Assembly, to 
be^^holden in each year, alternately at Hartford and New-Haven, on 
the first Wednesday of May, and at such other times as the General 
Assembly shall judge necessary ; the first session to be holden at Hart- 
ford: but the person administering the office of Governor may, on 
special emergencies, convene the General Assembly at either of the 
said places, at any other time. And in case of danger from the pre- 
valence of contagious diseases in either of said places, or other cir- 
ctimstances, the person administering the office of Governor may, by 
Proclamation, convene said assembly at any other place in this State. 

§ 3. The House of Representatives shall consist of electors, resid- 
ing in towns from which they are elected. The number of Represen- 
tatives from each town shall be the same as at present practised and 
allowed. In case a new town shall hereafter be incorporated, such 
new town shall be entitled to one Representative only ; and if such 
new town shall be made from one or more towns, the town or towns 
from which the same shall be made, 6(hall be e&titled to the same num- 
ber of Representatives as at present allowed, unless the number shall 
be reduced by the consent of^ such town or towns. 

§ 4. The Senate shall consist of twelve members, to be chosen an- 
nually by the elector. 

§ 5. At the meetings of the electors, held in the several towns in 
this State in April annually, after the election of Representatives, the 
electors present shall be called upon to bring in their written ballots 



n 



ii tJENERAL VIEW 



•WitaW 



for Senators. The presiding officer shall receive the votes of the 
electors, and count and declare thiem in open meeting. The presid- 
ing officer shall also make duplicate lists of the persons voted for, and 
of the number of votes for each, which shall be certified by the pre- 
siding officer ; one of which lists shall be delivered to the Town 
Clerk, and the other within ten dajs after said meeting, «hall be de- 
livered under seal, either to the Secretary, or to the Sheriff of the 
County in which said town is situated ; which list shaU be directed^ to 
the Secretary, with a superscription expressing the purport of the 
contents thereof. And each Sheriff who shall receive such votes shall 
within fifteen days after said meeting, deliver, or cause them to be de- 
livered t?o the Secretary. 

§ 6. The Treasurer, Secretary and Controller, fpr the time being^r 
shall canvass the votes publicly. The twelve persons having the great* 
est number of votes for Senators, shall be declared to be elected. 
But in cases where no choice is made by the electors, in consequence 
of an equality of votes, the House of Representatives shall designate 
by ballot which of the candidates having such ^qual number of votesi 
shall be declared to be elected. The return of votes, and the result 
of the canvass, shall be submitted to the House of Reresentatives, 
and also to the Senate, on the first day of the session of the General 
Assembly, and each House shall be the final judge of the electicm 
returns and qualifications of its own members. 

§ 7. The House of Representatives, when assembled, shall choose 
H Speaker, Clerk, and other officers. The Senate shall choose its 
Clerk, and other officers, except the President. A majority of each 
House shall constitute a quorum to do business ; but a smaller num- 
ber may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of ab- 
sent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House 
may prescribe. 

§ 8. Each House shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, 
punish members for disorderly conduct, and, with the consent of two 
thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause ; 
and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the Legis- 
lature of a free and independent State. 

§ 9.^ Each House shall keep a journal of its own proceedings, and 
publish^ the same when required by one fifth of its members, except 
such parts as in the judgment of a majority require secrecy. The 
yeas and nays of the members of either House shall, at the desire of 
one fifth of those present, be entered on the journals. 

§ ] 0. The Senators and Representatives shall, in all cases of civil 
process, be privileged from arrest, during the session of the General 
Assembly, and for four days before the commencement, and after the 
termination of any session thereof. And for any speech or debate in 
either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

§ 11. The debates of each House shall be public, except on such 
occasions, as, in the opinion of the House, may require secrecy. 



OF CJONNECTICUf. 23 



%xtitlt fourth. 

OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

41. The supreme executive power of fbe State shall he vested in 
a Governor, who shall be chosen by the electors of the State, and 
shall hold his office for one year, from the first Wednesday of May 
next sttceeeding his election, and until his successor be duly qualified. 
No person who is not an elector of this State, and who has not arri- 
ved at the age of thirty years, shall be eligible. 

§ 2. At Ae meetings of the electors in the respective towns in the 
niimth of April in each year, immediately after the election of Sena- 
tors, the presicKdg officers shall call upon the electors to bring in their 
ballots for him whom they would elect to be Governor, with his name 
fairiy written. When such, ballots shall have been received and 
' coupled in the presence of tfie electors, duplicate lists of the per- 
sons voted for, and of the number of votes given for each, shall be 
made and certified by the presiding officer, one of which lists shall 
be deposited in the office of the Town Clerk within three days, and the 
other within ten days after said election, shall be transmitted to the 
Secretary, or tb the Sheriff of the Countv, in which such election 
shall have been held. The Sheriff, reqeivmg said votes, shall deliv- 
er, or cause them to be delivered to the Secretary, within fifteen days 
next after said election. The votes so returned shall be counted by 
the Treasurer, Secretary and Controller, within the month of Apiil. 
A fair list of the persons and number of votes given for each, togeth- 
er with the returns of the presiding officers, shall be, by the Trea- 
surer, Secretary and Controller, made and laid before the General 
Assembly, then next to be holden, on the first day of the session 
thereof; and said Assembly shall, after examination of the same, de- 
clare the person whom they shall find to be legally chosen, and give 
him notice accordingly. If no person shall have a majority of the 
whole number of said votes, or if two or more shall have an equal 
and the greatest number of said votes, then said Assembly, on the 
second day of their session, by joint ballot of both houses, shall pro^ 
ceed^ without debate, to choose a Governor from a list of the named 
of the two persons having the greatest number of votes, or of the 
persons having an equal and highest niimber of votes so returned as 
aforesaid. The General Assembly shall by law prescribe the mianner 
in which all questions concerning the election of a Governor or Lien- 
tenant Governor shall be determined. 

§ S. At the annual meetings of the electors, immediately after the 
election of Governor, there shall also be chosen in the same man- 
ner as is herein before provided for the election of Governor, a 
Lieutenant Governor^ who shall continue in office for the same time, 
and possess the same qualificatiuiis. 



84 GENERAL VIEW 

' i. . ■■' I ■ ^ ' ' ■ ^SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSi 

§ 4. The compensations of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, 
Senators and Representatives, shall be established by law, and shall 
not be varied so as to take effect until after an election, vrhich shall 
next succeed the passage of the law establishing said compensations. 
§ 5. The Governor shall be Captain General of the Militia of the 
State, except when callel into the service of the United States. 

§ 6. He may require iiaformation in writing from the officers in the 
executive department, on any sulgect relating to the duties of their 
respQCtive offices. 

§ ?• The Governor, in case of a disagreement between the two 
Houses of the General Assembly, respecting the time of adjourn- 
ment, may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not 
beyond the day of the next stated session. 

§ 8. He shall, from time to time, give to the General Assembly in- 
formation of the state of the government, and recommend to their 
consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient. 

§ 9. He shall take care tiiat the laws be faithfully fexecuted. 
§ 10. The Governor shall have power to grant reprieves after coh- 
viction, in all cases except those of inipeachment, until the end of 
the next session of the General Assembly, and no longer. 

§ 11. All Commissions shall be in the name and by authority of 
the State of Connecticut ; shall be sealed with the State Seal, sign- 
ed by the Governor, and attested by the Secretary. 

§ 12. Every bill which shall have passed both Houses of the Gene- 
ral Assembly, shall be presented to the Governor. If he approves, 
he shall sign and transmit it to the Secretary ; but if not, he shall re- 
turn it to the House in which it originated, with his objections, which 
shall be entered on the journals of the House; wh6 shall proceed 
to reconsider the bill. If after such reconsideration, that House 
shall again pass it, it shall be sent, with the objections, to the oth- 
er House, which shall also reconsider it. If approved, it shall be- 
come a law. But in such cases the votes of both Houses shall be 
determined by Yeas and Nays; and the names of the members, 
voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journals of 
each House respectively. If the bill shall not be returned by the 
Governor within three days, (Sundays exciepted) after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a Jaw in like manner as if 
he had signed it ; unless the Generail Assembly, by their adjourn- 
ment, prevents its return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

§ 13. The Lieutenant Governor shall, by virtue of his office, be 
President of the Senate, and have, when in committee of the whole, 
a right to debate, and when the Senate is equally divided, to give the 
casting vote. 

§ 1 4. In case of the death, resignation, refusal to serve, or removal 
from office of the Governor, or of his impeach;nent, or absence from 
the State, the Lieutenant Governor shall exercise the powers and au- 
thority appertaining to the office of Governor, until another be chosea 




op CONNECTICUT. 25 

at the next periodical election for Governor, and be duly qualified ; or 
until the Governor impeached or absent, shall be acquitted or re- 
turn* 

§ 15. When the government shall be administered by the Lieuten- 
ant Governor, or he shall be unable to attend as President of the 
Senate, the Senate shall elect one of their members, as President 
pro tempore* A^A if during the vacancy of the office of Governor, 
the Lieutenant Governor shall die, resign, refuse to serve, or be re- 
moved from office, or if he shall be impeached, or absent from the 
State, the President of the SenajLe pro tempore^ shall, in like manner, 
administer the government until he be superseded by a Governor or 
Lieutenant Governor * 

§ 16. If the Lieutenant Governor shall be required to administer 
the government, and shall, while in such administration, die or resign 
during the recess of the General Assembly, it shall be the duty of 
tlie Secretary, for the time being, to convene the Senate for the pur- 
pose of choosing a President pro tempore. 

§ 17. A Treasurer shall annually be chosen by the electors at their 
meeting in April ; and the votes shall be returned, counted, canvassed, 
and declared, in the same manner as is provided for the election of 
Governor and Lieutenant Governor ; but the votes for Treasurer shall 
be canvassed by tlie Secretary and Controller only* He shall receive 
all monies belonging to the State, and disburse the same only as he 
may be directed by law. He shall pay no warrant or order for the dis- 
bursement of public money, until the same has been registered in the 
office of the Controller. 

§ 18. A Secretary shall be chosen next after the Treasurer, and 
in the same manner ; and the votes for Secretary shall be returned 
to, and counted, canvassed and declared by, the Treasurer and Con- 
troller. He shall have the safe keeping and custody of the public 
records and documents, and particularly of the Acts, resolutions and 
orders of the General Assembly, and record the same ; and perform 
all such duties as shall be prescribed by law.. He shall be the keeper 
of the Seal of the State, which shall not be altered. 

§ 1 9. A Controller of the public accounts shall be annually appoint- 
ed by the General Assembly. He shall adjust and settle all public ac- 
counts and demands, except grants and orders pf the General Assem- 
bly. He shall prescribe the mode of keeping and rendering all pub- 
lic accounts. He shall ex officio be one of the auditors of the accounts 
of the Treasurer. The General Assembly may assign to him other 
duties in relation to his office, and to that of the Treasurer, and shall 
prescribe the manner in which his duties shall be perfoo^med. 

§ 20. A Sheriff shall be appointed in each county by the General 
Assembly, who shall hold his office for three years, removeable by 
said Assembly, and shall become bound, with sufficient sureties, to the 
Treasurer of the State, for the faithful discharge of the duties of his 
office, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law: in case the 

• 4 



c 



26 GENERAL VlEtfir 

Sheriff of anj county shall die or resign, the Governor may- fill the va- 
cancy occasioned thereby, tintil the i^ame shall be filled by the Gene- 
ral Assembly. 

§ 21. A statement of all receipts, payments, funds and debts of the 
State shall be published from time to time, in sdch manner and at such 
periods, ad slidll be prescribed by law. 

OF THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

§ 1 • The judicial power of the State shall be vested in a Supreme 
Court of Errors, a Superior Court, and such Inferior Courts as the 
General Assembly shall, from time to time, ordain and establish : the 
powers and jurisdiction of which Courts shall be defined by lanr. 

§ 2. There shall be appointed in each county a sufficient number 
of Justices of the Peace, with such jurisdiction in civil and criminal 
^ases ai the General Assembly may prescribe. 

§ 3* The Judges of the Supreme Court of Errors, of the Superior 
and Inferior Courts, and all Justices of the Peace, shall be appointed 
by the General Assembly, in such manneir as shall by law be preseri" 
bed. The Judges of the Supreme Court, and of the Superior Court, 
shall hold their offices during good behaviour ; but may be removed 
by impeachment ; and the Governor shall also remove them on the 
address of two thirds of the members of each house of the General 
Assembly : all other Judges and Justices of the Peace shall be ap- 
pointed annually. No Judge or Justice of the Peace shall be capa- 
ble of holding his office, after he shall arrive at the age of seventy 
years. 

%ttk\t Jbixtfi. 

OF THE QUALIFICATIONS OF ELECTORS, 

§ I. All persons who have been, or shall hereafter, previous to the 
ratification of this Constitution, be admitted freemen, according iq 
the existing latfs of this State, shall be electors. 

§ 2. Every white male citizen of the United States, who shall have 
gained a settlement in this State, attained the age of twenty-one years ; 
and resided in the town in which he may ofier himself to be admitted 
to the privilege of an elector, at least six months preceding ; and have 
a freehold estate of the yearly value of seven dollars in this State ; 
or having been enrolled in the militia, shall have performed military 
^uty therein for the term of one year next preceding the time he shall 
offer himsl^]^ for admission, or being liable thereto, shall have been, 
by autbori^ of law excused therefrom ; or shall have paid a State tax 
trithin the year next preceding the time he shall present himself for 
^ch admission ; and sb^U sustain a good moral character ; shall, on 
his taking such oath as m^y be prescribed by law, be an elector. 

§ 3. The privileges of an elector shall be forfeited by a conviction 
of bribery, forgery, perjury, duelling, fraudulent bankruptcy, theft, or 
other offence for which ^ infamous punishmelat is inflicted. 




OF CONNECTfCUT. *7 

§ 4. fiyery elector shall be eligible to any office in lius State, except 
in Clauses provided for in this Constitution. 

§ 5. The select men and town clerk of the several towns shall decide 
on the qualifications of electors, at such times, and in such manner, as 
may be prescribed by law. 

§ 6. Laws shall be made to support the privilege of £ree suffrage, 
prescribing the manner of regulating and conducting meetings of elec- 
tors, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence 
therein, from power, bribery, tumult and other improper conduct. 

§ 7. In all elections of officers of the State, or members of tbe 
General Assembly, the votes of the electors shall be by ballot* 

§ 8. At all elections of officers of the State, or members of the 
General Assembly, the electors shall be privileged from arrest, during 
their attendance upon, and going to, and returning from the same, on 
any civil process. 

§ 9. The meetings of the electors for the election of the several 
State officers by law annually to be elected, and members of the 
General Assembly of this State, shall be holden on the first Monday 
of April in each year. 

%rtifit j&etentj^. 

OF RELIGION. 

§ 1. It being the duty of all men to worship the Supreme Being, 
the Great Creator and Preserver of the Universe, and their right to 
render that worship, in the mode most consistent with the dictates of 
their consciences ; no person shall by law be compelled to join or supp 
port, nor be classed with, or associated to, any congregation, church 
or religious association. But every person now belonging to such con- 
gregation, church or religious association, shall remain a member 
thereof until he shall have separated himself therefrom in the manner 
hereinafter provided. And each and every society or denomination 
of Christians in this State, shall have and enjoy the same and equnl 
powers, rights and privileges ; and shall have power and authority to 
support and maintain the ministers or teachers of their respective de- 
nominations, and to build and repair houses for public worship, by a 
tax on the members of any such society only, to be laid by a major 
Tote of the legal voters assembled at any society meeting, warned and 
held according to law, or in any other manner. 

§ 2. If any person shall choose to separate himself from the so* 
ciety or denomination of Christians to which he may belong, and shall 
leave a written notice thereof with the clerk of such society, he shall 
thereupon be no longer liable for any future expenses which may be 
incurred by said society. * 

flrrtrte «i05t5. 

OF EDUCATION. 

§ 1 . The charter of Yale College, as modi6ed W agreen^ent with 
the corporation thereof, in pursuance of an act of tl^e General As- 
sembly, passed in May 1792, is hereby confirmed. 



28 GENERAL VIEW 



§ 2. The fund, called the School Fund, shall remain a perpetual 
fund, the interest of which shall he inviolably appropriated to the 
support and encouragement of the public or common schools through- 
out the State, and for the eqijal benefit of all the people thereof. 
The value and amount of said fund shall, as soon as practicable, 
be ascertained in such manner as the General Assembly may pre- 
scribe, published, and recorded in the Controller's office ; and no 
law shall ever be made, authorising said fund to be diverted to any 
other use than the encouragement arid support of public or common 
schools, among the several school societies, as justice and equity shall 
require. 

ULttitit 0intfi. 

OF IMPEACHMENTS, 

§ 1. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of im- 
peaching* 

§ 2. All impeachments shall he tried by the Senate. When sitting 
for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. No person shall 
be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members 
present. When the Governor is impeached, the Chief Justice shall 
preside. 

§ 3. The Governor, and all other executive and judicial officers, 
shall be liable to impeachment ; but judgments in such cases shall 
not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to 
hold any office of honour, trust or profit, under this State. The partj 
convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, 
trial and punishment, according to law^ 

§ 4. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war 
against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. 
No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of 
two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 
No conviction of treason, or attainder, shall work corruption of blood, 
or forfeiture, 

%ttittt €mt%. 

GENERAL PROVISIONS, 

§ 1 Members of the General Assembly, and all officers, executive 
and judicial, shall,' before they enter on the dqties of their respec- 
.tive offices, take tiie following oath or affirmation, to wit ; 

You do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that you will 
support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of 
the State of Connecticut, so long as you continue a citizen thereof; 
and that you will faithfully discharge, according tp law, the duties of 
the office of to the best of your abilities. 

So help you God* 

§ 2. Each town shall annually elect select men and such officers 
of local police, as the laws may prescribe. 

§ 3. The rights and duties of all corporations shall remain as if 




OF CONNECTICUT. 29 



this Constitution had not been adopted ; >nrith the exception of such 
regulations and restrictions as are contained in this Constitution. AH 
judicial and civil oificers now in office, who have been appointed bj 
the General Assembly, and commissioned according to law, and all 
such officers as shall be appointed by the said Assembly, and commis> 
sioned as aforesaid, before the first Wednesday of May next, shall eon* 
tinne to hold their offices until the first, day of June next, unless they 
«faall befcrre that time resign, or be renloved from office according to 
law; The Treasurer and Secretary «hall continue in office, until a 
lYeasurer and Secretary shall be appointed under this Constitution. 
All military officers shall continue to hold and exercise their re- 
spective offices, until they shall resign or be removed according to 
law. AH laws not contrary to, or inconsistent with, the provisions of 
this Constitution, shall remain in force, until they shall expire by their 
own limitation, or shall be altered or repealed by the General Assem- 
bly, in pursuance of this Constitution. The validity of all bonds, debts, 
contracts, as well of individuals as of bodies corporate, or the State, oif 
all suits, actions, or rights of action, both in law and equity, shall con- 
tinue as if no change had taken place. The Governor, Lieutenant 
Governor, and General Assembly, which is to be formed in October 
next, shall bave,and possess, all the powers and authorities, not repug- 
nant to, or inconsistent with this Constitution, which they now have and 
possess, until the first Wednesday of May next. 

§ 4. No Judge of the Superior Court, or of the Supreme Court of Er- 
rors ; no member of Congress ; no person holding any office under the 
authority of the United States ; no person holding the office of Treasur- 
er, Secretary or Controller; no Sheriff or Sheriflf^s deputy, shall be a 
member of the General Assembly. 

%ttitlt ^leUcntS* 

OF AMENDMENTS OF THE CONSTITUTION. 

Whenever a njajority of the House of Representatives shall deem 
it necessary to alter or amend this Constitution, they may propose such 
alterations or amendments ; which proposed amendments shall be con- 
tinued to the next General Assembly, and be published with the laws 
which may have been passed at the same session ; and if two thirds of 
each House, at the next session of said Assembly, shall approve the 
amendments proposed, by yeas and nays, said amendments shall, by 
the Secretary, be transmitted to the town clerk in each town in this 
State ; whose duty it shall be to present the same to the inhabitants 
thereof, for their consideration, at a town-meeting, legally warned and 
held for that purpose ; and if it shall appear in a manner to be pro- 
vided by law, that a majority of the electors present at such meetings, 
shall have approved such amendments, the same shall be valid, to all 
inteats and purposes, as a part of this Constitutign. 



30 GENERAL VISW 

J)one in Convention, on theffteenth day of September^ in the year of 
owr Lord one thousand eight hvndred and eighteen, and of the Inde-^ 
pendence of the United States the forty-third. 

By order of the Convention* 

OLIVER WOLCOTT, Pre^idetU. 
James Lanman, \ Cl k 

RO0£RT FaIRCIIILD, > ^^ ^* 

According to the constitutional provision j the House of Representa- 
tives comprises 201 members ; and there are about 38, 000 electors m 
the State. 

Revenue and Expenditures. — The revenue of the State consists of 
the proceeds of its permanent funds, certain sources of indirect reve- 
nue, of which, duties upon writs, licences, fines and forfeitures, are the 
principal, and direct taxes. 

The permanent funds consisting of United States stock, and of 
stock in the Banks of this State, amounted, in 1818, to ]^405,037 35; 
the annual dividends and interest of which may be estimated at about 
^[25,000; and the indirect revenue, accruing principally from duties 
upon writs, from fines and forfeitures, duties upon licenses to retailers, 
the proceeds of Newgate Prison, and some other sources of indirect 
revenue, amount to from 15 to 20,000 dollars annually; and the nett 
proceeds of the direct tax, in 1818, was |^33,458 58 ; making an ag* 
gregate revenue of from 75 to nearly 80,000 dollars, for the year 1818. 

The ordinary civil list expenditures, heretofore, have amounted to 
from 75 to 85,000 dollars per annum, and have consisted principally of 
the debentures of the General Assembly, which have usually amounted 
(there being two sessions in a year) to about ^26,000 ; the salaries of 
the judicial and executive State officers, the expenses of Newgate Pris* 
on, the State Paupers, and various other ordinary and contingent ex- 
penses. 

Militia, — The militia of Connecticut, according to the returns of the 
Adjutant General, in 1818, amounted to 20,573; and consisted of six 
brigades of Infantry, one brigade of Artillery, one of Cavalry and one 
of Riflemen. There are 24 regiments of Infantry, 3 regiments of Horse 
Artillery, 2 regiments of Light Artillery, 5 regiments of Cavalry, and 
2 regiments of Riflemen. In addition to these, there are four compa- 
nies of Guards, two of which are Horse-Guards, and two Foot-Guards. 

Literature^ Seminaries of Learning, Schools and School Fund, — Con- 
necticut has long been distinguished for its literature, and its valuable 
institutions of learning. It has been considered as being, in America, 
what Athens was in Greece, the seat of learning and the arts. Although 
Connecticut has undoubtedly produced her full share of men, eminent 
for their talents and literary acquirements, yet the reputation which 
the State has acquired, as it respects learning, has proceeded from a 
general diffusion of intelligence, among the whole body of the people, 
and a prevailing thirst for knowledge which pervades every class in 
society. In these respects this State certainly daims a pre-emiweot 



^ 



OP CONNECTICUT. 31 

tank, and is almost Without any example in the known world* Not 
only does almost^very person acquire the rudiments of education, bat 
a desire for general reading prevails extensively, atid newspapers and 
books are spread extensively among all classes. From the prevailing 
spirit of the people, parents in this State have Keen much in the 
habit of giving their sons a liberal or academical education ; and hence 
the number which have engaged in the learned professions has been 
greater here, in proportion to the population, than in almost anv other 
section of the World ; a considerable proportion of wfiotn have found it 
necessary, or deemed it expedient to go abroad to establish them* 
selves in their professions. The advantages for obtaining an education, 
in the higher branches of literature in this State, are equal to those of 
any other section of the Union ; and the advantages for common edu- 
cation are not surpassed by those of any other community in the ci- 
vilized world. The subject of common education is not left to the will 
of individuals ; but it is made a public concern. The principles, cal- 
culated to produce this object, form a part of the government itself. 
They are interwoven into its very texture and oi^nization. The 
whole State is divided into civil and Corporate divisions, tor the pur- 
poses of primary education, called School Societies. These socie- 
ties are subdivided into school districts, the limits of a single school. 
Both the school societies and districts are corporations, and act as such 
upon all subjects relating to the establishment and maintaining of 
schools. Of the former there are 207 in the State, and of the lat- 
ter^ 1431, exclusive of those in the town of Weston ; information with 
respect to which was not obtained when this article went to press. 
In each district there is a school house ; for the erection of which, the 
the district is empowered to tax all the taxable inhabitants within its 
limits; but the principal concerns of schooling are managed by the 
school societies. 

For the support of the district or primary schools, very liberal pro- 
vision has been made, by the well known appropriation, called the 
School Fund. This fund, which arose from the sale of the land reserv- 
ed by Connecticut in the State of Ohio, amounts at the present time to 
^1^608^670. It is vested principally in individual credits, secured by 
bond and mortgage. In the recent constitution, this fund has been esta- 
blished ; so that it now rests upon a constitutional provision, and is 
above the control of the legislature. The proceeds of this fund can 
be applied to no other object than the support of the primary schools* 
The annual dividends of this fund have been somewhat variant, but at 
this time amount to about j{60,000 ; which at present is apportioned to 
the school societies, according to their lists. 

In addition to the school fund, a certain proportion of all the taxes 
paid to the State is by law appropriated 4o the support of the common 
schools. 

In addition to the primary schools, there are in this State numerous 
seminaries for instruction in the higher branches of learning. Yale 



^^^m^mmm 



32 GENERAL VIEW 



College is treated of at length, in the article upon New-Haven, to which 
the reader is referred. There are 6 incorporated academies. Be- 
sides these, there are 26 unincorporated academies and grammar 
schools, some of which are endowed with funds. 

Social Libraries and Newspaper^* — There are probably about 1 72 so- 
cial libraries in the State, comprising more than 30,000 volumes. In 
1818, there were 1 6 newspaper establishments in this State ; from which, 
probably, more than 16,000 papers were issued weekly. 

Religion. — The constitution has secured, in the most ample manner, 
the rights of conscience and religious liberty ; all religious denomina- 
tions being placed upon an equal footing, and ev^ry individual being 
permitted, as it respects religious faith and worship, to pursue the dic- 
tates of his own mind. There are 449 religious societies of every de- 
scription in this State; of whjch, about 210 are Congregationalists, 
74 Episcopalians, 89 Baptists, 53 Methodists, 7 Separatists, 7 Friends, 2 
Universahsts,2Sandemanians, 1 of Shakers, 1 of Rogerenc Quakers, and 
3 of denominations not ascertained. Many of these societies are small, 
and others merely nominal, particularly several of the Congregational 
societies being classed with that order from the principles of their or- 
ganization. 

History. — Some historical or chronological notices is all tliat can be 
expected under this head. The territory, comprising the State of Con- 
necticut, was undoubtedly first visited by the Dutch ; but at what pe- 
riod, it is difficult to determine. But it is probable, that it was soon af- 
ter their settlement at New- Amsterdam, now New- York, in 1615 ; al- 
thou^ they did not erect the trading house, at what is called Dutch 
Point, being the point of land formed by the union of Mill river with 
the Connecticut, at Hartford, until about the year 1633. The first in- 
formation which the English colonies in Massachusetts obtained of the 
country upon Connecticut river, was in 1631. The first settleinent was 
made in 1635. In 1639, the towns of Hartford, Windsor and Weth- 
ersfield entered into articles of association, and organized a govern- 
ment. The colony of New-Haven was first settled in 1 ^Z^ and a 
government oi^anized in 1639. 

In 1 662, the charter was obtained, and both colonies united. In 1687, 
the charter government was suspended by Sir Edmund Andross, and 
was restored after the Revolution in England, in 1688. In 1701, Yale 
College was established ; ia 1755, the first newspaper in the colony 
was established at New-Haven. In July 1776, the colony of Connec- 
ticut, in common with the others, became independent of Great-Brit- 
ain ; in 1 784, the first city was incorporated ; in 1 792, the first bank was 
established ; in 1 806, the manufacture of cotton first began to receive 
attention. In 1 81 8, a Convention of Delegates fronri the several towjis 
in the State, convened at Hartfcgrd ; and after a session of about three 
weeks, framed a constitution of civil government for the State, which 
was ratified by the people on the 5th of October following. 




■ " ' ■ "■■"'A 
TOPOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL VIEW 



OF THE SKYCftAI> 



COUNTIES, TOWNS, CITIES, BOKOUGHS, AND VILLAOES, 

/;V THE STATE 



OP 



CONNECTICUT, 



HARTFORD COUNTY. 



HARTFORD COUNTY is oTl 
anefent date ; and its original Hm- 
its comprised an extensive district 
of cbuntry, upon both sides of Con-: 
necti<^at river, the eot»re county 
of Tolland, most of the counties 
of Middlesex and Windham, and a 
paTt of the counties of Litch- 
field and New-London, having 
been detached from it, whereby 
it has been much circumscribed, 
although it is still one of the largest 
counties in the State. It is situated 
in the northern central section of 
the State, and principally in the 



extensive and beautiful valley of 
Connecticut rivers-bounded on 
the north by the county of Hamp- 
den, in Massachusetts, on th« east 
by the county of Tolland, on the 
south by the counties of Middlesex, 
New-London, and Ne^-Haven, 
and on the west by the counties of 
Litchfield and New-Haven. It 
forms nearly a square, being about 
30 miles in length, from north to 
south, and 25 in breadth, fi-om east 
to west, comprising an area of 
about 737 square miles, op 46^,280 
acres. 



The following Topographical and Statistical Table exhibits a 
compendious view of the several towns in the county ; their popula- 
tion, according to the census of 1810; dwelling-houses; religious 
societies ; school districts ; post-offices, &c» 

Towns. Post- Popu- Dwelling Religious School Distance from 
offices, iation. houses, societies, districts. Hartford. 



Hartford. 




600S 


850 


6 


12 




Berlin. 




2798 


400 


5 


24 


lOm.S.W. 


Bristol. 




1423 


233 


2 . 


9 


16 m. S.W. 


Burlington. 




•l487- 


230 


3 


8 


17 m. W. 


Canton. 




1 S74- 


220 


3 


•? 


13rti.N.W. 


East-Hartford. 


2 


^240 


480 


4 


13 


2 m. E. 


East- Windsor. 


1 


3081 


500 


4 


19 


6 m. N. 



f 



■',«-".'«'< 



34 



HARTFORD COUNTY. 



Towns. Post- Popu- 

offices. lation. 

Enfield. 1 1840 

Farmington. 2 2748 

Glastenbury. 1 2766 

Granby. 1 2696 

Hartland. 1 1284^ 

Marlborough. 1 720. 

Simsbury. 1 1966 

Southington. 1 1807 

Suffield. 1 2630 

Wethersfield. 2 3931 

Windsor. 2 2868 



Dwelling 
ho«|les. 
274 
400 
440 
380 
200 
110 
290 
300 
360 
600 
400 



Religious School Distance from 
societies, districts. Hartford. 

3 11 17m.N., 

4 15 10 m. W. 

4 13 8 m. S.E. 

5 16 17 m. N.W. 
3 9 22 m. N.W. 
3 6 15 m. S.E. 

2 10 12 m. N.W. 

3 9 18 m. S. W. 

4 11 17 m. N; 

4 12 4 m. S. 

5 16 7 m. N. 



The county of Hartford, whether I 
we consider the advantages of its 
local situation, being intersected 
by a fine navigable river, and at 
the head of its navigation, the 
pleasantness, diversity, and beauty 
of its natural scenery and land- 
scapes ; tjie richness, variety, and 
fertility of its soil ; the mildness^ 
uniformity, and salubrity of its 
climate ; the magnitude and multi- 
plicity of its waters, or the general 
state of its improvements, in agri- 
culture, manufactures, and the 
useful arts ; the number and pleas- 
antness of its villages ; the means 
of agricultural opulence which it 
affords ; its aggregate population, 
wealth, and resources ; will rank 
before any other county in the 
State ; and, in many of these res- 
pects, before any in New-England. 
With respect to its natural soil, 
which is the direct or indirect 
source of almost every interest 
in society, we feel authorized 
in hazarding an opinion, that there 
i?; not another body of land in New- 
England, of the same extent, lying 
together, equal, in quality, to that 
of this county. And we le^l more 
confident in the assertion, that 



there is no other, that comprises 
an equal quantity of alluvial. The 
Connecticut is justly celebrated for 
the extent and richness of itsmead* 
ows ; and there is no section 
throughout its whole course, where 
they are more enlai^ed or valua* 
ble, than in this county. But the 
tracts of alluvial are not confined 
to the Connecticut, but abound 
upon most of its tributary streams, 
particularly the Tuujps and Scaa- 
tic — ^the former of which is a large 
and interesting river. The county 
is intersected not only by Connec- 
ticut river, but also by the green- 
stone range of mountains, which 
terminates at the east rock, in tibe 
vicinity of NewrHaven. The sec- 
tion on the west side of the river, 
extends westwardly, 1 4 or 15 miles, 
and the mountain which ranges 
nearly parallel with the river, is 
five or six miles back from it. The 
tract between the river and the 
mountain is exhaustless in the re- 
sources for agricultural improve- 
ment and wealth. The natural 
soil is a deejf, strong, argiUaceoiM 
loam, varied, in different sections, 
by a greater or less predominance 
of ai^il, from a hard and stiff cl^y. 



HARTFORD COUNTY. 



35 



'< g i^^^l ' 



to a light, gravelly, and, in Bome 
places, sandy loam« It is of an un- 
dulating surface^-^the hills being 
very moderate, free from stone, and ; 
well calculated for improvement. 

The mountain occasions very 
little broken, or unimprovable' 
lands,' consisting only of a single 
ridge — and all the- declivities of 
this are valuable for the growth of 
wood and timber, or for pasturage - 
and orcharding, excepting the bold ; 
mural precipice which is form- 
ed upon its west side. Thej 
general character of the tract west ■ 
of the mountain, is also argilla- 
ceous, although its features are con- 
stderabltr different, s^nd have less 
uniformity. It is more hilly, and 
clay enters less into the composi- 
tion (rfthe soil. The western ex- 
tremity of this tract is considerably 
mountainous, particularly the north 
part of it, embracing the eastern 
section of the granite mountains, 
which prevail in the county of 
Litchfield. Upon the Tunxis river, 
west of the greenstone range, in 
Farmington and Simsbury, there 
are extensive and valuable tracts 
of alluvial. The section of the 
county east of Connecticut river, 
is about nine or ten miles wide, 
and is likewise rich and fertile, 
apd contains ample and durable 
resources for agricultural improve- 
ments and interests. It has its 
proportion of alluvial, and its geo- 
logial character is also argillaceous, 
bat the super stratum of the soil has 
less appearance of the prevalence 
of clay, and is generally a light, 
gravelly, an^d sandy loam. The 
south eai^tern section tf this tract 
is also somewhat mountainous. 

The land in this county is well 
adapted to a grain culture^ partic- 



,ularly that of rye and Indian com, 
I of which large quantities are annu- 
' ally raised. It is also well adapted 
to fruit, and is conspicuous for the 
extent, variety, .and richness of its 
orchaitls. But in noticing its 
adaptation to these agricultural 
productions and interests, it is not 
I to be inferred that it is not favour- 
I able for almost all others, of which 
the climate admits. It is a cir- 
cumstance, which, when consider- 
ing the natural resources and ad- 
vantages of this county for agri- 
culture, ought not to be passed 
over unnoticed, that there is prob- 
ably no section in the United States, 
where there aVe less physical casu- 
alties and obstructions, which at- 
tend a cultivation of the earth, and 
where the fruits of the " sweat of 
the brow" can be relied upon with 
more certainty* Of all vegetable 
productions, fruit is perhaps the, 
most precarious ; yet it is scarcely 
within the memory of man, that 
apples, in this county, have entirely 
failed. 

There is probably no section in 
the New-England States, less ex- 

f)osed to injurious results from 
rosts. In the year 1816, however, 
Indian corn was very generally 
injured ; so much so, that tlicre 
was a difficulty the next season of 
olnkining sound com for seed ; but 
this is the only instance, since our 
recollection, of a frost occurring 
so early in the fall, as essentially 
to injure this grain. Rye, when 
properly cultivated, and seasona- 
bly sown, is a sure crop, and sel- 
dom, if ever, fails. The fanning 
interests of the county are very 
respectable, although it is most 
apparent that there is great room 
foi" improvements ; a general de- 



36 



HARTFORD COUNTY. 



mmm 



ficiency of information upon the 
subject ; want of enterprise ; con- 
firmed habits of error and obstinate 
prejudices ; an unwarrantable ad- 
herence to long established usages 
and practices, without investiga- 
ting their principles, or compa- 
ring them with other mode»; and 
that there is a general deficiency of 
a scientific system of agriculture. 
But recently, a spirit of inquiry 
upon this ijnportant subject seems 
to be awakened ; and aided by the 
exertions and encouragements of 
an Agricultural Society, which 
has been oi^anized in the county 
under an act of incorporation, it 
is to be hoped that its salutary 
results will soon be extensively 
perceived, and the state of ag- 
ricultural improvements become 
commensurate with the natural 
resources and fertility of the soil. 

The waters of the county are 
most abundant and valuable ; be- 
sides the Connecticut, the exten-? 
sive and ^beautiful vale of which 
constitutes the greater part of the 
territory of the county, and annu- 
ally averflows and fertilizes its bor- 
ders ; there are several of its niost 
considerable tributary streams, 
which intersect this county, and dis- 
charge theirwaterswithin its limits. 

The Tunxis, or Farmington riv- 
er, which embodies the wat^ 
from the west and north, unites 
with the Connecticut, in Windsor, 
and is undoubtedly the lai'gest 
tributary stream of the latter, 
throughout its whole course. — 
Within this county, this river is 
sweljed by the waters of two con- 
siderable streams — the Po'quaback, 
which unites with it in Farmington, 
and Salmon brook, which dischar- 
ges it?e]f in Granby, Besides the 



Tunxis and its branches, the prin- 
cipal tributary waters of the Con- 
necticut, within this county, from 
the west, are embodied in Mill and 
Stoney riveihs ; the former dischar- 
ges itself at Hartford, and the lat- 
ter at Suffield. 

Upon the east side of the Con- 
necticut, its principal tributary 
streams, are the Fresh water. Scan- 
tic, Podunk and Hockanum, wMch, 
beginning at the north section of 
the county, discharge themselves 
in the same order, as they are here 
noticed. 

Having given a compressed view 
of the natural features and charac- 
ter of this county, and its resources, 
agricultural productions & wealth, 
and alluded to the state of improve- 
ment of the same, it would be 
unjust, if not invidious, not to no- 
tice other interests and improve- 
ments, particularly the leading and. 
most considerable branches of 
manufactures. The most impor- 
tant and extensive manufacturing 
interest in this county, is that of 
the distillation, or manufacturing 
of grain into spirits. It i^, we 
think, keeping most distinctly 
within the bounds of truth, to as- 
sert that this manufacture is pursu- 
ed to greater extent, and probably 
more advantageously, and with 
more practical knowledge and 
experience, in this county, than* in 
any other in the United States. 
There are 21 grain distilkries in 
the county ; some of which are 
upon a very extensive scale. Some 
idea of the quantity of spirit man- 
ufactured can bo formed from the 
duties paid* during the late war, 
which, in 1816, amounted to near- 
ly jli40,000. But at that time^ the 
heavy duties, and other causes,^ 



/^ 



HARTFORD COUNTY. 



37 



mmm 



MOBBRB 



growing ojat of the state p[ tke 
times, had very much depressed 
the business, and maoj establish- 
meats had eDttrely discoatinued 
their operations* Of the general 
policy and inflaence of thi;s manu- 
facture, in a pecuniary, moral, and 
social point of view, very different 
opinions prevail* It seems, upon 
a superficial examination, essen- 
tially objectionable, that so great 
a devastation should be made, as 
this manufacture occasions, 'of an 
article of prime necessity for food, 
thereby increasing the difficulties 
and expense of subsistence, if not 
aecasioning distress and want, with 
the poor aud unfortunate ; and 
more peculiarly so, from the con- 
sideration that the products of this 
article are, with reference to the 
Bieans of subsistence, not only 
useless, but essentially deleterious, 
destructive to health, to morals, 
and social order and happiness* 
But as it respects the consumption 
pf grain, which is occasioned by its 
distillation into spiritous liquors, 
if it is regarded as an evil, it is one 
which, in a great measure, corrects 
itself, as the convenient and ad- 
vantageous market, which is there- 
by afforded, operates as a power- 
ful stimulous to an increased culti- 
vation of the article. And with 
regard to the use of ardent spirits, 
it is by no means an established 
theorem, that its local manufac- 
ture increases its local consump- 
tion. That the manufacture of 
grain-spirits, in this county, has 
had a favourable inflirence upon 
its agricultural interests, cannot 
be doubted. The manufactures 
of Cotton and Woolen,, aside from 
those of a domestic character, are 
not extensive; there are, however. 



13 Cotton Factories, and 9 Wool- 
en Factories ; in addition to which 
there are 37 Fulling Mills and 
Cloth Dressing Establishments, 
and 38 Wool Carding Machines, 
for customers* There are in the 
county various other manufactur- 
ing establishments, of different de- 
scriptions. There are 1 1 Powder 
Mills, 8 Paper Mills, 5 Oil MiUs, 
83 Grain Mills, 2 Forges, and 2 
Glass Works. In the southern 
part of the county, the manufec- 
ture of Tin- Ware is an important 
and extensive business. Buttons 
and spoons, , of metal ; ploughs, 
(sent to the southern States) horn 
and ivory combs, with various 
others, are among iU manufactures, 
which are articles of exportation. 
We cannot enlarge upon the 
social improvements of the county, 
but it is believed that there are few 
sections in our country, exhibiting 
more ample, extensive^ and diver- 
sified testimonials of industry, en- 
terprise, and perseverance ; and of 
theirnecessary and salutary results, 
order, convenience, and compe- 
tence. The great northern roads, 
upon each side of the river, pre-, 
sent nearly one continued village, 
and corresponding improvements, 
of almost every description, char- 
acterized by their plainness, neat- 
ness, order, and convenience, 
which serve as a faithful index of 
the state of society ; of the social 
and domestic habits, economy, 
regularity, virtues, and happiness 
of the people. The county con- 
tains 32 School Societies, each of 
which is subdivided into a conven- 
ient number of School Districts, 
of which there are in all ,210. 
There are also in the county 67 
Religious Societies, 30 Social Li-> 



€ 



F^ 



"V. ■ 



w^kftwf-jt 



on 



HARTFORD. 



braries, and more than 200 Mer- 
cantile Stores. Its aggregate pop- 
ulation, according to the census of 
1810, was 44,733 ; and the amount 



9S9S! 



mmtmm 



of taxable property, as rated in 
making up lists, inciudiijig poUs^ ia 
1817, was g9 10,523. 



HARTFORD. 



HARTFORD, the seat of jus- 
lice for the county and semi-capi- 
tal of th^ State, is located on the 
westsideof Connecticut river, fifty 
miles northwestwardly from the 
mouth of the river at Saybrpok 
bar. It is in north latitude 41 ,44, 
and west longitude, 72, 50. Hart- 
ford comprises an area of about 
thirty square miles, making 1 9,200 
acres ; being six miles in length 
upon its west line, fiive and a half 
miles upon its east line, and avera- 
ging about five miles in breadth. 
It is bounded west on Farmington, 
south on Wethersfield, north on 
Windsor, and east on East-Hart- 
ford and East- Windsor ; the north 
line, or boundary, extending about 
one hundred rods farther north, 
than the north line of East-Hart- 
ford. The town is divided by a 
small stream called Milt river, with 
high romantic banks, over which is 
a bridge connecting tlie two divis- 
ions of the town. , 

SURFACE, SOIL & NATU- 
RAL PRODUCTIONS. The 
area of this town is characteristi- 
cally waving and uneven; extend- 
ing only about five miles west from 
the river, it embraces no portion 
of those extensive mountainous 
ranges, which run through a con- 
siderable part pf the interior of 
New-England. Although very far 
removed from a plain, it can scarce- 
ly be called hilly. The eminences 



are small, forming in general an an- 
gle of about 15 or 20 degrees* 

An undulating and waving land- 
scape; is every w'here presented to 
the view, and the eye can scarce- 
ly range fifty rods upon a level sur- 
face. This character of the face 
of the country gives it, in the sea- 
son of vegetation, a peculiar va- 
riety, diversity, and interest; and^^ 
at the same time, considering the 
predominating argillaceous quality 
of the soil, facilitates itscultivation, 
and greatly increases its produc- 
tiveness. The extensive and valu- 
able alluvial tract bordering upon 
Connecticut river, which in many 
places is nearly iialf a mile in widtli,> 
is an exception to these remarks. 

The soil of this town, which is 
characterized with much uuifornai- 
ty, is an argillaceous loam. It is,, 
in general, an admixture of clay 
and coarse gravel, in which the 
former greatly predominates* lo 
its primitive, state, and before en- 
riched and warmed by mianiires, 
either artificial or formed from the 
natural decay or decomposition of 
vegetable substances, (if it can be 
supposed, that there was ever such 
a time,) it must have been hard, 
stiff, and difficult of cultivation. 
The soil has an inexhaustible bot-. 
torn, but its great defect is the pre^ 
dominance of clay or argillaceous 
earths. Hence it is easy to discov-, 
er the proper mode of cultivating 



HARTFORD^ 



39 



Mi 



and improving it, as a correct sys- 
tem of agricultare must always 
have a juit reference to the natural 
quality of the soil. Without refer- 
ring to the brilliant analytic discov- 
eries of modern chemistry for prac- 
tical purposes, the primitive or 
natural earths which are the com- 
ponent parts of all soils, are sand, 
argil or clay, gravel & lime. Clay 
is seldom united with lime or cal- 
carioiis earths, but always is com- 
pounded more or less with gravel, 
or silicious sand. Where the clay 
predominates, as in this town, the 
obvious mode of improving the soil, 
is to correct the excess of ai^il- 
laceous earths. And hence, on a 
soil of this description, manures of 
every kind have a most salutary 
and lasting effect. They not only 
render the land productive from 
their immediate influence, but by 
gradually amalgamating with the 
soil, counteract the excess of the 
clay, and form a rich mould, of a 
character, apparently entirely dif- 
ferent from the natural earth. And 
hence too, on such a soil gravel or 
sand is of the greatest utility. A 
gentleman of this city, about ten 
years since, in forming a yard or 
square, which intervened between 
his house and the road, overspread 
the land with a course of gravel of 
considerable depth, taken from the 
bed of the river ; it was then dress- 
ed with a rich course of manure, 
since which period, it has uniform- 
ly produced two heavy crops of^ 
grass each season, of the first quali- 
ty, without having received any 
additional supply of manure, du- 
rhig this long period. 

In the south part of the town, 
towards Wetbersfield, the soil is 
more inclining to sand, and in some | 



small sections this is a predomina- 
ting quality. The tract of meadow 
upon Connecticut river, which is 
formed by alluvial deposits, is natu- 
rally fertile, feasible, and produc- 
tive. It produces all kinds of grass- 
es, plants, esculent roots, and grains 
adaptedto the climate ; and never 
fails to reward, in the most ample 
manner, the labours of the judici- 
ous and faithful husbandman. 

There are not many forests in 
this town, but the natural growth 
of trees are oak of the various 
kinds, walnut or hickory, elm, ash, 
maple, button-wood, willow, horn- 
beam, sassafras, thorn, locust, but- 
ternut, birch, wild cherry, bass, al- 
der, sumach and various shrubs, 
and trees of small growth. 

GEOLOGY. We can give on- 
ly a few notices upon this impor- 
tant and interesting subject. 

Geological knowledge, in tliis 
country, is extremely scanty and 
imperfect. Inhere is no science 
of so great utility, and which, at 
the same time, affords so amusing 
and interesting a study, as that 
which embraces an inquiry into 
the nature and geological struc- 
ture of the globe which we inhabit, 
that has been so much neglected* 
But of Ute, it has made great 
progress in Europe ; and Cuvier, 
Werner, Davy, Humboldt, and 
others, have exploredthe bowels 
of the earth, and disclosed its innu- 
merable hidden secrets and treas- 
ures. And in the United States, 
an investigation of the internal 
structure of ouf extensive moun- 
tains, and other subjects of geolo- 
gical enquiry, are beginning to at- 
tract the attention of men oi sci- 
ence, throughout the union. In 
Connecticut, with the exception of 



G 



. I " ^^»^^^^ 



40 



HARTFORD. 



as 



the scientific industry and inqui- 
ries of one gentleman,* we know of 
little that has been attempted, cal- 
culated to afford even a scanty 
knowledge of its mineralogy, and 
geological structure. 

The internal structure of this 
township, has nevlgr been a subject 
of particular or scientific examina- 
tion. The soil, with the excep- 
tion of the alluvial lands on the 
river, is of a primitive formation, 
and is composed of argil, and a 
coarse sand, or gravel, and affords 
no minerals, nor any evidences of 
marine or alluvial deposits. From 
the bed of Mill river, and other 
streams which intersect the town, 
and from the general geological 
character of the district of country 
upon Connecticut river, extending 
from the narrows below Middle- 
town, to De6rfield, in Massachu- 
setts, there can be no doubt but 
that the whole township reposes 
upon a bed of argillaceous schistus^ 
or clay slate rock. This rock is 
stratified, and exhibits a strata, 
forming an angle of about fifteen 
degrees with the horizon. There 
are several varieties of the clay 
slate rock; some of which are 
found to be of the most metallife- 
rous kind, and to abound with min- 
erals, and the ore of the various 
metals. But the clay slate forma- 
tion of this town, although never 
particularly examined, affords no 
evidences of mineral or metallic 
treasures. It' is of a primitive 
formation, and exhibits no appear- 
ances of marine shells, or muscular 
impressions. 

This rock has never been pene- 
trated to any considerable extent ; 

^ Profes§or Silliman. 



but from the principles of geology, 
being of the primitive order, whicfe 
never rest upon secondary rocks, 
it would follow that it is not under- 
laid by any secondary fommtions, 
or rocks inclosing animatl remaiD^, 
shells, or marine deposits. 

About two miles west from the 
river is an extensive quarry, or bed 
of wall stone; it is composed of 
strata of clay dlate, caped with 
green stone, and red sand stonej 
which is nearly an indurated clay, 
being formed of grains of sand, 
connected together by ^ basis <rf 
clay slate. This quarry is of con*- 
siderable utility, as.afibrdhig the 
means of supplying the city,, and 
other parts of the town in the 
vicinity, with stone for building, 
and various other purposes^ 

RIVERS. This township, boi^ 
dering on Connecticut river, which 
annually overflows its banks, and 
fertilizes its borders, and being 
near the bead of tide water, enjoys 
to a greater extent than any other 
town, the advantages of one of the 
finest rivers in the world. 

Mill river is the only stream 
within this town, deserving of no* 
tice. It is formed from the 
junction of Wintonbury and 
Woods rivers, which unite about 
two miles from its mouth. The 
former of these streams rises iz^^ 
and runs through the west Society 
of Windsor, of the same name ; 
the latter has ip& sources in, and 
runs through th^ western part of 
Wethersfield. On their entering 
into this township, the one niiis 
southeasterly, & the othernorth- 
easterly, nearly upon a Hne, 
whereby they intersect the town- 
^ip into two nearly equal parts^ 
east and west, of these streams ^ 




HARTFORD. 



41 



«BSg#| 



iii'ii-'J 11 1 Ji^- ■ 



sa 



the eastern section being also in- 
tersected transversely, by Mill riv- 
er, formed from the union of the 
two. Mill river is a rapid stream, 
^with elevated and romantic banks, 
which, from its vicinity to the city, 
exhibits rural prospects and scene- 
ry extremely irregular, fanciful 
and pleasing. Onornearits banks 
back from the city, are some ele- 
gant seats, aJSbrding the most 
charming and interesting prospects 
of the. city, and the surrounding 
country. This stream, near its 
mouth, has rapid falls, that are sup- 
ported by the bed of argillaceous 
rock, afaready noticed ; a circum- 
stance of the greatest importance, 
and of which the inhabitants have 
not availed themselves to the 
greatest extent. It afibrds numer- 
ous sites and privileges for mills, 
manufacturing establishments, ma- 
chinery, and almost every kind of 
hydraulic works. ♦ These privile- 
ges, if not improved to the great- 
est extent, have not been neglect- 
ed. There are one Cotton Facto- 
ry, two Woolen Factories, two 
Grist Mills, Clothier^s Works, and 
other Water Works, which have 
been erected upon this stream. 

ROADS . There are few towns 
uniting more conveniences, or 
better accommodated, with res- 
pect to roads, than Hartford. A- 
raong others, the following public 
roads pass -through, or centre in this 
town ; mo?t of which are turnpikes, 
or artificial roads. 

Ist. The great atlantic road to 
New- York, through New-Haven, 
distance, - - 123miles. 

2d. The same to Boston, thro' 
Springfield, • - 128 miles. 

3d. The same do. through 
Stafford, ' . - 98 miles. 



4lb. The same do. through 
Ashford. - - 99 miles. 

5th. Road to Albany, through 
Sheffield, - - 95 miles. 

6th. Road to do. through 
Lenox, - - 94 miles. 

7th. The road to Brattleboro,' 
(Vt.) through Northampton, on 
the west side of Connecticut riv- 
er, - - - 90 miles. 

8th. Road to Hanover, (N. H.) 
through Springfield, on the east 
side of the river, - 140 miles. 

9th. Road to Providence, thro' 
Windham, - . 74 miles. 

1 0th. Road to New-Haven, thro' 
Middletown, - 40 miles. 

11th. do. through Ber- 
lin, - - • - 34 miles. 

12th. do. through. 

Farmington, - - 38 miles. 

13th. Road to Hudson, 78 miles. 

14th. Road to New-London, 

42 miles. 
1 5th. Road to Norwich, 40 miles. 
1 6th. Road to Danbury, 58 miles. 

The foregoing roads, whether 
turnpikes or not, are well made $ 
and there are few weeks in the 
year in which they will not be 
found by travellers substantially 
good and pleasant in the vicinity 
of this town. Eighteen mails 
communicate with the Post-office 
in this town, several of which are 
daily ; there are also thirteen dif- 
ferent lines of stages, which com- 
municate .with Hartford. It is be- 
lieved, therefore, that there is no 
town of its size in the United 
States, that unites so many facili- 
ties and conveniences for commu- 
nication and intercourse abroad. 

AGRICULTURE, MORTI- 
CULTURE, &c. The lands in this 
town indicate the cultivation of 
grasS; as a leading agricultural in- 
6 



c 



42 



HARTFORD. 



mtn^mmm 



terest. The grass, cultivated by 
the farmers of this town, is of a very 
fine and superior quality ; and when 
the land is properly laid down and 
manured, it is produced in great 
abundance. The lands, which are 
in the highest state of grass culture, 
produce two crops in a season, 
yielding four, and in some instan- 
ces five or six tons of hay to the 
acre, which is worth from ten to 
twenty dollars per ton ; however, 
two or three tons is an average 
crop for grass lands, in a tolerable 
state of cultivation. 

The agricultural interests of this 
town, considering the advantages 
of its local situation, the goodness 
of its market, &nd the natural 
quality of the soil, cannot be said 
to be very flourishing. Lands of 
a clay basis ought never to be cul- 
tivated to grass for more than three 
years in succession, unless they 
are dressed very copiously with 
manure. The plough, " heaven's 
second best gift to man," can no 
more be dispensed with upon a 
^rass, than upon a grain farm. 
Without ploughing or manuring, 
the best lands are liable to be ru- 
ined. By turning up the sods, and 
exposing them to the action of the 
elements, rain, heat, and frosts, 
they become warmed, softened, & 
impregnated with nitrous qualities. 

In this, as well as most other 
towns in this county, lands are suf- 
fered to remain too long in the 
same state, and are cropped in the 
same way, year after year, in suc- 
cession. 

To plough lands to enrich them, 
would be a novel idea with our 
farmers, although it is a necessary 
part of the system of agriculture of 
tnaiiy countries. 



Among the grains cultivated? 
Rye and Indian Corn receive ttie 
most attention. The latter is cul- 
tivated with the greatest facility, 
and with abundant success upon 
the meadows of Connecticut river, 
but its cultivation ought not to be 
encouraged. Of all culmiferous 
or seedling plants, it is the great- 
est exhauster of the soil t from the 
magnitude of its stalks, the exten- 
sion of its roots, and the scanti- 
ness of its foliage, it takes away 
every thing, and leaves nothing. 

Wheat, the most valuable of all 
grains, is much neglected, Although 
there can be no doubt, from the 
description of the soil, that with 
proper culture and attention, the 
land would carry crops of it in 
great abundance and perfection. 

Among the esculent roots cul- 
tivated, the potatoe holds a dis- 
tinguished rank. It is raised with 
great facility, and in greftt abund- 
ance. . 

Gardening in this town, particu- 
larly in the city, has received con- 
siderable attention. A lai^e por- 
tion of the families cultivate gar- 
dens, and do not seem disposed to 
depend upon the market for culi- 
nary vegetables. 

There are a number tff gardens 
here, which, whether we consider 
the pleasantness and beauty of 
situation, the style and order in 
which they are arranged, the neat- 
ness and attention with which they 
are cultivated, or the number, va- 
riety, and luxuriancy of the plants, 
roots, and vegetables, Which they 
afford, are not probably surpassed 
by any in the State. 

Summer and autumn fruits are 
also cultivated in gardens, and else- 
where. Among those cultiratcd 



HARTFORD. 



43 



upon trees, shrubs, and plants, are 
apples, apricots, cherries, necta- 
rines, peaches, pears, plums, quin- 
ces, currants, gooseberries, rasp- 
berries, and strawberries. 

STATISTICS. Thepopulation 
of this town, at the census, in 
the yes^r 1 800, w?ls 5347 persons ; 
in 1810, 6003. At the present 
time, (181$) it may be estimated 
at 6500. . 

There are in Hartford, 
850 Dwelling houses. 

6 Houses for public worship. 
12 District schools* 

J do. for Friends^ 

9 Printing ofiices. 
21 Taverns, or public Inns. 
18 Ale, porter, and small beer 

houses. 
1 4 Houses concerned in navigation. 

5 Wholesale dry goods stores. 
26 Dry goods retail stores. 
61 Grocery, crockery, and pro- 
vision stores. 

7 Druggist's stores. 

5 Grain mills. 

4 Clothier's works. 

1 Cotton factory, of 320 spindles. 

2 Woolen do. one of which is 
in opera tipn, and employs 15 
workmen. 

2 Carding machines. 

1 Machine card factory, which 

manufactures ||! 10,000 worth of 

cards annually. 

8 Distilleries. 
1 Oil mill. 

6 Tanneries. 

5 Potteries; 

1 button factory. 

1 Whip-lash factory, which manu- 
factures J5 1 0,000 worth of the 
article annually. 

2 Hat factories, one of which is 
upon an extensive scale, and 
employs 36 workmen. 



2 Tin ware factories. 

2 Looking glass factories, which 
together manufacture ^30,000 
worth of goods annually. 

4 Coppersmiths, two of which 
carry on the business upon a 
lai^e scale ; one of them emr 
ploying about 20 workmeij. 
1 3 Slack smith's shop$. 

1 Bell foundery. 

1 Air furnace. 

) Paper-hanging manufactory. 

1 Marble paper do. 

6 Book binderies. 

7 Book stores. 

6 Sign, coach, & house painters. 

2 Portrait painters. 

3 Engravers. 

8 Gold and silver smith's shops. 
1 5 Shoe factories. 

1 Fine, or morocco leather do. 

4 Slioe stores. 

8 Cabin<?t furniture, and chair- 
makers. 

19 Master house joiners and car- 
penters. 
6 Master masons and brick layers. 

4 Carriage makers. 

2 Wheel wrights. 
10 Coopers. 

1 Pewter factory. 

1 Burr mill stone manufactory. 

2 Leather dressers. 

2 Gold leaf manufactories. 
1 Umbrella manufactory. 

5 Merchant tailors. 

6 Tailor's shops. 

9 Millinery and mantuamaker's 
shops. 

1 Silk dyer. 

1 Sail maker. 

1 Brush manufacturer. 

6 Bakers. 

1 Confectioner. 

5 Barber's shops. 

3 Auctioneers. 

3 Exchange offices. 



c 



wm 



^^ 



^^ 



^p^^^p^ppwp^ 



44 



HARTFORD. 



3 Lottery offices. 
16 Butcher's stalls, belonging tc 

the two public marikets. 

The list of the town, in 1817. 
was 1^137,845,75; there were 628 
taxable polls ; 26 minors ; 395 
horses ; 370 oxen ; 8^0 cows, &c. ; 
2075 acres of arable or plough 
lands ; 7292 | upland, mowing, 
and clear pasture ; 581 bog mead- 
ow, mowed ; 5127 bush pasture ; 
172 chaises, and 12 coaches. 

The late valuation, or assess- 
ment of the lands and houses of 
the town, made in pursuance of the 
laws of the United States, in the 
year 1816, was ^3,168,872,32. 
In the year 1799, 751,532,91. 

The number of dwelling houses, 
the same year, was 593. 

This statement, of the valuation 
of real estate, and ©f the number 
of dwelling houses, at these two 
difTereut periods, is a striking evi- 
dence of the growth, and rising 
importance of the town. In the 
course of the last nineteen years, 
the dwelling houses have increas- 
ed 227 ; and in the short space of 
seventeen years, the real estate of 
the town increased more < than 
four htmdred per cent; making 
an entire addition of ^2,4 1 7,339,4 1 , 
which is more than three times 
the amount of the value, at that 
time, of the whole real estate of 
the town. This has not been a* 
period of great, or even usual 
prosperity. It has been marked 
bv a succession of commercial 
difficulties, embarrassments, and 
restrictions. From 1805 — 6, to 
the close of the late war, the com- 
mercial interests of the country 
were more or less precarious 
and embarrassed, and, at times, 
wholly suspended. 



The system of warfare carried 
on by the tw6 great belligerents of 
Europe, either involved all other 
powers, or from a total disregard of 
all established principles, tended to 
abridge and sacrificetbeir commer- 
cial riglils and interest. 

This coimtry, from the enter- 
prise of its citizens, and the extent 
of its commercial interests, suffer- 
ed more severely than any other. 
The embargo and restrictive mea- 
sures ensued, which Were followed 
by war; which, together, compri- 
sed a period of eight years, of 
peculiar commercial difficulties. 
Since the peace, the manufacturing 
interests that had grown up during 
the war, have been nearly sacrifi* 
ced, and those of trade have expe- 
rienced great languor. The de- 
pression of these interests neces* 
sarily affects that of agriculture ; 
during this period, also, there has 
been a constant course of emigra- 
tion from the State, and fi^om this 
town and vicinity ; yet, under 
these inauspicious circumstances^ 
the property of the town has in- 
creased, by rise of real estate^ and 
the addition of buildings, four fold ; 
but it is not to be inferred that the 
size, or business of the town, has 
extended in this ratio. The rise 
of real estate proceeds from other, 
causes 4 it is influenced not only 
by population and business, biit by 
improvements, social refinements, 
and eilmost the whole train of arti- 
ficial causes, which exist in society. 

The augmentation, or rise of 
property, has enriched the land 
holders in a manner, and to an 
amount, of which they are scarcely 
sensible. Tbey have become rich, 
{without exertion or calculation ; 
I (hey have profited from theindus- 



HARTFORD. 



45 



try, the enterprise, and the biisi- 
Bess of others, whether successfui 
NOr profitable to themselves, or not* 
The improvements, the refine- 
meats, and even the kixnries and 
vices of society, which ruin others, 
have been a source of gain to 
them* Ifj under these circum- 
stances, the town has advanced in 
wealth and importance, in this as- 
tonishing ratio, whatever may be 
thought of the influence of emi- 
gration, or other unfavourable cir- 
cumstances, it may be safely calcu- 
lated, that it will continue to ex- 
tend its size ; its interests ; and 
its consequence. 

In Hartford, there arc 5 officia- 
ting Clei^men ; 22 practising 
Attomies ; 12 prac^siiig^, jPJ^pi- 
cians and Sui^eons* %here Jire, 
of militia, 1 company of Light 
Artillery; 2 companies of Jtifentry; 
one do, of Light Infanti^ ; Oci^ 
company of Riflemen ; also, one 
company of Horse, and one of 
Foot GuardsV These several mil- 
itary companies, in style, and ele- 
gance of uniform ; in correctness 
of discipline ; and in skilfulness of 
miUtary evolutions, are not sur- 
passed by any companies of mili- 
tia in the United States. 

There are about 1000 Electors, 

. or Freemen, in this town ; a num- 

her which exceeds,^ by several 

hundreds, any, other town in the 

State* 

The civil divisions of Hartford 
are two Ecclesiastical Societies; 
12 districts for Schools, and an 
incorporated City. 

HARTFORD CITY was incor- 
porated in 1 784 ; it comprises an 
area of about seven hundred acres, 
being more than a mile in length 
upon the river, and abotit three 



fourths of a mile in breadth. Its 
site, if not in every respect eligible, 
is pleasant and interesting. The 
alluvial flat upon the river is nar- 
row, being from 40 to a hundred 
rods, and connects with the upland 
with a very gradual elevation. 
There are several streets upon the 
flat, and several upon the rise of 
land, which, though not parallel, 
run in a corresponding direction 
with the river. These streets arc 
intersected by a number of others, 
running back from the river, but 
do not regulariy cross them at 
right angles. The city is irregu- 
larly laid out, and rather appears^ 
with respect to the order of it, to 
have been the result of circum- 
stances, than design or arrange- 
ipent. At comprises in all twenty- 
four streets, of which Main-street, 
being the great river road, and ex- 
tending through the city, from 
north to south, in a serpentine di- 
rection, is the principal. Thfs 
street is well built, and, for more 
than a mile, presents an almost 
continued range of buildings ; ma- 
ny of which are large and ele- 
gant brick edifices. It comprises 
most of the public buildings, and 
a considerable proportion oif the 
population, wealth, & business of 
the city. The street is not paved, 
but has been underlaid with a stra- 
tum of stone, which renders it firm 
and generally dry, and it has con- 
venient and handsome flagged side 
walks. 

State-street, next to Main-streef, 
claims a conspicuous notice. Run- 
ning westerly from the river, it 
connects with Main-street by two 
branches, which enclose the State 
House square. This union forms 
the most central pai;t of the city, 



^^^^ 



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HARTFORD. 



houses, engaged In navigation, and 
a great number of respectably 
Grocers and Traders. 

Front-street extends from the 
northern part of the city, to Mill 
river. It is considerably built, 
and is increasing ii^ population ; 
yet it sustains little, or no com- 
mercial business. 

Prospect-street extends from 
State-street, to School-street. It 
is delightfully situated, and is orna-^ 
mented with a number of superli 
dwelling-houses, and el^ant and 
tasteful gardens. 

Trumbwli-street extends from 
the north part of Main-street, to 
Mil^ river. It contains ngiany 
dwelling houses ; ^ome of which 
are plegatit brick buildings, and is 
a pleasant and healthy street for a 
residence. An extension of tins 
street to the New-Haven turnpike^ 
and the erection of a bndge 
across the river, which would |le 
necessary for this purpose, could 
not fail to add greatly to its con- 
sequence, and that of other sec- 
tions of die city. 

Pearl-street, extending from 
Maim to TrumbuH-street, is short, 
but very handsomely built, com- 
prising a number of elegant brick 
edifices. 

Church-street runs westwardly 
from Main-street; it has many 
neat and well built houses. 

West-street is a pleasant, pros- 
pective and rural situation. It has 
a considerable elevation, and af- 
fords a view of the whole city, and 
unites the pleasantness, and, ia 
some measure, the conveniences 
of the country and city. 

Within the limits of the corpo- 
ration, the city of Hartford con- 
tains 540 dwelling houses, which 



and is its greatest theatre of activ- 
ity and business. This street, to- 
wards Main-street, is compactly 
built, and contains many large 
and elegant brick buildings. 

Morgan-street extends from the 
principal angle or curve in Main- 
street, eastwardly to the great 
bridge across the river opposite the 
city. This street, being in a great 
measure dependent upon the bridge 
for its population and consequei^ce, 
was not of much consideration at 
the time that was erected ; since 
which, in the short interval of a- 
bout nine years, it has become an 
import£^nt section of the city. The 
repair, or re-building of the bridge, 
which has taken place the season 
past.^ivingit a more permanent and 
durable character, and collecting 
some of its inconveniences, in con- 
nection with the circumstance of 
the discontinuance of the ferry, 
must have a sensible influence up- 
on the growth and importance of 
Morgan-street. 

Commerce-street runs along the 
bank or margin of the river. It is 
the seat of a considerable portion 
of the maritime business, and many 
of the houses, concerned in navi- 
gation, have stores in this street. 

Ferry-street extends westerly 
from the river, at the landing of 
the ferry, to Front-street. It was 
built at an early period, and has 
always been a compressed and ac- 
tive part of the city. An appre- 
hension has been indulged, that the 
discontinuance of the ferry, there- 
by diverting the public travel to 
Morgan-street, would essentially 
injure this section of the city ; but 
it is believed that there is little 
foundation for this idea. Ferry- 
street contains sevei-al mercantile 




Hartford: 



47 



afford convenient tenements for 
liearly seven hundred families. The 
population of the city, at the cen- 
sus of 1810, was 3955, exclusive 
of the suburbs. The public build* 
ings of the city are, a State House, 
four Churches, two Banking hou- 
ses, a State Arsenal, (being just 
without the limits of the corpora- 
tion,) and a county GaoL The 
State House, which is situated in 
the central public Square already 
noticed, is a stately stone and brick 
edifice of the done order, being 
114 feet by 76, including the two 
porticos; Ae walls of which are 
54 feet in height. The two porti- 
cos are 38 feet by 1 7 each. On 
the basement floor is a large hall 
or area, extending through the 
building; on the left of which is 
a spacious and Convenient court- 
room, on the right are two rooms 
occupied as public offices by the 
Treasurer and Controller. On 
the second floor are two spacious 
halls or apartments designed for, 
and occupied by, the two Houses of 
the Legislature ; that on the right 
or the south wing of the building, 
being occupied by the Governor 
and Council, is called the Council 
Chamber; that in the north wing, 
being occupied by the House of 
Representatives, is denominated 
the Representatives' Chamber. 
The lattei" is provided with a small 
and inconvenient gallery, atid the 
former with none at all. At the 
late session of the Assembly, how- 
ever, a resolution was adopted, and 
a committee appointed to provide 
a gallery or bar to the Council 
Chamber, so as to admit spectators. 
Upon the second floor in the por- 
tico, at the west end of the build- 
ing, is a room occupied as an office 



by the Secretaryof State. On the 
third floor are several large rooms- 
designed for committee-rooms, 
but which are considerably neg- 
lected. If the Legislature could be 
persuaded to make a small annual 
appropriation for the purchase of 
a library, to be called the State Li- 
brary, one of those rooms would be 
a convenient apartment for this 
purpose ; and having been occupi- 
ed for a number of years by Mr. 
Stewart's museum, it has alreadv 
become consecrated to the arts 
and sciences. 

The new congregational meet- 
ing house, situated in Main-street, 
is a superb brick edifice, being 104 
feet by 64 ; and its style and archi- 
tecture, which is of the Ionic or- 
der, are among the finest specimens 
of the arts that are to be found in 
this State ; m front, it has» a lofly 
and elegant portico, supported by 
eight lai^e columns, four in front 
and four in rear, resting upon an 
elevated stone base, which is ap- 
proached by a flight of steps. 

The two banking houses, one 
situated in Main, and the other in 
State-street, are elegant and neat 
buildings ; and are also fine speci- 
mens of the arts. The Hartford 
bank, in State-street, is a brick edi- 
fice with a portico in front, sup- 
ported by four stone columns rest- 
ing upon an elevated basement, 
which is surrounded by a flight 
of isteps. The Phoenix bank, in 
Main-street, directly opposite the 
State House, has an elegant white 
marble front; the oflier walls are 
of brick. It is entered by an ele- 
vated flight of steps, ornamented 
with an iron balustrade fence. 

The State Arsenal is situated 
just north of the limits of the city, 



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19*1 



48 



HARTFORD. 



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Ife 



en the country road. It is a sub- 
stantial fire-proof brick building, 
designed as a place of deposit for 
arms and military stores. It was 
erected during the late war, and 
at this time contains about seven 
thousand stands of arms, more than 
forty pieces of ordnance, and a 
large quantity of military stoi*es 
belonginflf to the State. 

HARTFORD BRIDGE, acrdss 
Connecticut river, opposite this 
city, communicating with Morgan- 
street, is a stately and magnificent 
structure ; of great public con- 
venience, as well as advantage to 
this city. This bridge was origin- 
ally erected in the year 1 809, at 
an expence of more than ^100,- 
000, inclusive of the extensive 
causeways, upon the east side of 
the river. It was partially swept 
away by the freshet, in the spring 
of 1818, and was rebuilt the suc- 
ceeding summer and autumn. 
The present bridge is constructed 
upon, different principles from the 
former one, and is greatly improv- 
ed from it. Its arches, of which 
there are six, of 150 feet each, 
are above the floor of the bridge, 
strengthened by strong braces, and" 
well secured from the weather, 
the whole wood work being cov- 
i?red. 

The arches rest upon six heavy 
itone piers, and two abutments. 
One of those piers was erected in 
building the present bridg'j, and 
the rest raised, enlarged, and 
strengthened. There is a safe and 
convenient draw, upon the west 
tide of the river, which obviates 
any serious obstruction to the navi- 
gation above this city. The bridge, 
inclusive of the draw, is 974 feet 
in length, and 36 feet in width. It! 



i has convenient side walks for the 
accommodation of foot passengers ; 
is provided with what are termed 
" dead lights," upon each side, 
and sky light«« upon the roof, at 
20 feet distance, and a suitable 
number of lam^s. 

The timbeir of the arches, and 
wood woris of the bridge, is almost 
exclusively pine, and being strong- 
ly constructed, ahd well secured 
from the weather, it cannot fail of 
being permanent and durable. 
As the facility which it affords to 
travel is an advantage ta the inter* 
ests of this city, so the elegance 
arid grandeur of its structure 
are an addition to its appearance. 
This bridge, whether we consider 
its size, its strength, or the elegance 
of its structure, and general mag- 
nificence of its appearance, is sur- 
passed by few in the United States. 
The expense of rebuilding and 
repairsih 1818, was about|J|40,000, 
making the whole cost about 
$ 1 50,000. 

There is a bridge across Mill 
river, which connects the two parts 
of the town. It has heretofore 
been of wood, but a new bridge 
is now erecting, which is to be sup- 
ported by stone piers. 

There are in the city of Hartford 
nineteen schools, three of which 
are public or district schools, and 
have been included in the number 
of district schools belotiging to tlie 
town ; fifteen of the others are pri- 
vate schools, and one an incorpo- 
rated grammar school. One of the 
public schools is deserving of par- 
ticular notice ; it is established and 
conducted upon the new ecotioiii- 
ical and improved method of in- 
struction. It is the largest school 
in the state, and probably in New- 



HARTFORD- 



49 



mm 



gUB 



» 



England; containing usually 600 
scholars, all of whona are superin- 
tended by one principal instructor, 
and ten assistants. The scholars 
are divided, into numerous classes, 
according to their acqWements, 
and are severally permi^ed to pro- 
gress from class to class, according 
to the proficiency which they 
may make, which tends to encour- 
"age and stimulate th^m to exertion. 
The grammar school has a hand- 
.^ome fund, and has at times sus- 
tained a high reputation. Scholars 
are taught the English and Latin 
languages, and the rudiments of 
the sciences, whereby they are fit- 
ted for college. Several of the pri- 
vate schools have deservedly a 
very high reputation; a number 
are design^ exclusively for young 
Misses, an4 arB considerably cele- 
brated. 

At the present time there are 
LI 32 scholars which attend the 
several public and private schools 
in the city. 

Among the institutions of learn- 
ing in thiSrCity, the "Asylum" for 
deaf and dumb persons is deserv- 
ing of particular notice. It was 
incorporated in May 1816, and 
,was opened for scholars in April 
1817. This is the first institution 
of the kind in America, and its es- 
tablishment has been attended 
with great difficulty and expense. 
Mr. Thomas H. Gallaudet, who is 
attheheadof it, visited the celebra- 
ted ini^titutions of Edinburgh and 
Paris, to qualify himself for its di- 
j*ection. On lus return from the 
latter place, he brought with him 
JMr.Clerc, one of these unfortunate 
persons, educatedat that seminary, 
who is now associated with Mr. Gal- 
laudet as an instractor at this insti- 

7 



tution. Thereareaboutfiflydeaf& 
dumb persons at the Asylum, the 
greater number of whom are from 
without the State. 

Tuition, board and other ex- 
penses are established at |j200 
per annum. However highly we 
may value an institution calculated 
to draw aside the veil which has 
darkened the understanding of an 
unfortunate portion of the human 
race, it is however apparent, that 
under present circumstances it can 
be of no use to those, who, to the 
misfortune of being deaf and 
dumb, add also that of being poor* 

The Hartford Museum now in 
Main-street, nearly opposite the 
Episcopal Church, belonging to 
Mr. Steward, was fii^t opened in 
the State House in 1801 « It was 
then the only establishment of the 
kind in the state, excepting a few 
articles at Yale College. 

It was so far patronised by the 
State, that the Legislature permit- 
ed the proprietor tp occupy the 
two committee rooms in the State 
House, for the arrangement and 
exhibition of his Museum during 
the recess of the Assembly, and 
one room during their session. 
In 1808,* from the industry of its 
ingenious proprietor and the lib- 
erality of others, the collection 
had so far increased, that the apart- 
ments became crowded and incoa- 
venient, and the building which it 
now occupies being fitted up for 
the purpose, it was removed to its 
present situation. The room oc- 
cupied by the museum is about 
70 feet in length, and is neatly ar- 
ranged, and handsohiely filled with 
several thousand articles ; such as 
paintings, waxwork, natural and 
artificial curiosities. - 



VT" 



^' ^'•■-■■fT^*^ 



■Vt'UK. 



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io 



UARTPORa 



Straiij^ers and others, who visit 
the Hartford Museum, will find a 
gratification for their curiosity and 
taste. 

There are four News papers 
published in this city, one an im* 
penal and the other three a super- 
royal sheet. Although concerned 
in one of these establishments, we 
do not know precisely the number 
of papers which are published 
-weekly in the city, biit think it 
inust exceed six thousand* 

A social library was established 
in Hartford in 1796. tt contains 
at this time 2,550 volumes. 

/ Among the useful, charitable and 
friendly societies, are the follow- 
ing.— ^Hartford Agricultural Socie^ 
ty, (which however is a county in- 
9titution,)MechaLnic'8 Society,Free 
Mason's Society, Moral Society, 
Hartford Charitable Socie^f, Fe* 
male Benificent Society, Sunday 
School Society, Hartford Auxiliary 
Bible Society, Harmony Society^ 
Tract Society, & two Female Cent 
Societies. 

In the city of Hartford there are 
two incorporated banks; Hart- 
ford bank incorporated in 1793, 
having at this nme a capital of 
1,000,000 dollars. Phosnix bank 
incorporated in 1814, with a capi- 
]t^l of 1 ,000,000 dollars; it has a 
branch at Litchfield. 

Thfere is a Marine Insurance 
jCompany, incorporated in ]803,& 
a Fife Insurance Company, incor- 
porated 1 81 0. There are 5 fire En- 
gine Companies, well regulated 
and provided with engines and 
other means of effective operation; 
%nd the Union Company incorpo- 
r^tl^d in 1 800) for the pur- 
jfose of removing obstructions to 
the navigation of Cowecticut riv- 



er, from this city to the somidi 
This company has a capital of 
120,000 dollars. The improve- 
ment of the navigation of the riv- 
er, botji below and above this 
place, must be an object of prima** 
ry importance to the city of Hart- 
ford* 

The system of towing boats up 
Connecticut river, proposed by 
John L. Sullivan, Esq. by means 
of a steam engine, constructed up- 
on novel principles, has recently 
been submitted to the citiaens of 
this place; and it is understood, 
that it is contemplated to make an 
experiment of its practicability and 
usefiilness. Should this plan sac* 
ceed, (and from a cursory en^am^ 
ination of the engine^ it is not per- 
ceived why it may not,) it would 
give facility and extension to the 
navigation of the river, and event- 
ually contribute towards the growth 
and importance of the city. 

A more correct idea, perhaps, 
of the navigation of Hartford can- 
not be obtained, than what may be 
formed by referring to the amount 
of the tonnage owned here; which|' 
together with what is owned 
in Wethersfield and employed 
wholly in trade, that centres in 
Hartford, of actual and not of 
registered tonnage, amoui|ts to 
9,377 tons. 

During the year 1816, two hun- 
dred and seventy eight ships, brigs 
and schooners, and more than two 
hundred smaller vessels ascended 
Connecticut river to Hartibrd. 
The same year, there were 17,600 
tons of merchandisepassedthrcHigli 
the locks and canals at Hadley, 4Q 
miles up the river from this city; 
and it has been estimated that 5000 
tans more were carried on the riv- 




BIOGRAPHY. 



r>i 



mmmmmmmmmimmmm 



er south of that place. From these 
facts, in cwmection with the cir- 
cumstance that Hartford is situa-' 
ted at or near ,the head of ship 
navigation, upon one of the finest 
mers in &e world— that it has a 
Back country, hordering upon this 
fiver, of more thanSOO miles in 
extent, containing a dense and 
ffrriving population, the advanta"- 
ges of this city for business, and its 
commercial importance, can be 
determined. It is admitted that 
^est advantages have not been 
itoproved to thJe extent, nor produ- 
ced those results which might have 
been expected. There are many 
causes which have cheeked the 
growfeand importance of this city. 
The city is incorporated by the 
Rame of the ** Mayor, AHermen, 
Commoh Gouncil-men, and Free- 
itien of the City of Hartford^," #ho 
(W^sses^ the municipal authority 
ftereof. The Mayor is chosen 
dining the pleasure of the Legisla- 
tkife, and the AMermen&ComUnon 
cotittci^men for one year. The 
Mayor^ and two senior Aldermen, 
cfbti^ctitute the City Court, and hold 
^ session on the first Monday of 
ereiT month. 

HISTORY; Hartford, and the 
country on Connecticut river, was 
undoubtedly first discovered by the 
Dutch. Ja the year 1631, the 
En^ilBh colonies of Plymotith and 
MtEussschusejia^pbtaiped the first 
knowiedlge of it from an Iinlian 
sathem ; but it does not appear 
tliat thfey visited the country for 
tsto years; It is not known^ at how 
early a {)erfod the Dutch became 
ftcquainted with Connecticut river ; 
But it is crert^iirthat th^ erected a 
tra)d£ng hous'e, in 1 6'S3, at the point 
0f land formed by thcr conflu- 



ence of Mill, wifh Connecticut 
river, wliich still retaiils the nom^ 
of Dutch point. The first Eng- 
lish settlement iti this town* has 
been ascribed to Messrs. Hooker 
and Haynes, in 1636 ; bat there is 
the most satisfactoty evidence, that 
it was settled the year before, by 
John Steel, and his associates^ from 
Newtown, now Cambridge^ in 
Massachusetts. In April, 1636, a' 
General Court was held here, of 
which Steel was one of the princi- 
pal members : t^bereas Mr. Hook- 
er and Mr. Haynes did not arrive 
until Jtroe following. 

Hartford has occupied but little 
space in the page of history* It was 
never visited by a public ehetny ; &* 
although felv towns wewj more dis- 
tinginshed for their patriotism dur- 
ing the revolutionary struggle, or 
entered more ardently into th6 
'^spirit of the tim^s,'* it escaped^ 
the distresses of war, to which 
many others were exposed* It hai' 
become celebrated of late as bteing^ 
the place where a Convention of 
Delegates, from several of the 
New-England States, was helddur-. 
ing the late war with Great Britain. 
This Convention has been a sul^ect 
of much animadversion.' 

BIGGRAPAY. TheHon^/crc- 
miah Wiadstoorth^ distioguished for 
his public employments andser- 
vicefsduringth^ Revolutionary war; 
for the exaked public Stations' tb 
which he was aftervt^ards promoted ^i 
and more for his social virtues, his 
benevolence andphilanthropy, #asf 
anatave of thistowh. The design of 
this work precludies' the idea of 
lengthy biographiciail details. To- 
pography, of all the sciences, leads' 
to the most extensive atnd bur- 
d^mt^me pr<^li5iity, sind it would it 



52 



BIOGRAPHY- 



altogether inadmissible to encam- 
ber it with what properly belongs 
to another department of science, 
llie idea of coniprising biographi- 
cal notices in this work was to 
assign to each town, according as 
they arc entitled, the citizens of 
this State, who have been distin- 
guished for their talents, learning, 
virtues, or public employments, 
whether at home or abroad, and 
thereby to collect and register the 
same. The preservation of such 
biographical facts, as come witbin 
these views, or the design of this 
work, may be of more importance 
than a simple record of '^ departed 
worth. ", It may possibly^ in some 
instances, lead to more ample and 
satisfactory biographical publica- 
tions, calculated to do justice to 
the ^' virtuous dead ;" to exalt 
the repujtation of the State, which 
dependm, in & great measure, upon 
the number of its distinguished 
citizens, and to enlighten the path 
of posterity, by the experience 
and ' wisdom . of their ancestors. 
The public^^rvices of Jeremiah 
Wadsworth, in the momentous 
contest of the revolution^ are well 
known* They are identified with, 
and form a part of the annals of 
that period* He was employed 
as Commissary General neariy 
through the war. Th"^ servioe 
was arduous and difficult, and 
was performed wi& faithfulness, 
perseverance and abilifyr — ^with 
advantage to the public and to 
himself. After the close of the 
war. Col. Wadsworth jetired to his 
residence in this city, and during 
the remainder of his life, was pre- 
eminently useful to the place, and 
to his fellow-citizens. Having an 
ample capital/ and under the mb^- 



ence of an enlai^ed and liberal 
spirit of civil improvements, he 
exerted all his influence, and all 
his means, in promoting the inter- 
ests of his native town, and the 
prosperity and comforts of his 
fellow-citizens. This city is greatly 
indebted to him for many of its im^ 
provements, and measurably for 
tile rank and importance to which 
it has attained. But what is a 
more novel, and perhaps amore 
worthy trait in his character, is, 
that although blessed with opu- 
lence, and surrounded with splea- 
dour himself, he never forgot the 
poor and unfortunate-r-although 
exalted in society, he was never , 
too elevated to do good*. The 
victims of misfortune never ap^ 
proached his doors, withouthaving 
their wants measurably supplied. 
Col. Wadsworth was for several 
years a member of Congress, and 
subsequently, for a long time, a 
member of the Council, in this 
State. He was bom in 1743, &^- 
ed 30th April, }804, aged 6 1 years. 
The Hon* Chemncey Goodriehy 
distinguished as a lawyer, and for 
the many honorable offices to 
which he was promoted, was a 
native of Durham, but was limg 
a resident in this town* He was 
educated at Yale College, and 
became a Tutor at the same Insti- 
tution, having gone tikt-ough die 
regular course of studies with un- 
usual reputatfon* He resolved to 
enter into the pl*ofession of law ; 
for which purpose hewenttlurough 
the regular and usual course of 
study, required in this State. 
Having obtained admission to the 
bar, he removed to this city to 
establish himself in his profession. 
His talents were admirably calcu- 




B^OGRAPHY^ 



^3 



lated for forensic debate, and he 
soon became distinguished in his 
pi:ofessiony .and ulttmatelj at the 
head of it, in this county, if not in 
the State. The Buperibrity of 
his talents rendered him too con- 
spicuous to be nieglected in those 
appointments,, which dem^d ex- 
alted abilities* Accordiyogly, in 
1794, he was elected to represent 
this State, in the Congress of the 
United States, ■■ and continued in 
this situation fof several years. 
In 1807, he was elected a senator 
in the Senate of the United 3tates ; 
whilst in this situation, in ISl^, 
he was elected mayor of the city of 
Hartford, and the year after, at the 
annual election in April, of the 
supreme executive officers, he was 
chosen by the Freemen, Lieuten- 
ant-Qovemor of this State, an 
office which he did not live long 
^to enjoy. He was born in 1759, 
and died August, 1815$ aged 56 • 

J^aihan Strongs I>. D. a distin- 
guished clei^yman, was for 43 
years settled in the ministry,in the 
-first Society in this city. He 
wad a man of stroii^ natural 
talents, possessing great shrewd- 
ness and wit. He was in doctrinal 
points a Calvinist, and learned 
upon theological subjects, and well 
versed in general science. He 
was remarkable for fai$ sound com'^ 
mon seBse ; hisjknowle^e of the 
human character, and of common 
and practicitl subjects, and was a 
sound, able and orthodox preach*- 
er. Hedied Dec. 35tb 1816,^68. 

Epaphras W. JSiull^ £sq« distin- 
guished for his high promisie of 
talent, and for bis patriotic zeal for 
the principles of repnblican^m, 
was a natLve of *^is town. He 
was educated to the law, and com- 



menced his professional career 
with unusual brilliancy. He es- 
tablished himself at Danbury, 
where, at aA early age, he was 
elected a member of the General 
Assembly, which station he occa- 
sionally filled as long as he rer 
msuned in this Statef In this sit* 
uatipn he was distinguished for his 
z^»\^ and intrepidity in parlia- 
nn^ntary debate^ and displayed 
abilities which are scarcely to be 
found, but in those of riper years. 
Although he was a warm and ac- 
tive politiciai? and lived at a periv 
od of unusual party animo8ity> 
yet bis political opponents could 
not but admit his brilliant talents^ 
bis dignified and commanding elo. 
queoce, which, considering hi& 
early years, were to be regarded 
only as the dawn of his, meridian 
sun. He emigrated from Danbury, 
to a town of the same nan^, in the 
State of Ohio, situated upon Lake 
Erie ; the settlement of which, 
soon Ikftnr his arrival, in the fall of 
1812,<wa8 bjroken up by the gen- 
eral irruption of the Indians, which, 
upon that frontier, followed . the 
unfortunate and disgraceful capit* 
ulation of Gen. Hull, and the con- 
sequent occupation of Detroit, by 
the British. Upon the above, 
which occasioned ^ the abandon- 
n^entof this settlement, Mr. Bull, 
with others, retired to Cleaveland, 
where, soon, after, he closed lus 
earthly career, aged 34 years. 

Ih*. Lemuel Hopkins^ a celebra- 
ted physician and poet, was born 
in Waterbury, from whence he 
removed to this city, and resided 
he^e until his death* Dr. Hopkins 
was an original genius, possessing 
a vigorous niind, a bold imagina- 
tion, and cbaracteristically eccen» 



»'> 



54 



BIOGRAPHY, 



trie, in all his intellectual features ; I 
bold in his enquiries ; free from 
tile restraints of prejudice, or au- 
thority ; confident ir. his own opin- 
ions and views ; ingenious in com- 
municftting them, and severe and 
sarcastic in his wit. He was the 
projector of the Anarchiad, a work 
of considerable merit, and ha:d a 
principal share in writing it. Of 
this publication, the A nalectic Mag- 
azine gives the foHowing account. 
" It was a mock critical account 
pf a pretended anci^t epic poem, 
interspersed with a number of 
extracts from the supposed work. 
By a fable, contrived with some 
ingenuity, this poem is represented 
as having been known to the an- 
cients, and read and imitated by 
some of the most popular modem 
poets. By this supposition, the 
utmost Kcense of parody and 
imitation is obtained, and by the 
usual poetical machinery of epi- 
sodes, visions and prophecies, die 
acpne is shifted at pleasure, back- 
wards and forwards, from one 
country to another, from earth to 
heaven, and from ancient te mod- 
em times. This plan is filled up 
with great spirit ; the humorous is 
indeed better than the serious part, 
but both have n^rit, and some oiF 
the parodies are extremely happy. 
The political views of the authors 
were to support those designs 
which were then forming for an 
efficient federal constitution." 

The Anarchiad was published 
from time to time, as matter oe- 
cnrred, or could be conveniently 
supplied . It had an extensive cir- 
culation through the union, and' 
considerable influence upon the 
politieal opinions that were then 
forming, the public mind- being in 



a state of general eflFervescence. 
(Besides the part which he took ra 
this producti&n, Dr. Hopkins was' 
the author of numerous fugitive 
poetical pieces; some of whicli 
are of a peculiarly humorous and 
whimsicaf characfer, pair6cuterl;r 
the " hj(pocriteh hope^^^ aud his 
>* epitaph*^ upon the rictini of a. 
Cancer Quack. As a pfayskian^ 
the reputation of Dr. Hnrj^iis 
stood deservedly high, and he wa«f' 
characterized for the freedom atrd 
liberality of bis views, and hiff 
general philanthropy and benevo- 
lence. He died Hth April, 1 801, 
aged 50 years. 

Thomas Tlsdall^ Es^. a man of 
very unusual &: extr^idinary civit 
and private virtue^, aiid an ardent, 
faithful and zealous patriot, wa^* a 
natjve of Ireland, but residted in 
this town for forty year^g, prece- 
ding his death. He came into this 
town in or about the year l-^TS, . 
during the revolutionary war, hav- 
ing been a paymaster in the Brit- 
ish service ; but being a republician 
in sentiment, and considering the 
war on the part of Great Britain 
as unjust and oppressive, he left 
this situation, thereby throwing 
himself out of employment, and- 
the means of immediate subsis- 
tence, a sacrifice to his feelings 
and principles. When he came 
to tins town, he was a young man 
of about 21 or 22 yeam of age, 
and had no connections or acquain- 
tance here^-^without money, with- 
out friendiB ; in not only a strange^ 
but a foreign land ; having had 
but small advantages as to educa- 
tiion, and exposed to reproach 
from the illiberal prejudices against; 
his counttymen, he had no resoui^' 
ces but afim constitution, a sound 




BERLIN. 



55 



tfiini^ aod a consciausiiess of hb 
own worth. But these k*e80urces 
never failed him ; ttiey sustained 
bun not only at thid period of 
darkness and discourageinent, hut 
through a long Hie, and raised him 
to the rank of one of the most 
distinguished citizens of this town. 
Mr. Tisdall never attained to 
any distiiSLguished public employ- 
nient, but he was one of those few 
who can be conspicuous in a ^^ pri- 
vate station," and exalted in the 
humblest situation. He had a 
sound and discriminating mind, 
improved b^ reading, observation 
and experience ; and although 
not possessed of shining talents, 
jfew nave hail more good sense, or 
a juster view of life. He was re- 
markiable for his firmness, indepen- 
dence and freedom of thought : 
always claiming the right to judge 
for himself, disclaiming the author- 
' ity of precedent, and above the 
reach of prejudice. His princi- 
ples were interwoven in the tex- 
ture of the constitution of his mind, 
nndwereasunyielding^s adamant -, 
and his attachments, whether rela- 
ting to persons or subjects, were 
bounded upon principle, and as in- 
flexible and stable, as the founda- 
tion which supported them was 
firm and durable. He was, in the 
strictest sens^, an " honest man." 
No one ever made less use of 
artifice and dissimulation, to dis- 
guise his faults,' or gloss over his 
character. A consciousness of the 
rectitude of his life raised him far 
above the Jesuitical arts of hypocri* 



sy. He wished to appear precisely 
what he was, no more, nor no less ; 
neither would he give to others a 
character which he knew they 
did not possess. 

" He catdd not ficUttr ; 
^^ An honest mind und plain^ 
** He rmist speak truth*^^ 

He was remarkable for a system- 
atic industry and economy, and 
for the plainness and simplicity of 
his manners, and the precision, 
order and regularity, which char- 
acterized his whole life ; these 
causes, producing their necessary 
results, put him in the possession 
of a good estate. The leading 
trait in his character was prudence. 
This was perceivable in every 
action. His example as a citizen 
cannot be too highly appreciated, 
at an age when " the world is de- 
ceived with show and ornament." 
He was constitutionally an* ardent 
and zealous friend of civil liberty. 
A whig in the revolution, he was 
uniform and decided in his repub- 
lican principles^ which were of a 
character peculiarly rigid and aus- 
tere. The lively sense which he 
had of the injustice & oppression, of 
the government of his native coun- 
try, rendered him an enthusiastic 
admirer of the free institutions of 
the country of his adoption. We 
have had few of our native citizens 
more sincerely attached to the gov- 
ernment, the liberties, and the 
prosperity of the United States. 
He died 31st August, 1818, aged 
61 years. 



BERLIN. 



^BERLIN, a post town, is situa-' 
ted 1 pailcs south^w^st from IJart- 



ford, and 24 iniles north-east from 
New-Haven. It is bounded north 



S6 



BERLIN. 



by Farmington, east by Wethers- 
field and Middletown, south by 
Middletown and Meriden, and west 
. by Southington. 

The township contains aboat 
forty square miles, having an av- 
erage length of eight miles, and 
an average breadth of fivQ miles. 

Its suriace is uneven, being di- 
Versified with moderate hills and 
^ales ; the western border of the 
town is mountainous, extending 
Upon the range of mountains which 
commence in the vicinity of New- 
Haven, and extend through the 
State, into the interior of New- 
England. 

The geological structure of the 
town consists of ai^llaceous schis- 
tus or clay slate, and greenstone ; 
being a part of the extensive geo- 
logical district, upon the borders 
of Connecticut river, commencing 
at the narrows, below Middletown, 
(where* the range of granite of 
the eastern section of the State 
seems to terminate,) & extending to 
Northfield, in Massachusetts, This 
district consists principallv of the 
same rock, a clay slate, ot a prim- 
itive formation ; the range of 
mountain noticed above, and other 
eminences, are usually covered 
or capped with greenstone, forming 
mural precipices and bold ledges. 
The argillaceous schistus within 
this district consists of several 
varieties ; at some places it is fine 
grained, and forms a good free 
stone ; at others it is a coarse grain- 
ed conglomerate, or pudding stone ; 
but ih this town, in Hartford, 
and n^ore generallr within this 
range, it is a simple rock, being an 
indurated clav. Some minerals 
have bfeen found in this town ; 
aulphuriit of lead has been dis- 



covered in small quantities ; on 
the west branch of Mill river there 
are the remains of some pits, or 
excavations, which were made 
during the revolutionary war, for 
the discovery of metals. The 
rock is greenstone, and contains 
carbonate of lime; quartz, and small 
quantities of silver have been found. 
Iron pyrites is found in several 
places in scattered grains ; oxyd of 
copper, also, in small quantities. 
Coal* has been dug in the bed of 
Mill river, and on bo tif of its banks ; 
the rock at that place is green- 
stone, and the coal that has been 
discovered has been found in smaM 
shining plates, and is very com^ 
bustible and bituminous ; it has 
been obtained only in small quan- 
tities, but our correspondent thinlra 
that the examinations have hot 
been made in the right place, and 
that, possibly, beds of this valuable 
mineral may abound in the neigh*- 
bourhood of these discoveries. 

The soil is generally a gravelly 
loam, but in some parts of the town 
the ai^Uaceous earths predomi- 
nating, it is an aluminous or clayey 
loam. It is fertile and productive, 
affording excellent pasturage, and 
good crops of grain. There are 
numerous, large and beautiful or- 
chards in the town, many <^ choice 
and selected fruit. The making 
of cider is an important agricultu- 
ral interest, being alike a conven- 
ience, and a source of profit to the 
inhabitants. 

Beriin is celebriated for itrf 
manufactures and mechanic arts. 
The most important manufacture, 
is that of tin wate ; it was first in- 
troduced by Mr. Edward Patter- 
son, an Irishman, about the time 
of the Evolutionary war, which 




BERLIN. 



51 



e» 



9^tfmti 



was the first manufacture of tin 
in the State. For a consid- 
erable time, Mr. Patterson carried 
on the business alone, s^nd ped^lted 
his own ware in a basket ; but 
thevahie of the article becoming 
Icnown, others engaged in the bu- 
isiness*, and the ware was soon scat^ 
tered over tjie country. At first 
others, as well as Patterson, ped- 
dled it in baskets, carried by band, 
or on horses ; afterwards, two 
wheeled carts were introduced, 
but these, being found inadequate 
for long journies, were succeeded 
by one horse waggons, and those 
in some measure by very large 
carriages, with two and four hor- 
ses. The wares manufactured of 
tin were vended at first io New- 
England and New- York, grsidually 
extending to the southern States ; 
todnowtinpedlersmay be found 
from Quebec to New-Orleans, and 
from Nova-Scotia to the Missouri. 
For a number of years the business 
ttlK& qonfmed to Berlin ; but Wal- 
lingford, Cheshire, Southington, 
Merlden and Bristol have, for 
fiome time past, been its rivals. 
For several years it has been tlve 
practice of those engaged in the 
business to make the ware in the 
{summer months, in New-Ecigland, 
and in autiimn^ the ware, workmen 
4ind pcdlers are removed to the 
south, and there continue during 
the winter, engaged in vending 
and manufaetunng ; but some in^ 
dividuals have now permanently 
established themselves, south of 
the P<>tomac. Ip general, but 
small capitals are invested in the 
business, but some individuals have 
engaged m it very extensively, 
and have realized large fortunes ; 
tl^ti y have employed twenty hands, 

8 



and one person forty, in vending 

the wa^re. There are now five 

Tin Ware Factories, in Berlin; 

there are also one Cotton Factory ; 

lone Jewelery Factory ; one Brass 

I Foundery ; one Silver Plate Fac- 

itory; one Button Factory; and 

[two Pistol Factories. There are 

eight Grain Mills ; eleven Saw 

Mills ; one Plaster Mill ; three 

Fulling Mills ; 3 Carding Ma- 

ichines ; 12 Cider Distilleries ; six 

Tanneries; and five Mercqintile 

Stores. 

Berlin is divided into three loca^t 
ted or Ecclesiastical Societies } 
Kensington, New-Britain & Wor-*^ 
thington ; in the latter there is a 
pleasant and flourishing village, 
the principal street of which id 
the Hartford and New-Haven turn- 
pike road. There is also a turns' 
pilfe that passes through the town, 
leading frpm Middletown to Far- 
mington. The population of the 
town, in 1 8 1 0, was 2798 ; and there 
are now 500 qualified Electors, and 
400 dwelling houses. 

The amoupt of taxable polls 
and estate of the town is ^62^16U 

The valuation of the real estate^ 
in 1816, was ^1,187,873. 

The valti;»tion, in 1799, was 
^428,583. 

There are three Congregational 
Churches, and one Society of 
Baptists, and one of Elpiscopalians, 
14 Common Schools, two Social 
Libraries, five Clergymen, five 
Physicians, and two Attornies. 

Berlin was incorporated as a 
town in 1785^ It was previously 
the second Society pf F^rmington, 
by the name of Kenisi^gton* The 
Society was probably get off from 
Farmington about the year 1712 ; 
as the first minister, fiie^HeVf 9f f » 



J. .^ M ■V*'9l 



58 



BRISTOL. 



Burnham, was ordained the 10th 
of December of that year. A 
part of Wethersfield and Middle- 
town were joined to the Societj 
of Kensington, at its incorporation. 
This was the second Society, (East 
Windsor being the first,) that was 
set oflTfrom any town in the State. 
About this time the General As^ 
senobly passed a public law for 
making Societies, When Mr, 
Burnham was settled, there were 
but 14 families in the place, and 
the Church consisted of 10 mem- 
bers, seven males, and three fe- 
males ; previous to this period 
these families attended meeting at 
Farmington, and the women walk- 
ed from 1 to 1 2 miles, and carried 
their infants in their arms. Ken- 
sington was divided about the year 
1753, by the incorporation oi the 
Society of New-Britain ; and Dr. 
Smalley, the first Clergyman in this 
Society, was ordained in 1758. 
In 1 772, the Society of Kensing- 
ton was again divided by the for- 
mation of the Society of Worthing- 
ton ; its name being derived from 
one of the Committee who located 
the Society. 
BIOGRAPHY. U^OT Jonathan 



^r - » I. ..I ■■■■I.I I m T — — < II III ■ w T . —». 

Hart w^as a native of this town. H^ 
wa& a gallant &c distinguished offi* 
cer, & one of the victims of the un- 
fortunate defeat of Gen. St. Clair, 
Nov. 4th, 1 79 1 . His life, & those of 
his command, were literally offety 
ed a sacrifice for the safety of the 
rest of the army. Wh^n all were 
in confiision and dismay, Major 
Hart was ordered to chaise the 
enemy with the bayonet, with a 
view to facilitate a retreat, or 
rather a flight, tQ the shattered re- 
mains of the army. This charge 
was made with gallantry and spirit^ 
under circumstances which lan«* 
guage is too feeble to describe ; 
the desolation of tlie place; the 
confusion of the scene ; the whoopa 
and yells of a savage foe, flushed 
with victory, and thirsting for 
blood ; the general constematioa 
which prevailed, And the groans of 
the dyiug in every direction. 
But the intrepid Major, and almost 
every man of his party, were killed 
in the desperate enterprise, a|^ 
their bones were left to bleach up-' 
on the borders of the waters of the 
Wabash, the dreary abode vf wild 
beasts and ^' savage men more wild 
than they." 



BRISTOL. 



BRISTOL, a post town in the 
south west part of the county, 
16 miles from Hartford, and 28 
from New-Haven, bounded on the 
north by Burlington, on the east 
by Farmington, on the south by 
Southington and Wolcott, and on 
the west by Plymouth, in Litch- 
field county. The township i3 five 
& a half miles in length, from north 
to south, and five in breadth, from 
east to west, comprising an area 



of about 27 Eiquare miles. The 
surface is uneven and hilly, and 
the soil is a gravelly loam, and 
considerably fertile ; it produces 
all kinds of grain, grass and fruit, 
common to this region. Its foresta 
consist of oak, chesnut, and other 
deciduous trees, common to the 
county. The geological struc- 
ture of the town consists of granite 
and micaceous schistus. Iron 
and Copper ore have been disccfv- 




BRISTOL. 



sa 



ered, but have been neglected. 
The tbwn is watered by the north 
and south branches of the Poqua-: 
back, a small stream which dischar- 
ges its waters into the Farmington 
or Tunxis river* 

The turnpike road^ leading from 
Hartford to Danbury, passes thro' 
this town. 

If discriminatibns9re to be made, 
where the general characteristics 
at the inhabitants are marked 
with so much uniformity, as is tihe 
case itK this State, those of Bristol 
deserve to be noticed for their en- 
terprise and industry. It has been 
estimated that one half of the in- 
habitants of the town are engaged 
in Manufacturing and mechanical 
employments &rA pursuits.^ The 
manuftictures and mechanical in- 
terests of the town are various ; 
but those of clocks and tin ware 
are mostitnportaiit. There is one 
dock manufac^tory or establish- 
ihent, which is- confined exclusive- 
ly to the manufacture of brass 
clocks } this concern for the size 
of the town is jan extensive one ; 
tfiere beingabout 3000 clocks man- 
ufactured annually. In addition 
to this establishment, there are a 
number of factories for the making 
of wooden clocks, which altogeth- 
er manufacture, annually, lai^e 
quantities of clocks of this descrip- 
tion. These clocks, both of 
wood and brass, are almost all sent 
abroad for a matket, and princi- 
pally to the southern and western 
States. This requires the employ- 



ment of a great number of persons^ 
and opens a wide and extended 
field for enterprise. There are 
five tin ware factories which annu- 
ally manufacture large quantities 
of various kinds of wares ; these 
likewise sent abroad for a 



arc 

market, and a multitude of persons 
are required to vend them. There 
are also two button factories in 
this town. From the tendency of 
.these manufacturing and mechani- 
cal interests and pursuits, a con- 
siderable portion of the young men 
of the town aire employed abroad. 
In addition to the manufactures of 
clocks, tin ware and buttons, there 
is oi^e Woolen Factory, one Cotton 
Factory, eight Grain and Saw 
Mills, two Carding Machines, eight 
Distilleries for Cider, and six Tan- 
neries ; there are three Mercan- 
tile Stores. 

The town contains one located 
Congregational Society, & Churchy 
& one society of Baptists, which also 
has a house for public worship; 
nine School Districts, and com- 
mon Schools, one smalF Academy 
for Misses, three Social Libraries, 
two Clergymen, and two Physi- 
cians. The population of the 
town, in 1 8 10, was 1423, and there 
are 238 Dwelling-House^, 335 
Electors, and 115 Militia. The 
amount of taxable property, inclu- 
ding polls, is ^23,431 . Bristol was 
formerly a part of Farmington, and 
was incorporated as an indepen- 
dent Society in 1 747; and as a town 
in May, 1 785. 



BURLINGTON. 



BURLINGTON, a post town, 
is situated on the western border 
of the county, seventeen miles 



west from Hartford. It is boun- 
ded on the north by New-Hartford 
and Canton, on the east by Far- 



c 



u 



CANTON. 



■ 1^. — ♦■^*-^^f 



iiM 



' fiitnri 



I »n i n w l i Hi fi 



mm^ 



IMggMni^ 



tnington, south by Bristol, and ou 
the west by Harwinton. It is 
iabout six miles in length, from 
north to south, and five in breadth 
from east to west, comprising an 
area of thirty squs^re miles. The 
township is diversified with hills 
and dales, and the soil is a gravelly 
loam^ being dry and hard. This 
town lies .Within the grSinite region, 
in the Western part of the State, 
comprising the whole of Litchfield 
county^ ex<iepting a few townships 
iipon the borders of the State of 
New- York, which constitute the 
calcarious district of Connecticut. 
The lands produce grain, particu- 
larly rye and oats, and are tolera- 
bly well adapted to orcharding, 
and some parts afford good grazing. 
The Farmington, or Tunxis 
river, waters the northeastern sec- 
tion of the town, and some branch- 
es of the Poqildback run through 
its centre. The town is accom- 
modated with the Farmington and 
Litchfield turnpike, and with one 
leading to Middletown, thi*ough 
Berlin* The inhabitants, who 
have ^ conspicuous equality in 
their circumstances, are principal- 
ly engaged in agriculture, except 
the attention which is paid to do- 
tpes tic manufactures* There are, 



however, two small Woolen Fac-^ 
tories, one Tin Ware Factory, threo 
Distilleries, two Tanneries, two 
Grain Mills, three Fulling Mills,* 
three Cardiny; Machines, and one 
Oil Mill. There are two Mer- 
cantile Stores in the town, and a 
number of mechanic's shops enga- 
ged in Waii^gon and chaise making ; 
three or four of Which carry on 
the business largely, and send 
their work abfOad for niarket* 

The population of Burlington, 
in IS 10, WJis 14Sli atlid there are 
now 220 Freemen or Electors, two 
compdnies of thilitia, and 230 
dWelling-houses. The toirn con- 
tains one located Congregational < 
Society arid Church, one Society 
of Methodists, also One of Seventh 
Day Baptists. It is divided into 
eight School Districts ; in each of 
which ^ school is maintained for 
sevei*al months in the yeaJr. 

There are two small Social Li- 
braries, three Phvsicians, and one 
Clei^yman. 

The general list of the town, in- 
cluding polls, is i^25,645. 

Burlington originally belonged 
to Farmington, and more recently 
to Bristol, and was incorporated 
as a town in 1806* 



CANTON. 



CANf ON^ A post tdwn in th. 
Western part bf the county, being: 
13 miles northwesterly from 
Hartford) is bounded east on 
Simsbury, south on Farmington 
iand Buriington, west on New- 
Hartford and Barkhamstead, and 
horth on Granby. The township 
is abont eight miles jn length, 
north and south, and near four 



miles in breadth, comprising 19,j 
200 acres. It is Considerably 
broken, being hilly and mountain- 
ous. One of the mountainous ranges 
commencing in the vicinity of 
New-Haven, ncjlr the soUnd, and 
extending far into the interior of 
New-England, runs through this 
town ; the mountain here is 
considerably elevated. The rocks 



^ 



EAST-HARTFORJ). 



6i 



^ 



anOflBRiSBB! 

at-e priucipally granitic. The 
prevailiag character of the soil is 
a coarse grav<il, which is hard, dry 
and stoaey. Its natural growth 
is principally oak, and when culti- 
vated it is best adapted to grazing. 
Rye, corn, oats, and flax are prin- 
cipally raised. The lands are 
well adapted to orcharding, and 
^Qsiderable attention has been 
paid to the siibjec^j so that cider 
has become one of the most im- 
portatit agricultural interests of the 
town. Farmington river runs thro^ 
Canton, moving rapidly along at 
the foot of the mountain ; there is 
one brieve thrown across it. In 
the southern extremity of the town 
there is a lar^e pond, called Cher- 
ey's Pond } part of Which is within 
the town of Farmington. 

STATISTICS. At the last cen- 
sus Canton contained 1 374 inhabi- 
tants. There are in the town more 
than 200 dwelling houses ; a num- 
ber of which are upon the principal 
street, being the Albany turnpike 



mti 



m 



iH* 



which runs through fhe town, and 
form a small village. There are 
three houses for public worship, 
one for Congregationalists, one for 
Baptists, and one for Separates or 
Independents. There are seven 
district Schools, one company of 
infantry, part of a company of 
Artillerists, and about 180 Elec- 
tors* There are three mercantile 
Stores, eight Distilleries, three 
Tanneries, three Grain Mills, four 
Saw Mills, two Fulling Mills, one 
Powder Mill, and one Tin Factory. 
There are several Wheel Wrights, 
Smiths, and other mechanics 
the town, three Physicians 



m 



and two Clergymen. The hst of 
the taxable property and polls of 
the town, in 1817, was ^27,540. 

Canton was first settled in 1 740, 
and was incprporated as a town 
in 1806,- having, until then, been 
a part of Simsbuiry and New-Hart- 
ford, being the west section of the 
former, and the eastern of the 
latter. 



EAST-HARTFORD. 



fcAST-HARTFORD, a post 
tofpru of Hartford county, is 
pleasantly situated on the east 
side of Connecticut river, boun- 
ded north on East- Windsor, east 
on Bolton, south on Glastenbury, 
west on Connecticut river, which 
sepai'ates it from the city and; 
town of Hartford, and is about ten 
tDiJes in length, from east to west, 
and. five and three-fourths of a 
mile in widtli, from north to south, 
containing about 36,000 acres of 
land. 

The principal street in this 
town is about three-fourths of a 



jmile from the river, and is thickly 
settled, from Glastenbury to East-* 
Windsor. In the centre of this 
street is a beautiful and stately 
row of elms extending from the 
meeting-house, two miles north- 
westwardly, which, with a variety 
of other shade trees on its borders, 
renders this one of the most beau- 
tiful and pleasant situations in 
Connecticut. 

About two miles from its east- 
em bounds, the Hockanum river 
enters the town from the north- 
east, and winds its course south- 
westeriy> through nearly ttie cea» 



T" 1 



es 



EAST-HARTFORD. 



tre of the town, passes a few rods; . meadows, containing sonie of the 



,. 



from the meeting-house, and uni- 
tes wHh the Connecticut, about a 
mile below the Hartford ferry. 
On the Hockanum, and the vari- 
ous smaller streams which flow into 
it, are numerous valuable mill 
seats, that give facility to manu 
facturing operations, which are 
here carried on to a very consider- 
able extent. Over this river are 
six bridges, from fifty to sixty feet 
each in length ; several other 
smaller streams take their rise in 
the eastern part of the town, & run 
westerly into Connecticut river. 

In this town ate seven Paper 
Mills, which arc kept constantly 
running through the year ; several 
of them have two engines each, 
and a double set of workmen 
are employed ; also, there are 
eight or ten Powder Mills, in which 
great quantities of powder are 
manufactured yearly ; two Cotton 
Factories, oiie Woolen Factory, 
two Glass Works, where vast 
quantities of bottles are made, and 
sent into various parts of the coun- 
try for sale. A Hat Factory is 
here carried oh, where the princi- 
pal part of the labour is performed 
by machinery moved by water — 
for which the proprietors have a 
patent right. An abundance of 
low-prized hats are made, and 
sent to to the southern mark- 
ets ; here also are several Tanne- 
ries, Clothier's Works, Hatteries, 
four Carding Machines, six or eight 
Grist Mills— in one of which are 
four run of stones, several Saw 
Mills, and various other mechani- 
cal establishments and employ- 
ments. 

Adjoining Connecticut river in 
tlws towii, is an extensive range of 



best lands in New-England. In 
the spring season, these meadows 
are annually overflowed by. the 
freshets of the river, which rea- 
ders them very productive in grass ^ 
and pasturage, for which th^y are 
j principally improved. An exteo- 
> sive range of bridging and cause- 
way, connected with the elegant 
bridge over Connecticut river, ex- 
tends in a straight line across these 
meadows, to the main street in 
East-Hartford, opening a beautiful 
avenue into the city, and when 
completed and ornamented with 
shade trees, will form ^ delightful; 
walk of a mile in extent. 

Passing out of these meadows, 
you rise from fifteen to twenty 
feet into a level plain coimttyit 
which extends across the whole 
width of the town ; nearly thifee 
miles to the eastward, there isaii-. 
other considerable ri§e 5 from 
thence to Bolton, the surface is 
somewhat broken and hilly ; ber; 
tween the meadows and the maifir» 
street, the soil, in general, is loam, 
mixed with sand, which, with th^. 
aid of manure, is abundantly pro- 
ductive ; from thence to the next 
rise, eastward, the soil is sontewllat 
light and sandy, but produces 
excellent rye and Indian conv« 
The eastern part of the town is a 
mixed soil of sand-loam and gravel, 
and has, within tlie last twenty- 
five years, been much enriched 
and iiifiproved by the use of plaster 
of Paris, which renders it very 
productive. 

The land in this town beings 
generally dry, and otherwise wefi 
adapted, produces the finest rye in 
the world. There are some valu- 
able meadow lands, bordering upon 




EAST-HARTFORD. 



S$ 



of tnis last article, imnieiise quan* 
titles are raised ou tbeiightest sao- 
dy land, by the aid of stable and 
hogspen manure ; it is Dot uncom- 
mon to see many acre? of these ia 
the same field, and in their season, 
many waggon aad cart loads are 
carried to market daily* 

Two great stage roads, both of 
which are turnpikes, lead thro^ 
this town from Hartford to Boston. 
One of these is by the way of Tol- 
land, Stafford and Worcester ; 
the other, called the middle road* 
leads through Ashford, Thompson 
and Dedham« Several turnpike 
roads, leading from the State of 
Rhode-Island and the eastern • 
part of Connecticut, are concen- 
trated in the middle road, and the 
travel is principally through tiaia 
town. The turnpike road from 
Hartford to New-Londpn passes 
through this town ; ^tages daily 
run on each of these roads ; an« 
other stage runs northerly to. Wal- 
pole ; another passes by the way 
of Lebanon to INTorwich. 

The number of inhabitants io 
thisiown was, by the last census, 
32^; since whi(^ their numbers 
have probably increased. The 
number of dwelling-houses is about 
480; the number of qualified Free- 
men about 500 ; the amount of 
taxable property, including polls, 
inI817,was|j66,236. 

Previous to the late orgai^izatioa 
of the militia, there were four 
companies of Infantiy, and one 
company of Artillery in this town ; 
the Infantry are now reduced to 
two companies, which, with the 
Artillery, contain nearly 300 men, 
subject to do military duty. 

This town being situated io the 
vicioity of Hartford, is not a place of. 



sas 



the Hockanum river, in the eastern 
part of the town. 

About three miles eastward of 
the river is a ledge of red sand 
stone, or friable clay slate, which 
ettends through the town; the 
stone generally lies under the sur- 
face of the ground, Imd quarries 
have been opened and worked 
in various places, and great quan- 
tities of fine stone for building and 
other uses procured. These stones, 
being of a soft texture, are easily 
shaped, and when made smooth 
with the chisel, make beautiful 
underpinning, hearth, and step- 
stones. A similar kind of stone 
is found in other parts of the town. 
Within these masses of rock, are 
frequently found white and yellow 
flint stones, or quartz, embedded, 
from the size of a pebble to that of 
a goose egg. j 

The growth of timber, in most 
parts of this town, when it was 
originally settled, is said to have 
been principally white and yellow 
pine. This has long since been 
nearly all destroyed ; the present 
natural growth of forest trees con- 
sists of black, white, red and yel- 
low oak ; chesnut, walnut, white 
ihaple, buttenwood, elm, yellow 
and white pine, and various other 
kinds common to this pari; of the 
country. It has been observed that 
in those parts of the town, where 
cattle are restrained from going at 
large, a luxuriant growth of young; 
timber is growingup ; among which 
is an unusual proportion of pines. 

The meadows produce abun- 
dance of hay and pasturage ; on 
the uplands are raised large quan- 
tities of rye, Indian corn, some 
wlieat, oats, buckwheat, fiax,peas, 
beans, tobacco an|f water meloRs : j 



- — '- — I' 



-'H-Tf- 



04 



' EAST-HARTPORD, 



mm 



mm 



much mercantile business; there 
are, however, nearly twenty Heen- 
ged retailers, who deal principally 
in groceries; among these qre five 
dry good stores. But little naviga- 
tion business is carried on, though 
Ibere are several masters of ves- 
sels and other seafaring men beion- 
ginp to the town. 

Tbb charactCir of the people 
in this town doeAiot distinguish 
tiiem from tiiose of other river 
towns, being principally farmers, 
mechanics and tradesmen ; they 
are a plain, economical, industri- 
ous people, generally well educa- 
ted, and well bred ; there are few 
of them possessing great wealth, 
bat many have handsome estates, 
and the greater proportion possess 
that salutary competence, which 
is the happiest condition of society ; 
avoiding, on tl^ie one hand, the dis- 
tress, misery and crimes incident 
to a state of poverty and want ; 
and on the other the extravagance, 
the fooleries, the dissipation, 
and the whole train of fa!>hionable 
vices and disorders, which are the 
D^&pring of wealth. ^ 

The town i« ^vided into ^ir- 
teen school districts; in each of 
which is a school hou;se, wherein 
a common school si maintained 
for eight or nine months in a year: 
6ome of which% in the winter sea- 
son, are attended by from fifty to 
eighty scholars. 

There arc two located Congre- 
gational Societies in the to^n; also 
ii small Society of Methodists, and 
another of Baptists ; each of which 
has a house for public worship* In 
€acb of the located Societies, 
there is a Social Library, contain- 
ing several hundred volunties of 
well selected books. The profes- 



sional men are two Congregational 
Clergymen, four Physicians, and 
one Attorney. 

This town formerly composed 
a part of the ancient town of 
Hartford, and was incorporated 
with town privileges in 1784. 
The fertility and feasibility of iU 
meadows, alTording an easy culti- 
vation of Indian com, together 
with th^ multitude of fish, with 
wliich the rivers and small streams 
in this vicinity were abundantly 
stored, rendered this a favorite 
residence for the native Indians^. 

The Podank tribe, which dwettv. 
in this, and the adjoining town of 
East-Windsor, were a ferocious 
and warlike people ; at the head 
of whom was Totanimo, a subtle 
and treacherous Chief, of no ordi- 
nary talents, who commanded 200 
warriors, having no other InstrUii 
ments of hostility, than the bow 
and arrow ; the letter being barb'" 
ed or pointed with a sharp flint 
stone. This tribe, petceiviag ^b 
consequences of the English set- 
tling among them, and not being 
willing to be dispossessed of their 
lands, were, for many years, very 
troublesome to the first settlers in 
these parts. Few if any traces 
of the customs, manners, or char-? 
acter of this tribe, now remain^ ex- 
cept what may be found in records 
of the colony, from its first settle- 
ment, until abcmt the year 1670, a 
period of about thiirty-folir years. 
The Poduhk tribe of Indians has 
long been extinct. 

BIOGRAPHY, TbeHon. mi^ 
liam Pitkin^ formerly Governor of 
the colony, was a i»ti Ve of this towti, 
and lived here. -Sevcaul of his de- 
scendants were also men \of con<- 
sidei^ble emineihle in their dav, 




EAST-WINDSPR. 



B5 



mm 



The Rev. Eliphalet Williams D. 
D.. was for more than fifty years a 
settled minister in this town; he, 



was highly distinguished as a 
man of science, a preacher and 
divine. 



EAST-WINDSOR. 



EAST-WINDSOR is a large 
and flourishing town, situated on 
tte east side of Connecticut river ; 
the post-office in the first society 
being 8 miles north from Hartford. 

The area of the town comprises 
about 4a square miles, or 30,728 
acres ; being about nine miles in 
length, and having an average 
breaddh of five and a half miles. 

It is bounded on the north by 
Enfield, on the east by Ellington 
and Vernon, in Tolland county, on 
the south by East- Hartford, and 
on the west by Connecticut river, 
ifrbich separates it from Windsor 
and Hartford. 

The town is generally level, al* 
though some parts of it are waving 
and hilly ; but the eminences have 
but a moderate elevation. The 
soil is various ; in the western part 
of the town, tticreare some small 
sections oi siliceous sand, and ex*- 
tensive tracts (mT sandy loam, which 
k light, warm and fertile ; in the 
eastern part, a rich, gravelly loam 
generally^prevails; and upon the 
borders of Connecticut river, there 
is an extensive body of alluvial, 
remarkably fertile, and having a 
situation peculiariy charming and 
beautiful. These natural mead<^ 
ows coQciprise more than SCXK) 
acres of the choicest, land. It 
produces excellent grass for pas- 
turage and mowings and carries 
the lai^est crops .of Indian Com. 
The eastern and northern sections 
of the tower are best adapted to 
rye, which is cult%ated with facil- 

9 
1^ 



ity , and i n great abundance* Rye 
is the staple agricultural produc- 
tion of the town, it having been 
computed that 70,000 bushels have 
been raised in <Ae season. There 
is probably no town in the State 
that produces an equal quantity of 
rye, with that which is raised in 
East- Windsor. There is no waste 
land, worthy of notice, in the 
town ; and the printipal part oi 
the township is fertile, and well 
adapted to a grain culture; and 
the inhabitants have not been neg- 
lectful of its natural advantages^ 
and the resources of the soil. 
Back from the river there are nu- 
merous forests, and extensive tracts 
of wood land ; some of them heav« 
ily timbered, consisting principally 
of oak. Among other agricultural 
interests, the cultivation of tobac-* 
CO receives considerable attention ; 
large quantities of it being raised 



ai^< 



Uy ; some of which is manu* 
factured in the town, and the rest 
sent abroad for a market* 

The Scantic is the principal 
river in East^ Windsor ; it waters 
its northern section, and the Po- 
dunk, a small stream, runs through 
the south part of the town. 

Upon Connecticut river there 
are several shad and herring fish, 
enes. 

The distillation of spiritous 11* 
quors, from grain, is an important, 
business in this town. There arf^ 
six Gan Distilleries in the town; 
four of which are upon an exten- 
sive scale, and continue the fou^i^- 



ed 



EAST- WINDSOR.^ 



iism 



ness without interruption tlirough- 
out the year. Several of the hrg- 
est of these estaiblishments are situ- 
ated at Warehouse Point, a flour- 
ishing village in the north part of 
the town. These establishments 
are extensively known, and the gin 
which they manufacture is consid- 
ered of the flrst quality in market. 
There is probably no town in the 
United States wliifcre there is as 
g^eat a quantity of spirit made 
from grain as in East-Windsor. 
The following abstract of duties 
paid to the colkctor-of the district, 
tinder the laws of the United 
States, during the year 1816, will 
afford some evidence of the extent 
of this manu&cture. The several 
Pistitteries in this town/ in that 
year, as appears by the statement 
i^blished by the Colkctor of the 
District, paid duties to the amount 
of f 23,9 13. 

The civil divisions of East- 
Windsor a? e two located or Eccle- 
siastical Societies, and nineteen 
School Districts. 

In the first or south Society, the 
principal street, which is the public 
river road, has a pleasant ^mid 
prospective situation, and contains 
one Congregational Church, one 
Academy and Post-Office, and 
many handsome, and some elegant 
DwelK»g* Bouses. 

ki the north Ecclesiastical Soci^ 
ety is the pleasant and flourishing 
village of Ware-House Point, sit- 
uated upon the east bank of the 
Connecticut, 1 3 miles above Hart- 
ford, at the head (^ sloop naviga- 
.tion. The village cotttaias one 
Episcopal Church, a Post-Office, 
four lai^e Gin IKstilleries, one of 
which is probably the largest in the 
United States, and 40 Dwellittg- 



Houses. This village has a pleas- 
ant and hcalthftit situation, and is 
not an ineligible site for a c6m^ 
mercial town^ having an extensive 
and fertile country around it. If 
aided by some improvements iii 
the navigation of the river, it 
could not fail of becoming a {^ace 
of mercantile business and^ import 
tance, and it cannot be doabted 
that its natural advantages will be 
duly appreciated aiid improved^ 

The popula^ort 4>f East-Wind^ 
sor, in 1810, was 3081. There 
are now about 400 Freemen, or 
qualified Electors, five Ccniipanies 
of Militia, and about 500 Dwelfing 
Houses*. 

Thene are nine Mercantile 
Stores, six Grain Milk, one Segar 
Manufactory, on an extensive scaler 
one extensive and elegant Etigm* 
ving Establishment, fiveSaw^Miik, 
one Poftery of Eartihem Ware, 
two Fulling Mills, and two Caard*^ 
ing Machines. 

There are three Churches for 
Congregationalists, and one for 
Episcopalians, two Academies, 19 
District Schools, two Public Libra* 
ries, afkl several good private Li- 
braries, one of near ^00 vohm^es^ 
three Clei^ymen, five pracHsing 
Physickns, and two practising 
Attornies. 

The amount of the ta^^able polls 
and estate of the toivn,is^7€,638; 
the a^sessmenl of the: United 
States in 1 81 6^ was ^1 ,482,039 &^ ; 
the assessment of 1799, was 
J^6d9,420 90. 

A few famifies settled oa the 
east side of the river at BieselPfi 
ferry, about the timef of thc> fiist 
settliement in Windsor, in 16^; 
and a nf)Ore rapid asd general set- 
tlement upon thfe east side of the 



>^ 



EfifFIELP. 



67 



river was begun about 1677. . The 
first Churcbwa^orgauized, a Meet- 
iog^Uai^e erected, and a minister 
settled about the year 1 695. Eastr 
Windsor was incorporated, as a 
town>in 176d» The Podunk tribe 
of Indians udiabitedtho borders of 
the ConneGtiinitand Scantic rivers 
witibia this tow^7 of whom the soil 
wasptiircliased bjrtbefiist settlers* 
BIOGRAPHY. Gov. £oger 
H^a/c&ll was a natiV'C of this town. 
He received oo advantagies of an 
ear}}^ education, leaving bNeen bred 
^ weay^fbutffQm the force of na- 
ti ve genius, and strong natural en- 
dowments, he became a maaof 
considerable science, and of great 
aud useful talents* He took an 
active part ia fitting out the famous 
Louisbui^h expedition in 1745, 
and was the second in command. 
His eldest son, Roger W^catty w^s 
a lawyer j and became a judgeof tlie 
3u^riar Coi^rt, and died in that 
office in the prime of life* 



m 



■B 



He has been railed the greatest 
man of the Wolcott family. Era" 
tusy another son of Boger, altho' 
a plain man, and a labouring far- 
mer, and with inconsiderable ad- 
vantages as to education, acquired 
great iofiuence in public affairs, 
and was distinguished for his tal- 
ents, having become a judge of the 
Superior. Court, although never 
bred to the law. 

Timothy Edwards^ the firstmin- 
isterin the town, was distinguished 
la liis time; he iras in the ministry 
62 years. His only son, Jonathan 
Edwards^ became celebrated as a 
divine ; he was a man of distiguish* 
ed genius, having an acute and 
metaphpical mind. 

William Wolcott^ of this tows^ 
was a man of strong natural talents. 
He was a judge oftheCoun ty Court 
for 30 years, and was distinguished 
for uniting inflexible integrity with 
amiable manners. 



ENFIELD. 



ENFIELD, a po&t town, is situ- 
ated in the nortliea9t corner of the 
OQUQty, on rdie east side of Con- 
necticut river; being 16 miles 
from Hartford, and 5Q from New- 
Haven. It is bounded on the nortli 
by Loi^*Meadow, in Massachu- 
setts, cast by Somers, in Tolland 
county^ ^outii by East-'Win^or, 
and west by Connecticut river, 
which separates it from SufBeld. 

It is nearly six miles in leiigth 
from north to^&Quth, and five and 
a half in breadth, from east to west, 
comprising about 33 square mi)e$ 
or 21,1^ acres. The tQwnshi] 
is^enccally of a level surface, ex* 



cepting the borders of the Connecti- 
cut, which are elevated and roman^ 
tic. The soil is a Ught, sandy loam, 
ve^ feasible and generally fertile ; 
there are some small sections of 
pine plains, and some tracts of 
clay or argillaceous loam. The 
natural growtli of the forests is 
Walnut, Oak, of the various kinds^ 
Maple, Elm, Chesnut, Butternut, 
various shrubs, and on the plains, 
yellow pine; there are a consider- 
able number of forests in the town, 
and some good timber. 

The agricultural productions 
are principally grain ; rye and 
joats receive the most attention 



wm 



^•ir 



-y-rx-. - . - 



6S 



ENFIELD- 



there is, however, some wheat | 
growed, and Indian corn is raised 
to a considerable extent* From 
the light, dry and feasible quality 
of the soil, rye is cultivs^ted witili 
great facility, and with much suc« 
eess. Some sections of the town, 
particularly on the borders of 
Connecticut river, afford good 
lands for grazing and the culture of 
grass. 

Besides Connecticut river, which 
bounds the western border of the 
towiiyScantic runs through its south 
eastern section, affording many 
excellent sites for hydraulic woii^s, 
and extensive alluvial tracts, 
which are very fertile. A firm 
arid convenient bridge connects 
this town with Sufiicld. It w^s 
erected in 1808, and is supported 
by six stone piers, resting upon a 
rock which constitutes the bed of 
the river, being 1 000 feet in length, 
ajid 30 in breadth. The river 
here has very elevated and bold 
banks of solid rock, which, ou the 
west side, requires a descent to 
enter upon the bridge* It is an 
admirable sitefor abridge, uniting, 
with a safe and secure situation, 
shallow water, rocky bottom, and 
a facility of obtaining stone for 
the piers, so that the whole ex- 
pense did not exceed |sS26,Q00. It is 
the first bridge that was erected a- 
eross Connecticut river in this state. 

STATISTICS. Enfield, in 1810, 
contained 1846 inhabitants. There 
are now 274 Dwelling-Houses, a 
large proportion of which are 
substantial, well built houses, situ^ 
ated upon the principal street, run- 
ning through the to>v^n parallel with 
the river; it has an elevated, pros- 
pective and pleasant situation* 
TJiere are 225 Freemen or Elec- 



tors, and two Companies of Militia » 
The list of the town, in 1817, was 
$42,576. The United States val- 
uation, or assessment of the lands 
and buildings of the town, in 1 S16^> 
was ^[603,96-1 87« There are six 
Mercantile Stores, one Druggist 
Store, five Tavenw, five Grain 
Mills, two FuUing^Milk, two Card-' 
ing Machines, one Powder Mill, 
one Forge, three Tanneries, and 
five Distilleries ; tkreie of which 
are upqn aJai^e scale, msui patd> 
duties under the laws of the Uni« 
ted States, in the year 181fi^ to &e 
amount of $10,025 17. 

The plough making busiuHesais 
prosecuted m Enfield to a great 
extent. In additidn to aupplytng 
the demand at home, and fnpim the 
neighboring tOwiis,twei^ty thousand 
dollars worth of the arrticle are an^ 
nually sent to the southern States. 

There are two Cliergymen, two 
Physicians, and tl^ee Attomies^ 
The town comprises but one Ec- 
clesiastical Society, has eleven 
School Districts, in which schools 
are regularly maintained^ and one 
small Social Library^ There are 
three Churches, one for Congrega- 
tionalists, one for Baptists, and one 
for a sociesty of" Believew," com- 
monly called <SAa&eir5« ~ 

The singu^r and oxtraerdinar^ 
character of this people will justi^ ' 
a succinct history of tiieir («*igin 
and progress; more espacially as 
it is believed liuit an impartiai hc^ 
count of them has never yet been ^ 
published. 

In, the year 1 706, some fanatics 
from Fjramce, calling themselves 
"propbeta,'^ visited London, and 
soon obtained followers there^ and 
in other places, which they visited 
in England. . Among others who 




EKFIELD. 



69 



SB 



W^SimSSH 



m 



received the ^^ testimony" of the 
Fr^ich prophets, as they were 
called, in England, was James 
Wardity^ a taylar^ and Jane^ his 
wife, of Bolton, in the county of 
Lanisaster, who belonged to 
the society of Quakers. But the 
'*new light^^' wHcfethey considered 
thatr they had received from their 
conversion to the doctrines of a 
new sect, soon indubed them to 
separate^ theixmelveB from t^t 
commin^y. Iiaviiig,ia8 they rep* 
resented, and probably believed, 
had their minds enlightened by a 
special revelation, they proclaimed 
aknevaledge andahelief of Christ^ s 
second appemnnce, which they af* 
jvrmed Vin>s at hand. Undet* the 
infinence of the wildest fenaticism, 
Wardiey continued to open his 
new testimony, and sowed the 
seeds of the Shaker Church. A- 
nioi^ others who received the tes- 
timony, a$( it was called, was Ann 
Lbe, of Manchestar. ^ She joined 
the . Society of ■< Shi$kersj for they 
h^aidqnired thisname at this time, 
in.&eyear I74i8. For the first 
ten oTi twelve years, jinn was not 
particularly distinguished from the 
o&er'members>of the Sociely ; but 
in. the year 1770, after long and 
continued watehings, fastings, and 
cnes tb Goii, she declared that she 
haid received timt manifestation 
from him, whereby she i^as ena- 
bled to discover the real nature of 
the first transgres^on of the first 
man and the first woman, which 
she regarded as the root and source 
of human depravity & wickedness. 
She bom testimony against all sin, 
add regarded herself as perfecfly 
holy, whence she was called the 
holy mother^ it being considered 
by all " beKevers" that CAW^had 



made his second appearance in the 
person of Ann Lee. The reli- 
gious doctrines and mode of wor- 
ship of the Shakers became set- 
tled at this time, although both, 
and particularly the latter, have 
since undergone considerable mod* 
ification. 

Ann was now acknowledged 
as the spiritual mother and leader 
of the Society. The manner of 
worship in their public assemblies 
was singing and dancing, shaking 
and shouting ; in addition to which 
they claimed to possess the power 
of working miracles, prophesying, 
speaking with new tongues, and all 
the various gifts of the holy ghost, 
known in the primitive Church. 
The fundamental doctrinal princi- 
ples of the Shakers are a belief i& 
the second appearance of Christy 
in the person of the holy mother, 
lliey admit of but two persons in 
the godhead, God the Father, and 
God the Mother, which they say 
is according to the order of nature, 
being male and female. To re-, 
deem the depraved race of man, 
they believe that it became neces- 
sary for God to take upon him the 
real character of human nature 
as it is, maie and female, and that 
his first appearance was in the per- 
son of man, and the second in the 
person of woman, whereby the 
work of redemption was finished 
arid completed. The confusion 
and wickedness that prevailed in 
the Catholic Church, during the 
long period which preceded and 
followed the reformation, they as- 
cribe to the work of redemption, 
not having been completed in 
Christ^s first appearance, it being 
the necessary period that must 
intervene between the making and 



20 



ENFIELD, 



fulfilment of the promise of Christ, 
that he would establish his law of 
righteousness on earth* They be- 
lieve in perfect holiness, and insist 
that salvation from sin^ here, is 
necessary to salvation from misery <, 
hereafter. They regard the bible 
as a testimony of Christ's first -ap- 
pearance, but deny that it contains 
the word of God, or of life, as they 
consider a belief in the second 
appearance of Christ, or in the 
spiritual character and mission 
of the holy mother, as indispensi- 
ble to salvation* From what has 
been premised^ it is scarcely neces- 
sary to be remarked that tbeShakers 
can hardly be regarded as a Christi- 
an sect, as the fundamental princi- 
ple of their creed has nothing to do 
with the Christian system. Were 
there no others, the Shakers would 
be astrikingand a living monument 
of the weakness of human nature ; 
of the influence of religious fanat- 
cisro, and of the facility with which 
the grossest delusions, .and the 
most palpable impositions may be 
propagated in society* 

But notwitlistanding the absurd 
tenets of the Shakers, tliey are, 
in many respects, an exemplary 
and worthy people. Their reli- 
gious principles necessarily aflect 
the order of their Societies, by 
producing an entire separation of 
the men from the women ; yet their 
communities present the most stri- 
king evidences of regularity and 
decorum. Their buildings are 
remarkably neat and convenient, 
and every thing appears a model 
of. order and economy. They 
are characterised by a striking 
simplicity and plainness of man- 
ners, and are sober, industrious 
and economical^ 1'hey are skilful 



m 



mechanics, and excellent farmers 
and gard^ecs. But what is more 
than all tbis,^ they are a community 
of " honest men." Ann, and bet 
followers, arrived in the United 
States in 1 774, and the first Society 
was eiatablished at Niskeuna, in the 
State of New-Yorky eight miles 
northwest frcmi Albany v twx> y^ais 
afterwards* This is the parent of 
the several Shaker Societies in the 
United States, of which there are 
at least fourteen; fEuar ioMassacbu*^ 
setts, one in Maine, two in New- 
York, two in New-Hampshire^ (»ie 
in Connecticut, and four in the 
western States* The Soqi^yy in 
Enfield, was established in 1780, 
and at this time (consists of fpiirteeii 
Dwelling-Houses, a number of. 
Workshops^ Store-HouseSy &c» ma- 
king in all periiaps fifty, buildings, 
and comprises about one hundred 
and eiglity persons. The Society 
possess an excellent tract of land 
in the northeast section of the 
town, of more tlian one thousand 
acres^ which is under the highest 
state of cultivation. Their im^: 
provements and attention to horti- 
culture are without aQy example ; 
gardening being with them not so 
much a family convenience, as a 
business of profit* They carry on 
various kinds of mechanical busi*- 
ness, and tlieir wares are justly 
esteemed, being always good and 
fiee from all deception. They 
are, for their numbers, a very 
wealthy and flourishing community. 
In the several Shaker Societies 
in the United States, there are now 
probably 5000 souls. 

Enfield was $>ettled by emigrants 
from Salem, in Massachusetts, in 
1631, being, at that time, a part of 
the town of Springfield in thai State. 




PARMINGTON, 



71 



mmiA 



For sixty or seventy years after 
the first settlement, it formed a 
part, and was stibject to the juris- 



diction of the colony of Massa- 
chusetts, not being annexed to 
Connecticut until 1755. 



FARMIN6TON- 



PARMINGTON, awealthypostl 
totrn, is situated 10 miles west 
from Hartford. It is bounded east 
by Hartford and Berlin, north by 
Simsbuiy, west by Bristol & Bur- 
lington, and sotlth by S6uthington. 
It comprises an area of about 70 
sipiare miles, or 44^^00 acres ; being 
nearly 1 1 miles in length from north 
to south, and averaging neariy 7 
miles in breadth from east to west. 
Parmington is characterise*by fea- 
tures peculiarly striking and vari- 
ous j both ay it respects its surface 
and soil ; having a range of moun- 
tains extending thi(*ough the town, 
^^xtensive plains and considerable 
tracts bf alluvittl upon the borders 
<rf Farmington or Tunxis river. 
This river here*. id sixty or seven- 
ty yards in width, and the natural 
meadows, which it aflbrds, are pe- 
culiarly fertile and charming* 

In the south section of the town, 
there is a large tract of plains, be- 
iHg^dry, light and sandy, but heal- 
thy, and well Adapted to the growth 
of rye, of which they carry good 
cr6ps when woH cultivated. The 
s^i) of the uplands is a loam, com- 
posed of a red gravel, mixed with 
clay/ The range of motmtains in 
thi^ town commences n^ear the 
Sound in the vicinity of New-Ha- 
ven, being there callecl east rock, 
and extends north into the interior 
of New-Engfend ; its. rock is prin- 
cipally greenstone. It affords some 
vahiiible timber, and good pastu- 
rage upon its (feclivities. The for-t 



ests in this town comprise the vari- 
ous ^oods common to this county. 

Agriculture is the principal 
busines of the inhabitants, and with 
few exceptions, the " sweat of the 
brow" is amply rewarded with an 
abundant supply of all the comforts 
of life. The farmers here, like 
those of most of the other towns in 
the county, raise wheat, rye, oats, 
flax, Indian com, &c; rye and 
corn being principally cultivated. 
There are many fine orchards in 
some sections of the town, which 
afford the inhabitants a large sup- 
ply of cider, an excellent family 
beverage. Domestic manufac-' 
tures receive, generally, considera- 
ble attention ; and many families 
supply, from their own industry, 
most of their clothing. 

One of the turnpikes from Hart- 
ford to New-Haven runs through 
this town ; and the Talcott moun- 
tain turnpike, the great road from 
Hartford to Albany, the turnpike 
road to Danbury, also a road to 
Litchfield, and several otherpublic 
roads centre in or pass through the 
town. 

Farmington contains two Eccle- 
siastical Societies, in each of which 
is a Post-oflice, and 1 o School dis- 
tricts. 

The first Society, in its central 
section, is a compact settlement, 
comprising more than 100 houses, 
principal! V erected upon one street 
within the limits of something more 
than a mile, almost all of which are 



72 



FARMINGTON. 



m 



Si 



neat and handsome dwelling hou- 
ses ; and many of them elegant 
edifices. There are few inland 
towns that exhibit a correspond- 
ing appearance of populousness, 
wealth and splendour. Its site is 
at the foot of the mountain, which 
has a considerable elevation, and 
ranges along upon the east; to 
the ^^est, there is a delightful land- 
scape, having a gentle declivity, 
which is lost in the beautiful mead- 
ows upon the borders of the Tunxis. 
There were in Farmington, in 
1810, 2748 inhabitants. ^ There 
are now, about 400 Freemen or 
qualified Electors, and about 400 
l)weUing Houses, 9 Mercantile 
Stores, 6 Grain Mills, 6 Carding 
Machines, 5 Distilleries, & 6 Tan- 
neries. There are two Congre- 
gational Churches, and one erect- 
ing for Baptists ; two Ministers of 
the Gospel, two Physicians, and 
three Attorneys ; there is one 
Academy, and fifteen district, or 
primary Schools, and three Social 
Libraries. The general list of 
Farmington in 1817, was g7 1,242. 
The valuation or assessment of 
the United States in 1816, was 
^1,538,873; that of 1799, was 
$562,417. 

In the north-east part of Far- 
mington, upon the summit of Tal- 
cott mountain, is Wadsworth's 
pond, a fine body of water, of about 
100 rods in length, and near 50 in 
bread th,having considerable depth, 
and abounding with fish. This is 
a most fanciful and romantic spot, 
deriving beauty from the irregu- 
larity of its features, and order 
from an apparent incongruity of 
the established laws of nature. 
Daniel Wadsworth,Esq. of the city 
of Hartford, has selected this spot] j 



for a summer residence ; he has 
made consiclerable improvements^ 
having erected a neat and gen- 
teel dwelling-house for his owti 
family, a farm-bouse, in which he 
has a Tenant, who superintends 
the farm, and other buildings, bei 
sides constructing wh^irves upon 
the shores of the pond, various ou^ 
rious avenues or walks, and, erects 
ing a tower upon the most elevat«> 
ed suniuiit of the mountain. This 
tower aflbrds an extensive pros- 
pect of the surrounding country, 
and the charming vale of the Con- 
necticut, lies Under the eye of the 
observer, who, enraptured with the 
view, cannot but feel the tmth of 
what its own Poet hath said; that 
" iNo watery gleams through happi^ 

^ valHes shine^ 
" J^'br drinks the Sea a lovelier wave 
than thine J^^ 
Parties of pleasure from Hart- 
ford, and other towns in the vicini- 
ty, frequently visit this encbaating 
spot. J ' 

The first settlers of FarmingtoA 
were from Hartford, being '^ni- 
grants from Boston, Newtm mud 
Roxbury, in Massachusetts. Thoy 
began the settlementin 1640,>beiBg 
four years only from the first set- 
tlement in Hartford, and were 
probably attracted by the fine mttu- 
ral meadows upon the Tunxis riv- 
er. The town was incorpersited 
in 1 G 45. The land was purchased 
of the Tunxis tribe of naitives, a 
very numerous and warlike tribe, 
by eighty-four proprietors, aad di- 
vided by them and their heirs ac- 
cording to their respective inter- 
ests. The township, at the time lOf 
incorporation, was about fifteen 
miles square, and has since been 
divided into four towns. 



n 



-•*». 



felOGRAPHY. 



73 



mBommm 



BIOGRAPHY. Magor JTi/Ziam 
Jiiiffe/, distinguished for his services 
and patriotism during the revohi- 
tionary war, and subsequently as 
an enlightened politician, was a 
tfative o£ this town. Major Judd 
had' been regularly educated and 
Admitted to the practice of law, 
which situation, together with all 
the advantages which young prac- 
titioners are apt to anticipate, he, 
at an e^ly period of the revolu- 
tionary war, abandoned for the 
service of his^ountry. He was a 
zealous whig, and engaged in the 
cause of liberty and his country 
with great arduor and enthusiasm. 
Ue had a Captain's commission in 
the Continental Army, and few 
officers o{ his rank ivere more 
active, persevering and aseful. 
At the close of the war he re<^eiv- 
ed the brevet rank of Major. Af- 
ter the peace, in 1 783, he resumed 
bii^itiess inthe lineof his prbfes- 
sion, and, for many years, was dis- 
tinguished as a lawyer and an ad- 
vocate* Although, for a short 
period, after the peace, and during 
the general distress, embarrass- 
ment and want of confidence 
which ensued, he, in common with 
fnost of the officers, became unpop- 
ular, in consequence of the act of 
Congress, giving them half pay 
tot Ufe, and the subsequent act 
commuting this to full pay, for 
five years ; yet the importance of 
his public services, and his knowl- 
edge, integrity, abilities and patri- 
otism^ soon enabled him to attain 
that station in society, and in the 
estimation of his fellow^citizens, to 
which, in every point of view, he 
xr&s so justly entitled. The influ- 
ence of Major Judd at home, where 
his worth was be^ l^nowU) and 

10 



ss 



could be best appreciated, was 
very conspicuous. For many 
years he was a representative of 
the town in the General Assembly^ 
and. was also, for a long time, 4 
magistrate. After the adoption 
of the Constitution of the United 
States, and when political subjects 
began to agitate the public 
mind, Major Judd became associ- 
ated with the party whose politi- 
cal sentiments best accorded witli 
his own, and with what he regard- 
ed as the soundest principles of 
republicanism — principles combi- 
ning an energetic government, with 
the enjoyment of the greatest por- 
tion of civil liberty* After the 
year 1801,, the constitutional prin- 
ciples of the government of this 
State, (it being the only one, ex- 
cept Rhode-Island, which had not 
formed a constitution of Civil 
Governnient, tSiet their separa- 
tion from Great Britain,) became 
a ' subject of general discussion, 
and occasioned much agitation of 
the public mind. Upon this sulr- 
ject, Major Judd took a distinguish" 
ed part, and maintained with 
firmness, but with dignity and mod- 
eration, that this State was with^ 
out a constitution of Civil Gov- 
ernment ; making a distinction be-* 
tween a government and a consti'- 
tution ; thereby admitting that the 
existing government was lawful 
as long as the people saw fit to 
maintain it. In August 1804, ^ 
Convention of Delegates, from 
nearly one hundred towns in the 
State, convened at New-Haveti 
upon this subject. Major Judd 
was chosen Chairmaii of this Con- 
vention, and as such signed an ad- 
dress which they submitted to the 
citizens et tbb State? recommend- 



74 



GLAST5NBURy. 



«p« 



ss 



ing to them, to adopt legal meas- 
ures to revise their government j 
and to organize it upon constitu- 
tional provisions. This address 
was drawn up with much ability, & 
contained an able and lucid view 
of this important subject. 

These proceedings, in which 
Afajar Juckl bad taken so distin- 
guished a part, occasioning alarm, 
.became a subject of much animad- 
version with the men, who were 
■ (hen in authority in the State. Ac- 
cordingly, the following October 
session of the Assembly, Major 
^J^dd, with several other members 
of this convention who were magis- 
trates, was cited to appear before 
the Assembly, to show cause why 
his commission of justice of the 
peace should not be revoked, in 
consequence ofhis having declared, 
that this State was without a con- 
stitution of civil government. At 
the time of receiving this notice, 
be was much indisposed ; but de- 
termining upon making his own 
.defence, he repaired to Newrila-i 
.ven for this purpose. But, howev-^ 



er, from the increase of his indis- 
potsition, he was unable himself ta 
make his defence. The trial re- 
sulted in the revocMion of hiscom^ 
mission^ After this event, whilst 
at New-Haven, he, with the assist- 
ance of some of his friends, pjpe- 
pared, in the form of a pam- 
phlet, his defence, containing his 
views of the government of this 
State, and generally his political 
principles. 

Before this pamphlet was out of 
press, he expired, , and it went to 
the public with theobijtuary of the 
author. He dSed, Nov. 14th 1804, 
aged 63. The history of Major 
Judd is identified with the origin 
of the constitution of civil gQvern- 
ment €>f Conneeticuty recently es- 
tablished. As a patriot and states- 
man, his memory will long be re- 
vered in bis native State, whilst 
his important public services, dur- 
ing the period that " tried men's 
souls," xannot fail to secure to it, 
the veneration andi-espectof pos-v 
terity. , 



GLASTENBURY. 



GLASTENBURYis a post town 
situated upon the east side of Con- 
necticut river, near the south east 
border of the county, being eight 
miles south east from Hartford; 
bounded on the north by East- 
Uartford, on the south by Chatham 
and Marlbormigh, on the east by 
Marlborough, Hebron and Bolton, 
and on the west by Connecticut 
river, which separates it from 
.Wethersfield. The town compri- 
ses two located Societies. In 1 8 1 0, 
it contained 2776 inhabitants, and 



jhas now 440 dwelling lK>uses^ a 
Post-office, four Churches or hou- 
ses for public wor^ip; two for 
Congregationalists, one for Epis- 
copalians, and one for Methodists ;, 
two companies of Infantry, and a 
part of a company of Cayaliy of 
Militia. 

The township contains an area 
of about 54 square miles, having aa 
average length of 9 miles from east 
to west,&being 6 miles in breadth. 
Its surface is uneven, and the soil 
varipu$ ; upon the borders of Con- 




GLASTENBURY. 



T^ 



necticut liver, there are some fine 
meadows, back of which, upon the 
rise of land, the soil m a sandy 
loam, and some sections nearly a 
siliceons sand ; &rther east it is a | 
gravelly loain, and -some fmall 
tracts of aluminous loam. It is 
generally fertile and prodactive ; 
its naifuul growth of timber is oak, 
chesnat and the varions trees com- 
mon to the district upon Con. 
necticut river. The lands in the 
western section of the town, are 
best adapted to grain, and are cul- 
tivated with facility, and produce 
good crops, particnlarly of rye, 
com and oats* 

The geological structure of the 
township consistsof sand stone or 
clay slate, which is less indurated, 
and has more of the quality of a 
free stone, than is its general 
character upon Ae west side of 
the river. 

In addition to the Connecticut, 
which washes the western border 
of the town, it is watered by Roar- 
ing brook and Salmon brook, two 
fine mill streams ; the former in- 
tersects the town nearly from 
north east to south west, discharg- 
ing its waters into the Conaectioit. 
Upon this stream, there is a large 
Cotton Factory, about one mile 
east ^ of Connecticut river; and 
two miles farther. east upon the 
same stream, there is a Forge and 
Iron works ; at which iron is man- 
ufactured finom the ore, anchors 
wrought, and various other manu- 
factures of iron earned on. Sal- 
mon brook is a small stream, and 
runs through the northern part of 
the town in a western direetion. 
Upon this stream, there is a Wool- 
en Factory, Milk,Clothier'8 Works 
&c. This Factory is advantage* 



ously carried on, and the clotb 
made there is, in the opinion of 
our correspondent, equal to any 
that ifi manu&ctured in the United 
States. There are fine shad fishe- 
ries upon Connecticut river within 
this town. The other streams and 
several ponds are stored with fish. 

In the eastern part of the town, 
there is a pond of about a mile in 
circumference, called " Diamond 
pond," from the circumstance of 
there being small pebbles or stones 
around its margin, having a pecu- 
liar brilliancy. Near the centre 
of the town, there is a mineral 
spring, which, though it has ac* 
quired no celebrity abroad, has 
been thought, by men 6f science 
who have examined it, to possess 
valuable medical qualities; and 
for more tiian one hundred years 
has been known in the vicinity by 
the name of the **PoolatNipsuck." 

Although agriculture is the lead- 
ing business of the town, some at- 
tention has been paid to manufac 
tures ; and ship building, at some 
periods, has been carried on to 
considerable extent ; this business, 
however, is on the decline. There 
it but one vessel building here this 
season^ 

The turnpike road leading from 
Hartford to New-London, passes 
through a part of this town. 

In addition to the Cotton and 
Woolen Factories, and Forge and 
Icon Works already noticed, there 
are 5 Grain Mills, 3 Fulling Mills 
and Clothier's Works, 1 Saw Mill, 
4 Tanneries, and various other 
mechanical establishments and em* 
ploymeots. 

The town contains 13 School 
Districts and Schools, 1 small Li-* 
brary, 2 Attomies k 3 Physiciansi, 



T"- 



•^ 



90 



GRAN8Y. 



The amount of taxable propef- 
fy, including polls, is $50^332. 

The real estate of Ae town, to- 
gether wifii that of Marlborough, 
m 1 816, was valued at ^1,258,024. 
hk 1799, the real estate of GIa«ten- 



bury, which at that time compri- 
sed the principal part of Marliki- 
roug^, wa9 valued at $454,080. . 
Glastenbury was incorporated 
as a town, in 1690; 



ORANBY. 



GRANBY ia an extensive irregu- 
iar towiislup, situated iothe north- 
cm section of the county, border- 
jmg upon Massachusetts, seventeen 
miles from Hartford : bounded on 
Hie north by Massachusetts' line, 
en the east by SuiBeld and Wind- 
sor, on the sQutfi by Simsbury and 
Canton, and on the west by Bark- 
kamsted and Hartland, Theav* 
€rs^e length of the towpsbip from 
east to west is nine and a half 
niiles, and its avemge breadth 
from north to south, is more 
than six miles, comprising an 
area of about 59 miles, or 37,760 
acres. 

This township is characterised 
}fj a diversity of features, which 
are strikingly various ; towards its 
eastern section, the green stone 
mountain ranges through it from 
north to south; this mountain 
liere is perhaps more elevated 
tiian at any other place in the 
State, and its characteristic fea- 
tures more conspicuous, particu- 
larly in the vicinity of the State 
prison. Its western declivity, far 
a considerable ^^istance from its 
summit, is nearly a perpendicular 
precipice^ and its rocks are naked, 
and exhibited in bordered fragr 
ments. From this range of moun- 
tain^ to near the eastern border of 
the township, the surface has a de- 
clivity to the east This section 



of the town is a valuable agricuitu^ 
ral district; thesoiiisarich gravelly 
loam^ generally warm and fertile^ 
well adapted to orcharding, gmin 
or grass. Immediately west of the 
mountain, the face of the country 
is hilly, and in some instances, 
ledgy; but the lands, though hard 
and stony, are fertile, and well a* 
dapted to grain and orcharding* 
West of this district, there is an ex^ 
tensive tract t^f plain, the soil of 
which is generally a light sandy 
loam. This tract is intei'sected by 
Salmon brook, a pleasant and live- 
ly mill stream, and extends for a 
considerable distance west of this 
stream. The lands here are well 
adapted to rye^ and afford also good 
orcharding. West of this tract, and 
towards the extreme western 
border of the town, it is hilly and 
mountainous ; the lands are rough 
and stoney, and the soil hard, cold 
and gravelly. This section of the 
town^ bordering upou Hartland 
and Barkhamsted, comprises the 
eastern extreniity of the granite 
range of mountain,^ which extends 
through those towns. The natii- 
ral growth here is oak, maple, 
beach and some hemlock; upon 
the tract of plains east of this, itis 
oak and yellow pine ; upon the 
green stone rai^e, and the district 
east and west of it, the timber is 
oak, walnut, chesnut &c. 



^ 



eRAHBY. 



^7 




Various appes^raoces of mine* 
T9k\s have been discovered in the 
green stone mountain and hills of 
Siis town. Sulphitret of copper, or 
copper ore has been found in vari* 
ous places ; and it is well known, 
that the cavern, now occupied by 
the State as a prison for convicts, 
was originally opened and worked 
as a nune. Copper pyrites, or ore, 
was found and worked f but gold, 
which had stimulated the cupidity 
of the adventuters engaged in the 
undertaking, disappointed their 
hopes; and after a very great ex- 
"pense and sacrifice, the business 
was abandoned* 

The Tunxis or Farmington riv- 
er washes the soudieastern part of 
this town ; and it is intersected by 
Salmon brook already mentioned. 
Both of these streams affi>rd a 
number of sites for mills and other 
hydraulic works, many of which 
•are advantageously occupied. 

The Blanford turnpike leads 
through the town ina northwestern 
direction; and is intersected by a 
turnpike, leadii^ from Connecti- 
cut river to Norfolk, where it con- 
nects with the Hardbrd and Alba- 
ny turnpike. 

The town contains two located 
Congregational Societies and 
Churches, one Society of Episco- 
'palians^ which have a house for 
public worship, two Societies of 
Baptists, and oaer Society of 
Methodists^ There are 16 School 
districts and Schools, and a small 
village in the centre of each of the 
located Societies. Thepopulation 
of the town, at the last census^ was 
2083; and there are 380 dwelling 
houses, 4 companies of militia, and 
about 400 qualified Electors. 
There are two Card Factpnes, 



two Wire Factories, one Powder 
Mill, fliit Grain Mills, two Fulling 
Mills, tliree Carding Machines, 
three Tanneries, and four Mercan* 
tile Stores. , ' 

There are two small Social Lir 
braries, two Clergymen, four Phy- 
sicians, and four Attomies. 

Granby was taken from Sims- 
bury, and incorporated in October, 
178a. 

The State prison estabUshed in 
this town is, from its novel and 
peculiar character, deserving of 
particular notice. The character 
of this institution, for the imprisoQr 
ment of convicts, has, by some, par- 
ticularly foreigners, been regarded 
asa subject of reproach to the State. 

Many erroneous representationfi 
have been published, wbicli, in 
stead of exhibiting a just picture of 
this institution, have presented on- 
ly the frightful images of caricature, 

The idea of a cavern is peculiar^, 
ly gloomy and horrible ^ and, when 
we consider such a place as the a- 
bodeof man, dark and dreary, ex- 
cluding every ray of light, and 
every object. of nature, the mind is 
apt to recoil at the picture ; and, 
foi^ctting the nature of the insti- 
tution, and the causes which have 
filled it with its miserable and gloo- 
my tenants, to regard it as an out- 
rage upon humanity. But upon a 
more cool survey, and more espe- 
cially upon an investigation of the 
subject, however repugnant to 
our ideas of humanity a subter- 
raneous imprisohment may ap- 
pear, it will be found, that, practi- 
cal!}', it is much less objectionable 
than we at first supposed. The ob- 
ject of every institution of this de- 
scription is confinement:; and this 
Qught to be effected with as much 



P9VX 



TF^ 



78 



mmm 



GRANBY. 



mmmm 



regard to the health and comfort 
of the unfortanate subjects of 
crimes, and consequent punish* 
ment, as may be ooni^stent with 
their security, and the economy of 
the public treasure. These cav- 
erns are remarkably for their 
healtibfulness, and it is believed, 
that a iess^ number of prisoners 
l^ve died here, in proportion to 
the number which have been con- 
fined, than in any other prison in 
the United States. As it respects 
^e cleanliness and comforts of the 
prisoners at this institution, it will 
not probably hold a comparison 
with many others ; but this is more 
owing to the business which is pur- 
sued, (working at nails,) than to 
the confinement in the caverns* 
The security ofthe prisoners here 
is most effectual ; and whether the 
institution is considered as an 
economical one or not, the use of 
^i^the caverns, as a place of confine- 
ment, is not a circumstance that 
has any particular influence upon 
this subject. 

On the whole, although there 
may be in principle, or in senti- 
ment, objections to occupying a 
subterraneous prison, yet in aprac- 
tical point of view, the one under 
consideration has many advanta- 
tages ; and the objections to this in- 
stitution apply with more propri- 
ety and force to the description of 
work, at which they are employed, 
and to other circumstances con- 
nected with its management, than 
to the character of the place in 
which they are confined. 

A succinct account of the origin 
of this cavern, and its establish^ 
ment and occupation as a place of 
ccnfinement for convicts, may be 
fiomewhat interesting. 



The lands upcm which Newgate 
prison stands, and in the vicinity, 
were claimed by the original pro- 
prietors of the town, in which they 
were formerly situated ; but on ac- 
count of their supposed value from 
the copper ore which had been 
found, and as gold was also suppo- 
sed to abound, the title. was long 
a subject of contention. To quiet 
all disputes with respect to these 
mines, in 1753, the General Aa-n 
sembly appointed a committee to 
investigate the subject, who eofi<- 
firmed the right and title of the 
original proprietors, and set off to 
them the land, or mine, if^ich is 
now occupied as a public prison, 
aind the other lands in the vicinity 
which were supposed to be valu- 
able for their minerals. At thi^^ 
time, copper ore had been foun4; ' 
the ore was considered very rioh^ 
and it was also supposed, thot it 
contained gold. From thesex^ir- 
cumstances, the fame of these mines 
soon reached Europe, and \vf 1 760, 
a company was formed in England 
for the purpose of workii)^ them ; 
ai^d soon after, several p^sons, as 
the agents, or in the employ of this 
company, arrived from England 
for this purpose. But the compa- 
ny were obliged, principally j to em- 
employ men in the neighbourhood, 
who were entirely unacquainted 
witli the business ; from which cir- 
cumstance^ and various others, the 
work proceeded slowly, and with 
great difficulty. The cooipany, 
however, were enabled to freight 
two vessels with ore, (it being their 
plan not to work the ore here, but 
to ship it to England for this pur- 
pose,) both of which were lost; one 
being taken by the French, and 
the other sunk in the chann<^. 




GJRANBY. 



n 



'hese losses were so considerable, 
and the whole business having been 
little more than a saccessioaof dis- 
aster?* and sacrifices, the company 
becaifne discouragedf and were in- 
ducedfo abandon the undertaking. 
Since this time, the mines havfe not 
beenwroughtforore. Theminers, 
in digging and exploring, sunk nu- 
fnerous wells, or deep excavations* 
The principal one was upon Cop- 
per hill, so called, and remains at 
this time, being within the walls of 
the prison* 

These caverns were first occu- 
pied as a place of confining con- 
victs, about the commencement of 
the revolutionary war. There be- 
ing at that time no prison in the 
State, other than the county gaols, 
and the number of convicts having 
considerably increased, arrange- 
ments were made for occupying 
these caverns as a place of con- 
finement ; but no permanent build- 
ings w^re at this time erected ; 
and it is not probable, that at first 
it was contemplated to convert 
these taverns into a State prison ; 
their occupation for this purpose, 
being regarded as a temporary 
thing* The confining of convicts 
baying been begun, it was continu- 
ed ; and this being found very in- 
coi^venient, the General Assembly, 
in 1790, passed ah act, establish- 
ing Newgate prison as a perma* 
nent State prison, and providing 
for the erection of suitable build- 
ings. At the same time, they ap- 
pointed three overseers or trustees 
of the prison, authorized to take 
the charge and direction of the in- 
stitution* In pursuance of this au- 
thority, the trustees erected a 
wooden paling, enclosing about 
half an acre ef ground, within 



which was the principal cavern ; 
they also erected a brick building 
directly over this cavern, into 
which there is an avenue from the 
back room in this building. Un- 
derneath the basement floor in this 
room, and directly over thecavemy 
there are two strong rooms built 
of stone; in these rooms, theprii^- 
onera are usually kept when thej 
are not employed, and it is not 
thought necessary, that they should 
be confined in the cavern. Within 
a few years past, there has been an 
extensive work shop, and other 
buildings erected; and also a sub- 
stantial stone wall, enclosing the 
cavern buildings and one acre of 
ground. This wall is twelve feet 
high, three feet thick at its base, 
and one and a half at the top. 

The principal cavern is about 
26 feet in depth at its entrance, 
which is a perpendicular descent 
through an aperture, stoned up 
square for the purpose. In this 
entrance, there is . a large ami , 
strong ladder, resting upon the 
rock at the bottom, and made fast 
at the top, upon which the prison- 
ers and others descend into the 
cavern. On reaching the bottom, 
you strike a smooth rock, having a 
gradual descent, upon the sides of 
which there are cavities sufficient- 
ly la i^c to admit of small lodging 
rooms, which are built for the pris- 
oners, on both sides of the main 
passage that leads through the area 
of the cavern. These rooms are 
built of wood and boards, and are 
sufficiently large to accommodate 
20 men. After passing these 
rooms, you traverse a large cav- 
ern, enclosed on all sides by solid 
rock ; dark, gloomy and horrible! 
At the extremity of this, there is a 



t 



Ji i.RjMipm 



%0 



HARTLA^D. 



«SS' 



well of water 80 feet deep, which 
communicates with the cavern, 
and affords to the tenants of this 
suhterraneous abode, a free circu- 
lation of air; although from the 
various windings of the avenues and 
other causes, it is not cold, even in 
the severest weather. And as 
strange as it may seem, it has been 
satisfactorily ascertained, that the 
mercury ranges eight degrees low- 
er in the lodging apartments of the 
prisoners, in the warmest days in 
the summer, than it does in the 
coldest in the winter. This phae- 
nomenon is attributed to the cir- 
cumstance, of the cavities in the 
rocks being stopped with snow, ice 
and frost in the winter, which pre- 
vents so free a circulation of air, as 
is enjoyed in the summer. 

On the I8th of January 181 1, at 
8 o'clock A. M.^ the mercury stood 
in the cavern at 52 degrees ; and 
in open air, as soon after as was 
practicable for a person to get up I 
from the cavern, (which could not 
have exceeded five miinutes,) it fell 
to one degree below 0. On the 
17th of June, (mid-day,) the mer- 
cury stood in the cavern at 50** 10", 
and in the open air at 76^. This 
cavern has been remarkable for its 
healthfulness, which has usually 
been ascribed to certain supposed 
medicinal qualities in the rocks ; 



but it deserves consideration, 
whether it is not more probably 
owing to the uniform state of its 
atmosphere. 

The keeper of the prison is ap- 
pointed by the overseers or trus- 
tees, and is accountable to them 
for his conduct. He receives a 
regular salary of $560 per an- 
num ; he draws no rations, but has 
certain perquisites ; he is allowed 
1 sergeant, 2 corporals and 17 pri- 
vates as a guard, for the security 
of the prisoners. The pay of the 
sergeant is $12 67 per month; 
that of the corporals jjll 34 ; and 
that of the privates ^g 10. They 
are all entitled to rations, and the 
privates receive a 'uniform suit of 
clothes, and the sergeant and cor-* 
porals an allowance as an equiva- 
lent therefor. 

The total expenses of thd insti- 
tution and disbursementis for stock 
in 1816, amounted to gl 5,007 22. 
and the receipts > 
the same year to y 

leaving a bialance = — 

against the State of ^11 ,579 22. 
but at this time there were nails and 
stock on hand; a part or all of the 
latter having been purchased, and 
a part of the former manufactured 
the same year, to an estimated va-^ 
lue of ... $5,U7 44. 



3,428 



HARTLAND. 



HARTLAND is an elevated post 
township in the northeast cor- 
ner of the county, 22 miles from 
Hartford ; bounded north on Mas- 
sachusetts line, east by Granby, 
south by Barkhamsted, and west 
by Colebrook in Litchfield county . 



It contains an area of 34 square 
miles, being near 7 miles in length 
from east to west, and 5 in breadth 
from north to south. The township 
is hilly and mountainous, being 
embraced within the extensive 
granite range of mountain, which 




HARTLAND* 



U 



commencing near the sound in the 
vicinity of New-Haven, leads thro' 
the State in a northeasterly direc- 
tion, and extends into Massachu- 
setts and the interior of New-Eng- 
land. From its elevated situation, 
the town is cold and frosty, or at 
least a considerable part of it; the 
soil is a gravelly loam, of a granite 
character, an4 generally rather 
cold and sterile; it however affords 
tolerable grazing, but produces 
but little grain; tlioughsome small 
sections are more warm and fertile. 
The timber consists of beach, ma- 
ple, chesnut and evergreen, or pe- 
rennial trees. The making of but- 
ter and cheese, beef and pork, 
and pasturing of cattle, are the 
principal interests of the inhabi- 
tants. The farmers in the towns 
east of this to Connecticut river, 
have been in the habit of sending 
their growing or young cattle, 
«heep &c« into this and other gra- 
zing towns, to be kept during seve- 
ral months in the spring &summer. 

The town is watered by the east 
branch of the Farmington river, 
whiqh passes through it, and affords 
. same small tracts of alluvial, and 
many excellent mill seats. The 
main branch of this river passes 
through the southwestern section 
of the town. The turnpike road 
leading from Connecticut river to 
Norfolk, where it unites with the 
Greenwood's turnpike that extends 
to Albany, passes through this town. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1284, and there are a- 
bout 200 dwelling houses, 2 com- 
panies of militia, and about 150 
Electors. 

There are six cider Distilleries, 
two Grain Mills, two Fulling Mills 
and Clothier's Works, one Carding 

11 



I " ' '■ ■' i J III ! II I. I i , i n ^ ^i >» m ^m^m•'i^mmm^ l i g i i| i n» li J ^iij l A l Hiji: 

Machine, three Mercantile Stores, 
two Tanneries and four Taverns. 

The town contains two Congre- 
gational Societies and Churches, 
and one Society of Methodists ; 
nine School Districts and Schools, 
one Social Library, two Clergy- 
men, and two Physicians. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is jl27,052. 

Hartland was incorporated as a 
town, in 1 76 1 , at which time it be.- 
longed to Litchfield county ; but 
some years since it was annexed to 
the county of Hartford. 

Hartland is one of the towns 
which were sold by the State, to the 
inhabitaiHs of Hartford and Wind- 
sor. The first proprietors' meeting 
was holden at Hartford, July 10th, 
1733. John Kendall, wha 
removed from Lancaster in Mas* 
sachusetts, in the spring of 1753, 
was the first settler. He located & 
tract of land in the great valley, 
on the west side of Farmipgtoa 
river. The ibllowingyear, Thomas 
Giddings removed with his family 
from Lyme. 

In 1755, Simon Baxter came 
into the town, and the year after, 
Joshua GiddingsV Four additional 
families settled in flie town in 1 757. 
After this period emigrants were 
received in considerable numbers 
for several years. 

In 1761, the town was incorpo- 
rated, and the first town-meeting 
was holden in July of that year. 
In June 1768, the Rev. Sterling 
Graves was ordained, being the 
fiirst minister settled in the town. 
In 1770, Nehemiah Ahdrews was 
appointed the first Justice of tlie 
Peace; and in June tbesame year, 
the first meeting-'house was erect*- 
ed. 



P" 



)^ 



mm 



«2 



MARLBOROUGH, 



SIMSBURY 



MARLBOROUGH is a small 
post town, situated in the south- 
eastern extremity of the county, 
fifteen miles from Hartfoi-d ; boan- 
ded north by Glastcnbury, east byi 
Hebron in Tolland county, south j 
by Colchester in New-Liondon- 
county, and west by Chatham, inj 
Middlesex county. The area of the ' 
Town comprises about twenty-two j 
square miles, having an average: 
length of five and a half miles, and 
an average breadth of four miles. 

Its surface is hilly and stony; 
and the soil a gravelly loam, being 
part of the granitic section in the 
eastern part of the State. Small 
quantities of plumbago, or black 
lead, have been discovered. The 
lands are best adapted to grazing ; & 
Ae making of butter and cheese, 
and beef and pork, are the leading 
agricultural interests. 

There are within the town no 
rivers, butitis watered by a number 
of small streams, some of which 
afibrd very advantageous sites for 
mills, and other water works. 
Marlborough pond, in this town, is 
a considerable body of water ; be- 
inp one mile in length, and half a 
mile in breadth. 

The Hartford and New-London 
turnpike road leads through the 



town; also, a turnpike from Mid- 
dletown to Windham. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 720 ; and there are now 
one company of Infantry, and a 
part of a company of Riflemen of mi- 
litia ; 100 Electors, and 110 dwel- 
ling houses. 

Manufactures haVe received 
some attention ; there are one Cot- 
ton Factory and one Woolen Fac- 
tory ; one Carding Machine, two 
Fulling Mills and Clothier's Works, 
three Grain Mills, & one Tannery. 

The town contains one located 
Congregational Society & Church, 
an Episcop^al Society, and a So- 
ciety of Methodists. It contains 
six School districts and Schools, 
one of which, called the central 
district, has been endowed with a 
fund of 2 or $3^000, to constitute 
it a grammar School. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is g 19,952. 

The town contains one small So- 
cial Libra ly, one Physician, and 
one Clergyman. 

* Marlborough was formed from 
Colchester, Glastenbury and Heb- 
ron, three towns belonging to 
three different counties ; and it W3s 
incorporated in 1803. 



SIMSBURY. 



SIMSBURY a post town, is 
situated twelve miles northwest 
from Hartford. Simsbury was set- 
tled in 1670; the first settlers be- 
ing from Windsor, ofwhichitthen 
formed a part. About six years af- 
ter the settlement, the inhabitants, 
insisting of about forty families, 
w*ere 50 aJarmcd at the hostility of 



the Indians, that they buried theJr 
effects, and returned to Windsor. 
The settlement being abandoned, 
the Indians burned the houses 
which had been erected, and des- 
troyed almost every vestige of im- 
provement, which distinguished 
the infant settlement from the wil- 
derness which surrounded it; s# 




SIMSBURY. 



83 



that, when the settlers returned, 
they could not find the spot where 
they deposited their goods* This 
was in the spring of 1676, at which 
time Simsbury was a frontier get- 
tlement, although but about tejo 
miles from Connecticut river. It 
was incorporated as a town at an 
early period, and has since been 
divided twice, by the incorporation 
of the townsof Granby and Canton ; 
both of whicb belonged principal- 
ly to the^original town of Simsbury. 

This township, at present, has 
an area of about 37 square miles^ 
being seven miles in length, and 
about fire and a half miles in 
breadth upon an average estima- 
tion; and is bounded north on 
Granby, east on Windsor^ south on 
Farmington, and west on Canton. 
It is strikingly diversified, being 
intersected by the Farmington or 
Tuhxis river, and embracing the 
rapgc of the greei^stone mountain, 
which here is elevated and lofty. 
This mountain generally has a 
gradual declivity upon the east, 
whence it is usually covered with 
timber. Upon its eastern sida, you 
discover clay slate, but it is gene- 
rally covered with trap or green- 
stone. Upon the west, it presents a 
bold and elevated mural precipice, 
wholly covered with greenstone. 
The rock is exhibited in broken & 
disordered fi*agments, and towards 
the summit is entirely naked yhsLr^ 
ingno covering of earth, and not sns- 
^ining the growth of the smallett 
shrubs. 

The Tunxis river, pn appro^ch^ 
ing this mountain, ranges along up- 
on the west of it, until it finds a 
chasm where it forces its passage 
through, forming the boundary be- 
tween this town and Granby ; but 



the mountain does not subside^ but 
immediately rises . in Granby, and 
soon attains its usual elevation, and 
presents its usual features. 

Upon the Tunxis river within 
this town, there Jure tracts ofmea* 
dow, or alluvial, of considerable 
extent, and very fertile. West 
from the river, the elevated lands 
are a light sandy plain, but consi* 
derably well adapted to the cul*- 
ture of rye. 

East of the declivity of the 
mountain, the soil is generally a 
gravelly loam, but there are some 
sections of ai^illaceous loam; an4 
although hilly, and somewhat sto- 
ny, it is fertile, and very favourable 
for orcharding. This section of tha 
town is perhaps best adapted to 
grass ; it affords also good crops of 
Indian com, and the declivities of 
the mountain good pasturage. 

Formerly salmon and shad were 
taken plentifully in the.Tunxis riv« 
er ; but for some years past, the 
former have disappeared altogeth^ 
er, and the latter are taken only 
in small quantities, which renders 
the business of fishing no object 
to the inhabitants. 

The manufactures of the town 
are principally domestic, whidr 
receive great at t e atioi »- f the iU' 
habitants being industrious and 
economical. In addition to whicfa, 
there are one small Cotton Factoryp 
three Tin ware Factories, three 
Wire Factories, two Grain Distil- 
leries, three Gristmills, four Saw 
Mills, two Carding Machines, and 
two Tanneries* Therenre also four 
Mercantile Stores. ; 

The town contains one located 
Congregational Society, and an 
Episcopal Society, each of which 
is accommodated with a house for 



8il 



SOUTHINGTON- 



public worship. It also c(»itains 10 
School district^ in each of which 
a school is maintained for the 
^eater part of the year. 

In 1810, the population of the 
town amounted to 1 966 ; and there 
are now 250 Electors, two Com- 
panies of militia, and 290 dwelling 
houses. The taxable property, in- 
cludingpoUs, amountsto $34,009. 

There are in Simsbury 1 Phy- 
sician, 1 Clergyman, & 1 Lawyer. 

BIOGRAPHY. Major Gen. 
jNfoah Phelps, a native inhabi- 
tant of this town, was born in 1 740. 
He served under Gen. Amherst in 
the French war, and took an early 
and active part on the side of his 
country, m the war of the revolu- 



tion. Early in the spring of 1775, 
he, with CoU Halsey, and another 
gentleman whose nameis not recol- 
lected, proposed the capture of 
Ticonderoga, which they effected 
with a small band of vohititeeri^ 
raised and paid by themselves, and 
on their own responsibility ^ inde^ 
pendence then not beingdecl^red. 
Having demolished the fort, they 
marched with their prisoners, a- 
bout 100 in number, for Hartford, 
where they arrived during the ses-^ 
sion of the General Assembly in 
May. Gen. Phelps afterwards ser- 
ved as a captain in this war, and 
after the peace, held for many 
years the office of judge of Pro- 
bate &c. He died March4th, 1 809. 



SOUTHINGTON. 



SOUTHINGTON is a post 
town, situated in the southwestern 
comer of the county, 1 B miles from 
Hartford, and 2 1 from New-Haven ; 
bounded on the north by Farming- 
ton and Bristol, on the west by 
Wolcott, on the south by Cheshire 
and Meriden, and on the east by 
Meriden and Berlin. The area of! 
the township is nearly six miles' 
from east to west, and about the 
same from north to south, contain- 
ing about 35 square miles. The 
sur^e is uneven ; the greenstone 
jrange of mountain extends along 
upon the east side of the town. 
The western section is also hilly, 
or mountainous, but the greater 
proportion of the town is but mod- 
erately hilly. The soil is various, 
according to the local situation of 
the lands, but is generally goiod, & 
welladaptcd to the culture of rye & 
ludism coroi which attain here the 



highest perfection; and of which 
there is raised annually a consi'^ 
derable surplus, that is manufactu^ 
red into flour and corn meal, and 
transported to New-Haven and 
Middletown for a market. 

There are no considerable riv- 
ers in the town, but several small 
streams. A branch of the Quini- 
piack has its source in a pond at the 
northwest corner of the town, and 
runs through it in a southeasteriy 
direction^ aflfording several excel- 
lent mill seats. About two miles 
from the centre of the town^ in a 
southwesterly direction, it forms 
a junction with another branch 
of the Quinipiack, which has its 
source in Farmington^ and runs in 
a southeasterly direction; just 
belowthis junctiou, there is a large 
flour mill and oil mill erected up- 
on this stream. 

The western turnpike road, lead- 




suffield: 



80 



ing from Hartford ta uew-Haven, 
passes through the centre of this 
town ; thence through Cheshire 
and Hamden. The Southington 
and Waterbury turnpike, leads 
from Waterbury in New-Haven 
county, in an eastern direction 
through the south part of the town 
to Meriden, thence to Middle- 
town. 

The inhabitants of this town are 
industriaus and enterprising; al- 
though the greater part are enga- 
ged in agriculture, yet several 
kinds of manufactures and me- 
dianical employments have receiv- 
ed considerable attention, and 
been prosecuted with ardour and 
success* Among these, thenianu- 
factures of tin ware and buttons are 
the most important. The tin ware 
business, having been first estab- 
lished at Berlin, was, after the lapse 
af some years, transplanted to this 
town. There are now, three Tin 
Ware Factories, several Button 
Factories, one Woolen Factory,one 
pocket-book Factory, four Flour 



Mills, two Oil Mills, one Fulling 
Mill and Clothier's Works, two 
Carding Machines, two considera- 
ble Tanneries, and ten Distilleries, 
principally of cider spirits* There 
are five Mercantile Stores. 

The town contains one located- 
Congregational Society & Church, 
one Society of Episcopalians, and 
one also of Baptists, all of which 
are accommodated with houses for 
public worship. It contains nine 
School districts and common 
Schools, and one Academy, not 
endowed, one small Social Libra- 
ry, two settled Clei^men, four 
Physicians, and two Lawyers. 

The population of the towff, iu 
1810, was 1807; and there are 
now 300 dwelling houses, and a-' 
bout 300 Freemen or qualified 
Electors ; and • two companies of 
Infantry, and part of a company of 
cavalrv. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is ^43,300. 

Southington originally belonged 
to Farmington, was incor. in 1 779. 



SUFFIELD. 



SUFFIELD is a post town, de- 
ligbtfully situated upon the west 
side of Connecticut river, 17 miles 
north from Hartford, and 10 south 
from Springfield ; bounded on the 
north by Massachusetts, on the east 
by Connecticut river, which sepa- 
rates it from Enfield, on the south 
by Windsor and Granby, and on 
the west by Granby and Sduthwick 
in Massachusetts. The average 
length of the township, from east to 
west, is about eight miles, and it is 
five in breadth, comprising about 
forty square miles* 



The surface and soil of this 
town afford considerable •iversity 
of character ; its eastern section 
bordering upon Connecticut river, 
has a gradual rise for about two 
miles to the public road, which 
runs nearly in a parallel directiott 
with the river. This is a good ag- 
ricultural district, the soil being a 
strong, deep, aipllaceous loam. 
There is no alluvial upon the bor- 
der of the river, and the bank is 
generally elevated and bold, con- 
j sisting of solid argillaceous schistus, 
lor clay slate rock. From the pub- 



9i 



SUFPlELDl 



lie road westerly, the surface is 
generally of an undulating charac- 
ter, but some sections ^re nearly 
level. This district extends upon 
Ae south line of the town, to its 
western boundary ; but upon its 
north section, there is a projection 
which extends farther west. The 
goil of this tract 4s also an alalia- 
ceous loam, and in some places it 
H low and frequently wet and cold, 
and the clay stiff and hard ; when 
dry, it is best adapted to grass and 
grazing, and is well calculated for 
Ikmnures. That section of the 
township upon its northern border 
which extends farther west, lying 
north of Granby, embraces the 
greenstone range of mountain, 
which is here characterised by its 
usual features. The declivities of 
this mountain afford good grazing 
and orcharding, and some tracts 
are well adapted to grain. 

The natural growth consists of 
oak, maple, walnut, chesnut, but- 
ternut, elm, birch'&c. 

Besides the Connecticut, which 
washes the eastern border of the 
town, it is intersected by Stony 
river, a considerable mill stream, 
upon which there are numerous 
sites for hydraulic works, many of 
which are advantageously occu- 
pied. 

In the northwestern section of 
(be town, there are two considera- 
ble pond* called Southwick ponds, 
being partly in this town and partly 
in Southwick in Massachusetts. 
These are very pleasant and beau- 
tiful bodies of water, and are well 
stored with Qsh, particularly perch 
aiid pickerel ; the latter of which 
are taken plentifully, and with great 
facility in the winter season, by 
making holes through the ice« 



Near the southern border of the 
township is a mineral spring, the 
waters of which have a strong sul- 
phurous impregnation. It has ac- 
quired considerable celebrity in 
cases of of calculous and cutane<^ 
ous diseases. Very ample and con- 
venient accommodations have been 
provided ; a large three story 
building, with numerous and ^a- 
cious apartments, having beeii 
erected. 

These waters, although undoubt- 
edly possessed of valuable medici- 
nal qualities, pleasantly situated, 
and provided with respectable ac- 
commoda^ons, have not been a 
place of extensive resdrt ; & it is be- 
lieved that, for one or two seasons 
past, they have received less at- 
tention than at other periods, and 
that their celebrity is upon the de- 
cline; although circumstances 
might occur that would give them 
a reputation, which they have hot 
yet acquired, and of which there is 
no apparent prospect. 

Suineld comprises two located 
Congregational Societies, or Par- 
ishes, and two large Societies of 
Baptists. These several Societies 
are respectively provided with 
houses ror public worship. 

The principal street, in the fi^s^ 
Society, is the great river road ; it 
has an elevated and delightful site, 
and is called High-street. For one, 
mile or more it is well settled, and 
contains many handsome dwelling- 
houses, and some that are large 
and elegant ; all of which unite tlie 
advantages of a pleasant and pros- 
pective situation. Upon this street, 
there are a Post-ojfice, one Congre- 
gational and one Baptist church, 
and several Mercantile Stores. 
The west Society comprises a 




SUFFIELD. 



87 



pumber of streets, which are set- 
tled principally by independent 
and thrifty fanners. Here also are 
two Churches, one for Baptists, & 
one for Con^regationalists. 

The inhabitants of the town have 
been characterized by an enter- 
prising and adventurous spirit. 
Various species of traffic, both at 
home and abroad, have been car- 
ried on. From the extent and niul- 
tiplicy of these concerns, and more 
generally the irresponsible charac- 
ter of the persons engaged in them, 
itisnota matterof surprise, that in- 
stances of conduct should have oc- 
curred, discreditable to the authors 
thereof; and which, by a natural 
but unwarrantable association, 
should have had the efiect of casting 
a shade upon the character of the 
community, to which such persons 
belonged. Yet an^ opinions afTect- 
ing the character of the inhabitants 
of this town, which may have ari- 
sen from causes like these, are 
wholly unsupported, and illiberal 
in the extreme. The enterprise 
of a community is certainly very 
much to their credit, although it 
can scarcely be denied, that if this 
spirit discloses itself through such 
a channel as that of traffic, it is cal- 
culated to ielicit dispositions and 
habits less consistent with the strict 
principles of moral integrity, than 
those which generally characterise 
labouring or earning communities. 
But the enterprise of the inhabi- 
tants of this town, has not been 
confined to trade ; it has disclosed 
itself in other channels, and has in 
no small degree promoted the in- 
terests of manufactures, particular- 
ly those of cotton. There are now 
four Cotton Factories in the town, 
some of which are upon a cQPside- 



rably extensive scale. There are 
also one Paper Mill, otie Oil MiU, 
three Fulling mills and Clotfaier'g 
Works, two Carding Machine^ 
three Grain Mills, three Tanneries, 
four Mercantile Stores, and fire 
Taverns. 

The population of the town, ia 
1810, was 2630 ; and there are 360 
dwelling houses, 400 Freemen or 
Electors, and three companies of 
militia. 

The amount of taxable proper-^ 
ty, (estimated according to the 
laws regulating the making up of 
lists,) including polls, is ^52,821 ; 
and the valuation, or assessment of 
lands and buildings of the town, in 
1816, was 1^976,629. 

There are in the town eleven 
School districts & primary Schools, 
and usually one Grammar School, 
three Social Libraries, three Phy* 
sicians, four Clergymen, and two 
Attomies. 

Suffield originally belonged to 
the colony of MassachusetS, and 
was purcnased of two Sachems, 
at ^100. 

In 1660, it was granted by the 
General Assembly of Massachu- 
setts to major John Pyncheon. It 
continued a part of ike territory 
of that colony, and .subject to its 
jurisdiction until 1752, being then 
annexed to Connecticut. . 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen. Phineas 
Lyman^ distinguished for bis ser- 
vices during the French war, and 
for many public emplovments, was 
ifor seversd, years a resident in this 
town. General Lyman was one a- 
mongthe many, who have risen to 
distinction from the force of native 
talents, and surmounting all the 
obstacles arising from the want of 
education. He was bred a weaver^ 



%B 



BIOGRAPHy. 



but sooo raised himself above this 
situation^ and engaged in mercan- 
.tile pursuits. He took a distin- 
guished part in the dispute between 
thi8 State and Massachusetts, rela- 
tive to the right of jurisdiction over 
the town of Suffield, and the Q^her 
towns upon that boundary, settled 
by Massachusetts.. He afterwards 
became a councillor, then called a 
magistrate, which office he held 
for a number of years* Dujring the 
French war, he had a distinguished 
command in the northern army for 
several years. In the campaign 
of 1755, he served as a major gen.^ 
in the provincial troops. At or 
soon after the close of the war, he 
went to England to support a claim 
of the officers of the provincial 
troops, having been authorised to 
-act as general agent. After experi- 
encing great difficulties and delay, 
(having returned once for an ex- 
tension of his powers,) he succeed- 
ed in obtaining a grant of an ex- 
tensive tract of land upon the Mis- 
sissippi, in the vicinity of Natchez. 
He accordingly embarked, and 
sailed directly for the Mississippi, 
where he arrived about the year 
1774. He dispatched one of his 
sons for his family? which during 
thisperiodhad remained inSuffield ; 
but just before their arrival, the 
same year, Gen. Lyman died up- 
on the tract of land of which he 
•btjPLined a grant. His wife died 
during the passage, and his family 
left there soon after, on the coun- 
try being reclaimed by the Spani- 
ards. 

Oliver Phelps^ Esq. a man of 
extraordinary enterprise and ex- 
tensive business, was for many 
years a resident of this town. He 



mmi 



1- rm iii ! ■ IP III! I I . 1 trnm ■ ■■ ■i nr .n- ^iii ,jtf iiii w i ) < ;i 
SO was the ''maker of his own 
fortunes." He was a native of 
Windsor, but was bred in this town, 
and received a mercantile educa- 
tion. He engaged in business in 
Grjinville, Massachusetts, and soon 
became a very enterprising, saga- 
cious and successful trader^ .Dq- 
ring the revoU'.tionary war, he was 
employed by the State of Massa- 
chusetts in the commissary depart- 
ment. - Whilst in this situation, Iw 
transactions were of a most exten- 
sive and responsible nature, and 
his own paper formed a kind of 
circulating medium. Afterwardshe 
purchased a jarge estate, and re- 
turned to this town. In 1789 he, 
in connection with the Hon. Mr, 
Gorham, purchased of the common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, a tract of 
land in the western part of the State 
of New- York, at what is commonly 
called the Genesee country, com- 
prising 2,200,000 acres. This is 
probably the greatest land pur- 
chase; or speculation, ever made 
by two individuals in the United 
States. This is a very excellent 
tract of land, having a mild climate, 
a fertile soil, and an abundance of 
waters, andis now comprised in the 
extensive counties of Ontario and 
Steuben. In 1 795, Oliver Phelps, 
together with William Hart and 
their associates, purchased of this 
State the tract of land in the State 
of Ohio, called the western reserve, 
comprising 3, 300,000 acres. Some 
years after this, he removed to 
Canandaigua, situated within bis 
Genesee purchase. In 1802,he was 
elected a member of Congress 
from the western district of that 
State. 






WETHERSPIELD. 



89 



ea 



*"^ff*^iyWSi 



WETHERSFIELD, an ancientlj to a million and a half raised an^ 



and populous town, is situated on 
the west side of Connecticut riv^ 
er, four miles south of Hartford, and 
34 north of New-Haven. It is 
bounded north bj Ha itford, south 
by Middletown and Berlin, west 
by Farmington and Berlin, and 
east by Connecticut river, which 
separates it from Glastenbury. 

The area of the town is about 
rit miles square, containing 23,000 
acres. This is an excellent town- 
ship of land, having an undulating 
surface, and exhibiting a beautiful 
diversity of hill and dale. Tht^ soil 
is generally a rich gravelly and san- 
dy loam, but in the western pArt of 
the town, argillaceous loam pre- 
vails ; and some small sections in the 
centre, may be considered as a 
garden mould. It is well adapted 
to grass and grain, & particularly to 
esculent roots. The tract of alluvial 
upon Connecticut river is exten* 
sive and beautiful, and very pro- 
ductive. The clay of Hartford does 
not extend to Wethersfield, but on 
the contrary, there are some small 
£ections of silicious sand. 

Among other agricultural inter- 
ests in this town, the cultivation of 
onions has long held a conspi- 
cuous rank. This is an important 
agricultural pursuit, although it oc- 
cupies but a small portion of land, 
nndthe service is principally per<^ 
formed by females. Wethersfield 
onions have long been justly cele- 
brated, & are exported to the south- 
ern states and the West Indies for a 
market The onions, when prepa- 
red for maiicet, are sorted and 
arranged into Ropes or Bunches, 
eonsistiag of a number strung to- 
gether, of which it has been esti- 
matedy^tbatthfire are fr^ma miUioii 

12 



ntially^ and sent abroad. 

This is the only town in the 
State which makes a business of 
the cultivation of this excellent 
root. It is peculiarly novel and in- 
teresting, on passing through the 
town in the month of June, to be- 
jhold in every direction the exten- 
Isive fields of onions. Whilst in ft 
luxuriant static of vegetation, the 
growing vegetable exhales it» 
strong savour* The atmosphef(» 
becomes impregnated, and the last 
cious qualities of Uie onion are 
wafted far and Wide, upon every 
passing breeze. 

The largest stream within the 
town is Piper's river ; in addition 
to which, there are numerous 
brooks which intersect and water 
the different sections of the town. 

On Connecticut river, there are 
several shad fisheries, and fre*? 
quently large quantities of shad are 
taken. Alewives are also taken 
in abundance, and put up for ex- 
portation. 

The business of navigation has 
received considerable attention iii 
this town, and it possesses conside- 
rable tonnage. Ship building also 
has frequently been carried on, 
but the commercial and maritime 
interests of the town have not 
increased for seme years past 

The civil divisions of Wethers- 
field are three Congregational So- 
cieties, and 1 2 Sehool districts. 

In the first Society, there is a 
pleasant village, containing a brick 
Congregational Church, a Post-of« 
fice, several Mercantile Stores, A 
a number of neat and bandsonie 
4hrfflling houses. 

At Rocky hiM, in the Society of 
Stepney, there i% a sssudWoiVi^^* 



/<■ 



do 



WJNI>SOR. 



'» 1*1,1 ■iifi'UMI g 



mmmmimMmm 



maamt- 



sant village. There are 1 2 prima- 
ry Schools, one in each distjpkt, 
two academical Schools, and three 
Social LibFaries. 

The population of Wethcrsfidd 
in 1810, was 3931, and there are 
now 500 Electors, 300 militia, and 
about 600 dwelling-houses- There 
are 5 Distilleries, 4 Tanneries, 3 
Grain Mills, 2 Saw.Mills, 3 Ful- 
ing Mills, 2 Carding Machines, 1^ 
Mercantile Stores^ and one Rope- 
walk. The listofthetown,in 1817, 
was g67,627. The assessment of 
the U. S. in ISlOwasjJl, 324,1 78. 
Thatofl799, - - - &36,452. 

Wethersfield was o«ie of the first 
settled towns in the Stsete. In 
1634, some of the people at New- 
town, in the colony of Massachu- 
setts, having visited the country 
upon Connecticut river, and be- 
ing pleased with its beautiful mea- 
dows, were anxious to remove and 
commence a settlement tliere. The 
subject having been submitted to 
the Governor and Council, at the 
autumnal session of the General 
Court, it was debated at great 
Imigth, and with great warmth ; 



and notwithstanding the great in-- 
fluence of Mr. Hooker and others^ 
who favoured the enterprise, it was 
decided to be- inexpedient to at- 
tempt a settlement upon Connec-? 
ticut river. Butno^withstandinl: 
tills opposition of the Court, the 
spring following, 163^ a number pf 
persons engagediii the enterprise, 
set out for Connecticut, and arri- 
ved there in Jttly, and erected a 
few hots at Pyquag, within the 
town of Wethersfield, and made: 
out to subsist through the winter* 
The year after, the General Court 
having granti&df permission, a num*^ 
her of families arrived fromNewr 
town and Dorchester, a part of 
which settled here, and a part at 
Hartford, where a settlement had 
alsO'been began by John Steel and 
his associates, the same year witlx 
that at Pyquag. 

BIOGRAPHY.' TheRev. JS/i- 
s?uz Williams WBS settledin the gos^ 
pel ministry in this town. — He was 
noade President of Yale College, in 
172S»» He was a man of energy 
and enterprise, and: had a vigor- 
ous understan^ng; 



WINDSOR. 



, WINDSOR, ooe of the first set- 
tled towns in the State, is situated 
on the ,west side of Connecticut 
river, north of Hartford ; the Post- 
Office in Windsor being seven miles 
north from the city of Hartford, 
and 41 miles from New-Haven. 
The town was settled by emigrants 
from Dorchester, in the colony of 
Massachusetts, in the spring of 
1636. Mr. Warham, their clergy- 
man, removed in October follow- 
ing. There is, however, some rea- 
son to beli<$ve, that some of the 
Ik>rchester people commenced tlie 
^/^cjone/jf^hevcar before. Wind- 



♦.?■* 



sor originally comprised an exten- 
sive tract of country, extending far 
back upon both sides of the river, 
which at this time forms a number 
of townships. The town now com- 
prises an area of 50 square miles, 
or 32,000 acres; being eight and.a 
half miles in length from north to 
south, and averaging about six 
miles in bxeadth, from cast to west. 
It is bounded north by Suffield, 
west by Farmington, Simsbury 
and Granby, south by Hartford, 
and east by Connecticut river, 
which separates it from East- Wind- 
sor. The town is intersected inia 



^ 



WINDSOR. 



W 



oearly two equal sections, by Far- 
jntngton or Tunxis river, the lar- 
gest tributary stream of the Con- 
aecticut. This is a delightful riv- 
er, of about 100 yards in width, 
the borders of which arc fertile, 
pleasant and diversified. In the 
spring of the year it annually over- 
flows its banks, and transcending 
its ordinary bounds^ assumes the 
ftppearanceof aiarge stream: the 
fldhivial tracts that it affords, which 
are of considerable extent, are thus 
bnriched and fert»lized. But the 
river id by no means rapid, being 
itavigable for flat bottomed boats 
for about seven miles from its 
moiith, a^d for sloops nearly the 
same distance, in the spring sea- 
son* Above the boatabie waters^ 
tiiere are numerous sites for mills 
and other hydraulic works, many 
of which are advantageously occu- 
pied. There are two considera- 
ble bridges erected across this 
stream, on the two branches of the 
^reat northern road which runs 
thmugh the town. Win^or is ge- 
ne^tlly of a leyel surface, having 
some extensive tracts of plains, 
and the other parts are of an un- 
dulating character. The soil is 
very various ; Hierebeinga con&ide^ 
rable quantity of alluvial, both up- 
on the Connecticut and Tunxis riv- 
ers ; large tracts of plains, whidli are 
Kg}it,dry,andincHningtoa6aiid;but 
areheaUhy,fe:a(Siib]e, and consider- 
ably fertile ; and in tlie west part 
of the town there is a portion of 
1l)e lands that arc low, flat, and in- 
clining to be wet and marshy ; but 
the more prevailing character of 
the soil is a sandy or gravelly loam,f 
It is free from stone, apd, with few 
exceptions, from clay. Its natural 
gro^'th is oak, waltfutjmapleyelmj 



chesnut, butternut, cherry, thorni 
horn«>beam, bass, birch, spruce* 
hemlock, yellow and white 
pine. The lands, in a cultivated 
state^ produce wheat, rye, Indian 
com, oats, barley, hemp, flax, 
boans, grass, the various esculent 
roots, and tobacco. Rye and In- 
dian corn are the principal grains 
wfaieh are cultivated. There are 
a considerable portion of the im^ 
pro^Fcd lands, excepting the plains^ 
that are under n grass culture, t» 
which they are well adapted. 

There arc extensive oUards in 
the town, and cider is an important 
agricultural interest with the in- 
habitants. It is manufactured into 
spiritous liquor, called cider bran- 
dy, for which purpose almost eve^ 
ry respectable farmer has a small 
distillery upon his own premises* 
This is a source of profit to the in- 
habitants, and the orchards, from 
whence it is derived^ add greatly 
to die value of the lands, and at 
the same time give them the most 
charming and interesting appear- 
ance, exhibiting fields, having a 
canopy of verdure, and studded 
over with art, 

Windsor is divided into three 
Ecclesiastical Societres, and six- 
teen School Districts, lliese So- 
cieties are well settled, and form 
considerable villages. 

The first Society, in its central 
section, has a spacious and hand- 
some street, containing many well 
built houses ; and being intersect- 
ed by the river, having a beautiful 
grove upon its banks, which are 
connected by a bridge, it has aro- 
mantie and pleasmg appearance. 
Upon the north side of the river, 
upon an elevated site, stands a 
large Congregational CteskS^^^^soK* 



'^rr^ 



92 



WINDSOR. 



*fi 



ttguous to which are a number of 
Stores and handsome Dwelling 
Rouaes* 

The Society of Poquonock,^ be- 
ing farther back upon the Tuoxie, 
is a delightful situation, almost un- 
Jrivalled for its conveniences^, and 
its rural scenery and objects. The 
road runs for several miles nearly 
parallel With the river, having a 
beautiful declivity to the meadows 
which line its borders to the cast, 
and a gentle rise of land upon the 
west, extending back to the jfbrests 
and plains. In the tentre, for near 
A mile, there is a " purling brook," 
that courses ^long by the road, 
whose limpid treasures, not yield- 
ing to the severest droughts, are a 
grateful tribute both to man and 
beast* There are in this Society, 
both upon this stream and the riv- 
er,namerous water privileges, and 
^tes for hydraulic works. The 
Society of Winionbury is situated 
inthe southwest part of the town ; 
it contains numerous roads, and 
many handsome and well built hou- 
ses. There is a Post-^office in this 
Society. 

STATISTICS. There were in 
Windsor in 1 BIO, 2868 inhabitants. 
There are 400 Dwelling Houses, 5 
Churches^ 3 belonging to the loca- 
ted Societies, but 1 which of is not 
Congregational, and S for Baptists; 
3 companies of Infantry, and part 
of a company of Cavalry, of mili- 
tia, and 600 freemen or Electors. 

There are 4 Gin Distilleries, 5 
Grain Mills, 9 Tanneries, 1 Cot- 
ton Fartory, 1 Tin-ware Manufac- 
tory, 5 Mercantile Stores, 3 Cloth- 
ic; . Works, and 3 Carding Ma- 
chines. 

There are in Windsor, 12 Tav- 
e^s, or PuWic Inas^ 16 District 



Schook, and one Grammar Schooli 
having a public fund, but it is not 
flourishing, 4 small Social Libra- 
ries,' 4 Clergymen, 5 Physicians^ 
and 3 Attornies. 

The general listed the town, in 
1817, wa&g57,068 14, there being 
302 polls, 341 Horses, 394 pxen^ 
685 cows, heifers and steers, 3135 
acres of plow land, 4153 acres 
of mowing and clear pasture^ 7453 
acres of pasture lands, 9589 acres 
of uninclosed land. The valuation 
or assessment of the lands and 
houses of the town^ in '1816, was 
i 1 ,449,908, 47. In 1 799, it was 
^620,261, 13.' 

BIOGRAPHY. The late Horn 
Oliver Ellsworth was a native and 
a resident of Windsor. His em« 
inent talents and distinginshed 
public services are well known. 
He was one of the first and most 
eminent lawyers in Connecticut, 
and contributed essentially towards 
the establishment of our judicial 
system, being for several years «. 
judge of the superior court. He 
was a member of Congress, - both 
in the house of representatives and 
the senate, for several years ; but 
was most distinguished for his ar- 
duous services in the judiciary of 
the United States, botti in its or* 
ganization and as one of the judg- 
es of the supreme court; which of- 
fice he held for a considerable 
time, and succeeded Mr. Jay, as 
chief justice of this court. Whilst 
in this office, he was appointed 
minister to France, with William 
Davey and Mr. Murray, who were 
commissioned to negotiate a trea- 
ty of peace between the United 
States and the French Republic, 
which they succeeded in accom- 
plishing. He died in Nov« 1807, 



. 4 - 



NEW-HAVEN 



COUNTY, 



# 



NEW-HAVEN COUNTY is 
situated ia ihe southern central 
section of the State, on Long-Isl- 
and Sound* It is hounded on the 
north by Litchfield and Hartford 
counties, on the east by Middlesex 
countj ^ on thesouth by Long-Island 
Sound, and on the west principally 
by the Ousatonick river, which «e- 



parat^ it from the county of Faifv 
field, and in pairt by Litchfield coutt*> 
ty. The county s has an irregular 
form, and has an average lei^tll 
from east to west of about 26 miles^ 
with a medium breadth from nordi 
to south of about 21 miles, and 
comprises an area of more than 
540 square miles, or 345,600 acres^ 



The following Topographical and Statistical Tajsle exhibits a 
compendious view of the several towns in the county ; their situa-. 
tion, with relation to New-Haven , population, according to the cen- 
1SUS of 1810; dwelling-houses; religious societies ; school districts^ 
and post-offices. 



Towns. Post- 
offices. 


Popu- 
lation. 


New-Haven* 


1 


6967 


Stanford* 


2 


1932 


Cheshire. 


1 


2288 


Derby* 
£ast>«Haven« 


2 


2051 
1209 


Guilford. 


2 


3845 


Hamden. 




1716 


Meriden. 


1 


.1249- 


Middlebury. 
Milford. 


L 


847- 
2674 


North-Haven^ 


t 


1239 


Oxford. 


I 


1453- 


Southbury. 

Walliogford. 

Waterbury. 


1 
1 
1 


1413 
2325 
2814 


Woodbridge. 
Wokott. 




208Q 
952- 



Dwelling Religious 


School Distance fron^ 


houses. 


societies. 


districts. 


N. H2i,venit 


1050 


.7 


25 




280 


5 


15 


8 n]i« E . 


370 


3 


12 


13 m. N. 


300 


5 


9 


9 m. N. W, 


200 


2 


5. 


4m. E. 


550' 


7 


19 


l5m..E. 


260 


4 


9 


5m.N. 


200 


3 


7 


17aji.N. 


]25 


2 


6 


22 m* N. W. 


380 


4 


11 


9m.W. 


200 


3. 


8 


8 m. N. 


220 


3 


13 


14m.N.W. 


330 


3 


8 


20m.N.W. 


a4a 


5 


a 


13m« N« E. 


400 


4 


19 


20m.N.W. 


300 


4 


10 


7m.N. 


150 


2 


7 


22 m. N. W. 



V 



94 



NEW-HAVEN COUNTY. 



MteMttite 



The local situation and advanta- 
ges of the county of New-Hayen 
are important. Lying upon Long- 
Island Sound, it has a very exten- 
sive maritime border, indented 
with numerous bays and inlets, af- 
fording important facilities to na- 
vigation and commerce. The face 
of the country and soil arc various, 
corresponding with the geological 
character of its different sections. 
It is intersected by several moun- 
tainous ranges, which pass through 
it in a northerly direction. All 
the important ranges of mountains 
in the state, terminate in this coun- 
ty, and at no very considerable dis- 
tance from each other. The most 
important of these is the great 
Greenstone range, consisting of 
two branches, one of which termi- 
nates at East Rock, and the other 
at West Rock, and which pass thro' 
nearly the centre of the' county. 
East of these, the Middletown 
greenstone range extends in nearly 
a parallel direction ; it passes thro' 
the eastern section of this county, 
for some distance, and more north- 
wardly forms the boundary be- 
tween this county and Middlesex. 
Eastwardly of this, & near the east 
border of the county, commence 
the granite hills, which extend 
northeasterly through Guilford 
and Had dam, and rising upon the 
cast side of Connecticut river, 
form the extensive granit4c range 
that passes through the eastern 
section of the State. The west- 
em section of the county compris- 
es the termination of the granitic 
range, which extends through the 
western part of the State. The 
soil, in the greenstone district, isj 
£:jcnerally fertile, consisting of a 
gravelly and argillaceous loam. In 



the granitic district, both in thfe eas- 
tern and western section of the 
county, it is less fertile, and the 
lands are rough and stony. Upon 
the borders of the sound, there is 
some good land, and numerous 
and extensivd tracts of marine al- 
luvial. There are some considera- 
ble tracts of siliciouy sand, and 
Hght sandy loam, which, in gene- 
raJ, arc lean and sterile. The 
county does not possess a great 
proportion of first quality of land, 
but a considerable sectioa of it is 
adapted to agrain culture, and the 
western part is excellent for graz- 
ing. 

The agricultural interest of the 
county has been considerably neg- 
lected ; and there is evidently great 
want of agricultural enterprise and 
intelligence, and m uch room for im- 
provement. The force of establish- 
ed habits, the influence of preju- 
dice, and a dread of innovation^ 
have as sensible and injurious an 
operatioh upon the interests and 
prosperity of agriculture, as lipon 
any other objects. But, although 
the farmers of this county, in com- 
mon with those of most other parts 
of the State, may be wanting in 
enterprise, they are remarkable for 
their habits of industry and econo- 
my, and, in general, for the rural 
simplicity and plainness of their 
style of living. 

The waters of the county, ex- 
clusive of Long Island sound , which 
washes its southern border for 
more than thirty miles, consist of 
the Ousatonick river, which wash- 
es its western border, and the She- 
paug, Pomperaug, and Naugatuck, 
that discharge themselves into the 
former, which water its western 
section ; the Wopowaug, the West 




NEW-HAVEN, 



95 




river, the Quinipiack, Mill river, 
Branford, Menuncatuck, and the 
Hammonasett rivers, fertilize the 
eastern eeetion of the coun- 
ty, and discharge their waters into 
Long-Island Sound. The latter 
forms its eastern houndarj for 
some distance There are nu- 
merous bays and inlets, and se- 
veral safe and convenient harbours; 
the principal of which are Guilford 
harbour, Sachem's head, Branford, 
New-Haven and Milford* Upon 
the Ousatonick river, the principal 
harbour is at Derby landing. From 
the maritime situation of the coun- 
ty, its advantages for commerce are 
very essential ; and its commercial 
interests are more extensive and 
importarit than those of any other 
section of the State. Connected 
with the interests of navigation, is 
Aat of ship-building, which re- 
ceives considerable attention, par- 
ticularly in the eastern section. 
The manufacturing establishments 
of the county are not numerous ; 
yet there are some very important, 
and upon a large scale ; and there 
are various mechanical employ- 
ments, or certain kinds of manu- 
factures, that are very respectable, 
and carried on considerably exten- 
sively. Of the former, the exten- 
sive Gun Factory in Hamden,' 



and the large Woolen and Cotton 
Factories in Derby, are most de- 
serving of notice. Of the latter, 
the manufacture of Tin Ware, But- 
tons, and Clocks, which is carried 
on extensively in the northern part 
of the CQunty, and the manufacture 
of shoes, which receives considera- 
ble attention in several towns up- 
on the Sound, are most important* 
There are, in the county of New- 
Haven, 1 Forge, 1 Furnace, 1 ex- 
tensive Gun Factory, alluded to 
above, probably the largest private 
establishment in the United States, 
1 Powder Mill, 3 Oil Mills, 4 Pa- 
per Mils, 2 Cotton Factories, 6 
Woolen Factories, 33 Fulling 
Mills, and Cloth Dressing Esta^ 
blishmenis, 30 Carding Machines, 
and 54 Grain Mills. The county 
contains, 30 School Societies, each 
of which is divided into a coii- 
venient number of School Dis- 
tricts, the limits of a sii^le school, 
of which there are in all 193* 
There are also 66 Religious Socie- 
ties, 28 Social Libraries, and about. 
210 Mercantile Stores. The ag* 
gregate; population of the county, 
according to the- census of 1810, 
was 37,064 ; and the amount of- 
taxable property, including polls, 
as rated in making up lists in 1 8 1 7. 
was $770,518 



NEW.HAVEN. 



NEW-HAVEN, the seat of jus-j 
tice of the county, and semi-capi- 
tal of the State, is situated at the, 
head of the bay of the same name, 
upon Long-Island sound, in 41^ 
18 north lat. and 72° 56' west Ion. ' 
34 miles southwest from Hartford, 
55 miles west from New-LondoiU' 



and 76 northeast of New-York.^ 
It is, bounded on the north by 
Woodbridge and Hamden, on the 
east by the Quinipiack river, which 
separates it from East-Havdn, on 
the south by New-Haven bay and 
Long-Island sound, and on the 
west by Milford^ comprising ai^. 




"7 



n 



96 



area, exclusive of the bay, of about 
eighteen square miles, having a 
miean length of nearly five miles, 
with a medium breadth of more 
iijAU three and a half miles« 

Surfaee^ ami and g^ology^ A 
considerable section of this town- 
ship is an alluvial plain. This 
pls^n is of secondary, and appa- 
rently of recent formation ; its ge- 
ological structure consists of strata 
of siliceous sand and gravel, 
which may be r^irded as ma- 
rine deposits* The sand is con- 
siderably ferruginous, and affords 
no impc^ant minerals, and no 
stones or rocJc formation, except 
the occasional occurrence of a fri- 
able sand stone ; evidently of a 
recent formation, and which is lit- 
tle more than an induration of 
masses of Ae sand and gravel 
composing the soil* This plain 
ontends f^astwardly to the Quini- 
pi%ek,aiid is circumscribed nortfa-r 
easterly and northwardly by east 
rock and west rock, and several 
hilfe which are spurs of them, giv- 
ing it a novel and interesting ap- 
pearance. EUst roek is a bold 
Uuff, or nearly a perpendicular 
ejl^ineoce, and is the termination 
cif the east range of the greenstone 
mountain ; it is detached and insu^ 
lated ; this range for several miles 
being broken, or interrupted, and 
presenting a succession of eminen- 
ces. It exhibits a naked roek in 
broken and disordered fragments, 
forming bold mural precipices. 
The geological cjiaracter of the 
6lrata H greenrtone^ being a sec- 
Qods^y formation* This eminen- 
ce \% fBtviXy in this town, and part- 
ly in Hamden^ Contiguous to 
this is mill rock:, of a similar de- 
aciiptiQQ^ and a s^ur of it. East 



NEW-HAVEN; 



m 



rock is about two miles northeast 
from the city of New-HavNsn ; its 
height is from 350 to 370 feet* 
West rock is about two miles west 
from east rock, and about the sam« 
distance northwest from the city. 
This is the termination of the we»t 
branch of th€S greenstone mountain, 
and presents very similar feature^, 
to the otlier ; this range, faoweveri 
is more continuous, especially fQ# 
several miles from its termination4 
West rock is also a bold perpei^ 
dicular precipice, naked and bare; 
It is of about the san^e height ad 
east rock. Contiguous to thi^ also^ 
there are several spurs, or smaller 
eminences, the largest of which is 
called Pine Rock, and runs off at 
right angles from it in an easterly 
direction. These several eminen- 
ces, from their peculiarly hold and 
characteristic features, give to the 
scenery of New-Haven an appeal^ 
ance of novelty, grandeur and in<' 
terest, surpassing that of almost 
any other town in the United 
States. The stones of these moun- 
tains are very valuable for build- 
ing, and have latterly been used 
extensively for that object, in New- 
Haven. A CQiisidereble propor- 
tion of the long wharf is construct- 
ed of them. The western sectton 
of the town, beyond the plaia, 
• consists of a waving* tract of land, 
being the commeijcement of a 
succession of hills, extending west-- 
wardly into Milford, and which 
are commoiily called Mitford hills. 
These hills are of a simihir geolo- = 
gical character; their structure 
consisting of greenstone strata- 
This section of the township is 
nearly five miles in length from 
north to south, and more than two^ 
from e^t to we$t. The soil of 




NEW-HAVEN* 



9i 




this section is a gFavellj loam ; but 
modemtelj fertile, and parts of it 
are lean and sterile. That of the 
aliitvial plain is a sandy loam, light, 
wanP) and dry. It is generally 
thin, and rather barren and sterile, 
in its natural state ; but has suffi- 
<:ient basis to sustain manure, and 
is , susceptible of improvement. 
Upon the border of the sound, it 
has been enriched by white fish, 
which are found to be a very valu- 
able manure ; and, in the interior, 
by barn-yard and other maaures, 
which the town affords. Upon the 
borders of West river, there are 
extensive tracts of salt marsh, 
which produce very lai^e quanti- 
ties of salt hay. Attempts have 
been made, with some success, to 
improve these lands by means of 
draining and, diking. Of what is 
called West Meadow, there is a 
tract ^of more than one hundred 
acres, that lies above, or north of 
ttie bridge across the river. An 
attempt was made in 1769, to pre- 
vent, the salt water from overflow- 
ing this tract, by means of a dike, 
constructed across the meadow, 
having a gate at the bridge, which 
was shut by the tide and opened 
by the river, when the tide -rece- 
ded. When this dike was con- 
structed) the whole of this tract 
Was a salt marsh; and soon after 
tbe salt grass died, and was suc- 
ceeded, upon about half of the 
tract, by white grass, as it is call- 
ed ; and upon the other half by 
spear grass and c)o V43r . A part of 
this tract has been plowed, and has 
carried good crops of com : upon 
some sections of it also are seve- 
ral valuable orchards ; & it has been 
remarked, that the canker-worm 
has neve?" attacked these tre^s. 

13 



Katural and Agricultural Pro- 
ductioTis, — Upon the alluvial plain, 
there were aever any forests, ex- 
cepting those upon Mount Pleas- 
ant, an interesting eminence, com- 
prising about 400 acres, which ap- 
pears to have obtruded itself into 
its present situation. Upon this 
plain, the original growth appears 
to have been shrub oak. In the 
western section of the town, tliere 
are numerous, forests. The natural 
growth of trees consists of oak, 
chesnut, hickory, elm, maple, ash^ 
butternut, white and yellow pine, 
birch, thorn, red cedar, bass, wild 
cherry, and various shrubs or trees 
of small growth. But the forests 
within the town afibrd but a small 
proportion of the fuel which is.an- 
nually consumed. Wood is bro't 
to New-Haven market, for more 
than ten miles, by land carriage. 
And it is estimated that about 
one third of the fqel consiuned is 
brought here by water conveyance 
from Long-Islandl the borders of 
the sound, and the Ousatonick ri-. 
ver. In the year ending June 1 806, 
it was estimated that about 2,60^ 
cords of wood were imported in- 
to New-Haven. And, considering 
this but one third part of the whole 
quantity brought to this market* 
the agg^regate consumption that 
year must have been 7,500 cord§ 
being ten cords to a house ; not 
taking into consideration mercan- 
tile stores, mechanics' shops, &c. 
The pine timber used in building 
is imported from the Connecticut 
and Hudson rivers, ^ome from the 
southern states, but principally 
from the District of Maine. 

. AGRICULTURE. The agri^ 
culture of this town comprises the ' 
varioiTS objects of husbandry Gorn* 






NEW^AVEN. 




mon to this State. Wheat^ rje, 
com, bttrley, oats, flax and grass, 
are the principal products. The 
lands^ although not naturally very 
fertile, are sucsceptible of exten- 
sive improvement* The soil is 
Naturally very dry, and rather in- 
clining to be bard. Wood-ashes 
answer an excellent purpose as a 
manure upon the plain, their effi- 
tmy continuing muoh longer than 
stable manure ; and they tend to 
coirrect the dryness of the soil, 
and also to ameliorate it, by giving 
it more body and consistence. 
White fish also are found to be an 
excellent manure^ They are us- 
ed both with and without under- 
going a previous process of de- 
composition. When in the former 
mode, they are thrown into a pile, 
Consisting of a layer of fish, and 
ohe of earth, alternately ; which, 
^hen suitably decomposed, is ap- 
][>lied to the soil ; when in the lat- 
ter mode, th^y are spread upon 
^e land and plowed iti, and thus 
dissolved and decomposed. The 
number of these fish with which 
an acre is usually dressed, is from 
ten to twelve thousand. They 
freqaent the shores upon the sound 
in the month of June, in krge 
shoals, and are taken with great 
facility. They are efficacious up- 
on all soils, and for almost every 
kind of vegetation. The land in 
this town is in general better 
adapted to tillage than to grazing. 
It is also well adapted to the vari- 
ous objects of horticulture, which 
in general receive great attention ; 
there being, it is believed, as many 
good culinary gardens in this, as 
in any other town in the State. 
The various vegetables, roots and 
fruits, which, as objeets of horti- 



culture, are favoured by the cli<- 
mate, are cultivated in the gardend 
here. Of the fruit, growing up- 
on shrubs and plants*, are currants^ 
gooseberries, raspberries & straw- 
berries; and of those upon txee^^ 
cultivated in gardens and else* 
wher^, are apples, apricots, cher* 
ries, nectarines, peaches, pears, 
plum& and quinces. 

WATERS. The waters of this 
town are abundant, and afford im- 
portant advantages for navigation, 
fishing, manufacturing and other 
interests. New-Hav«n bay, at the 
bead of which the town is situa- 
ted^ is an extepsive body of wa^ 
ter^ beitxg four ^liles in length 
from Loi^-Island sound to its 
head, and about 240 rods wide 
within the beach ; a sand bank 
projecting from West^Haven shore 
altHost to the channel. At what 
is called the point, on the east side 
of the bay or harbour, is a light- 
house, erected Several years since* 
This bay is apparently forme4 by 
the confluence of the Quinipiack, 
the West ^nd Mill rivers. The 
channel of the harbour is the com- 
mon channel of .the first and last 
of these streams, and lies near the 
eastern side. The depth of the 
channel below the bridge, across 
the Quinipiack and Mill rivers, af- 
ter their junction, is fifteen feet, 
at low water. A bar of sand, how- 
ever, formed by the pier erected 
about one mile firom the head of 
long- wharf, has in some measure 
interrupted the channel. The tide 
usually rises in this harbour about 
six feet ; and spring-tides from se- 
ven to eight feet. Upon the east 
side of the harbour, opposite to 
the beach, there is an insulated 
rock of considerable elevation, up- 




NEW-HAVEN. 



99 



on which the United States have 
erected a fott, for the defence of 
the harbour. Previously to the 
late war, it mounted seven gijns, 
and contained a garrison of 22 
men. It was considerably improv- 
ed during the war. 

From the rec€Ssioa of the sea, 
the influx of earth, from alluvial 
and marine deposits^, and the ac- 
cumul,ation of what is called creek 
weed, the harbour has undergone 
great change since the first settle? 
ment of the town. Upon its north- 
west side, the spot which was, 
about seventy or eighty years since, 
occupied as a ship yard, is now a 
rich ineadow, covered with gar- 
dens and other improvements. 
About the same period, foreign 
vessels loaded and unloaded on 
the eastern «ide of Fleet-street, se- 
veral rods above the long wharf, 
where now the spot is covered 
with gardens. 

There are three rivers in this 
township, which discharge their 
waters into New-Haven bay or 
harbour. Of these streams the 
Quiniptack is the most considera- 
ble. It has its source in Farming- 
ton, runs about 30 miles, and af- 
fords a boat navigation to North- 
Haven. 

West river rises in Woodbiridge, 
and runs southerly through tliis 
township; its whole course being 
about twelve miles. Mill river 
has its head waters in Cheshire, 
and runs about the same distance 
as the last. There is one pond 
within the town, called Beaver 
pond ; being, when fall, nearly 
one mile in length, and about 60 
rods in breadth. There are seven 
bridges in this town ; the harbour 
or Tomlinsoii^s bridge. Dragon 



bridge, Long bridge, Neck bridge, 
Thompson's bridge, Derby tum^ 
pike bridge, and West bridge: 
The three first are over the Qui* 
nipiack, and the three last oter 
West river. The harbour bridge, 
which is the only one desendng 
of particular notice, is erected be** 
low the junction of Mill river wiii 
the Quinipiack, and at the en- 
trance of the stream into the har«- 
bour. This bridge is half a mile 
in length, and 27 feet in width. 
One half of it originally consisted 
of two extended piers of stone, 
commencing at the two shores, 
and each occupying one fourth 
of the whole distance; the re- 
mainder was a' bridge ere<^ed up- 
on wooden piers or trestles. But 
the timber used in the construc- 
tion of the trestles, was frequent* 
ly destroyed by the sea worms, 
and demanded continual repairs. 
This part of the bridge having 
been swept away by a freshet, in 
1807, was rebuilt Hit same year; 
when ihe stone piers were so far 
extended as to occupy the whole 
distance, except 30 rods. The 
whole expense was $60,000. The 
stock IS divided into sixty shares, 
mo(rethanonehalf of which is the 
property of Isaac Tomlinson £sq. 
who has also erected a valuable 
stone wharf, extending from the 
iM>rth side of £he bridge along the 
western bbrders of the channel. 
From fliis wharf, the largest ves- 
sels eamployed in the navigation of 
the town can take in their cargoes* 
in 1810, the proceeds of tiiis 
bridge were sold at auction for 
gl,500. 

A great variety of fiiSh are found 
in the harbour and streams of New- 
Haven ; but few oitlv are suffici' 



c 



lee 



NEW-HAVfiN. 



y »«■ ..J,.3M< • 



ikmrnnttrntimmimmtm 



ently numerous to make fishing an 
object worthy of much attention. 
Shad, in favourable seasons, are ta- 
ken considerably plentifully in the 
Qulnipiack, but much less so thaii 
at former periods. A little below 
dragon bridge, 2400 have been ta- 
ken at a single draught. They are 
taken in considerable numbers at 
various ptaces up the river, as far 
as Wallingford. White fish, as has 
before been noticed, are taken in 
great quantities, for the purpose of 
manure. 

Various shell fish are taken in 
the harbour, and mouths of the 
streams, of which oysters are most 
abundant and valuable. The prin- 
cipal oyster beds are in the Quini- 
piack, where it has been estima- 
ted, that several hundred thousand 
bushels are taken annually. They 
are caught principally between 
the two lower bridges. These oys- 
ters are small, but well flavoured. 

In addition to supplying the 
market in New- Haven and its vi- 
cinity, lai^e quabtities are opened 
and conveyed in kegs, into difier- 
«nt parts of the interior of this 
State; into Vermont, and some 
sections of New-Hampshire and 
New- York. This fishery has rais- 
ed up a considerable viOage 
upon ^e Quinipiack. Of the shell 
fish next to oy9ters, clams are most 
important, of which considerable 
quantities are annually taken. 
They are of two kinds, the long 
elam, and the round clam; the 
latter of which is taken most 
plentifully, and is generally most 
esteemed. Until about the year 
1770, oysters were taken very 
plentifully in the harbour, but lat- 
terly the beds have been destroyed 
by the influx of mud. Oysters, in 



order to propagate, require a firm 
bottom, to which their spawn may 
adhere. 

ROADS. There are nine prin- 
cipal roads which centre at New- 
Haven ; one leading to New- York, 
one to New-Milford through Der- 
by, one to Woodbury through 
Humphreysville, one to Litchfield, 
one to Farmington, thence to Hart- 
ford, one to Hartford through Ber- 
lin, one to Middletown, and thence 
to Hartford, one authorised to Nor- 
wich through Branford, Guilford 
and Killingwortb, and one to Say- 
brook. The eight first are turn- 
pikes. 

There are a number of dtfierent 
lines of stages which communicate 
with New- Haven ; and besides the 
great mail from Washington to Bos- 
ton, it is accommodated with a 
number of others, giving it great 
facilities for intercourse abroad. 

STATISTICS. The population 
of this town, at the census of 1 790, 
was 4484 ; in 1800, 5157 ; and in 
1810, 6967; being more by near- 
ly one thousand, than any other 
town in the state. It has greatly 
increased since that period. 

There are in New-Haven, 
1050 Dwelling houses. 

6 Houses for public worship. 

30 Houses concerned in naviga- 
tion. 

5 Printing offices. 
4 Book binderies. 

22 Dry goods stores. 

87 Grocery & provision stores. 

4 Hardware stores. 

2 Crockery stores. 

6 Dri^gist stores. 
4 Book stores. 

6 Shoe stores. 

2 Paper-hanging stores. ^ 

2 Tin ware stores. 



/ 



NEW-HAVEN. 



101 



13 Merchant tailors shops. 
9 Millioery and mantuamakers' 
shops. 
25 Master house-joinets. 
1 1 Master masons. 

3 Stone cutters. 
^Coopers. 

2 Block makers. 
1 Brush maker. 

4 Bakers. 

'4 Tallow chandlers. 

1 Hat factory. 

1 7 Boot and shoe factories. 

2 Tinners and copper smiths. 
6 Saddle and harness makers^ 

1 Comb maker. 

6 Cabinet furniture makers. 

4 Chair makers.* 

6 Coachy sign & house painters. 

18 Blachsimiths. 

8 Chaise & wagon makers, some 
of which carry on the business 
upon an e^s^tensive scale. 

2 Leather dressers. 

2 Morocco do. 
4 Barbers' shops. 

3 Exchange offices. 

4 Rope walks. 

2 Sail lofts. 

3 pistilleries. 
8r Tanneries. 

1 Nail factory. 

1 Cotton Factory. 

2 Paper mills. 

1 Carding machine* 

2 Grain mills. 

1 Powder mill. 

2 Fulling mills. 

1 Public raaricet, containing a 
number of butcher's stalls. 
The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polk, as rated in ma- 
king up lists in 1816, was j^l 32^964. 
There are in this town, about 
700 qualified Electors ;: three com- 
panies of Infantry, one company of 



Light Artillery, and one company 
of horse, and one of foot guards. 

There are in the town of New- 
Haven, 25 primary or public 
schools. There is an almshouse, 
being also a workhouse, establish- 
ed by the town, and under its di- 
rection and authority. All the re- 
gular poor supported by the town, 
are maintained here; and such of 
them as are able for any manual 
service, are mnployed in such oc- 
cupations Sffi circumstaoces will 
permit, & as is thought most advan- 
tageous. But a considerable pro- 
portion of the tenants of the alms- 
house, is made up of children, the 
aged, sick, disabled and deranged, 
who are incapable of any services, 
that can be productiveof any profit. 
The almshouse is under the care 
of the select men, who appoint an 
agent to superintend, and make the 
necessary provisions for it. A 
keeper or master resides in the 
house, and, under the direction oC 
the selectmen, has the immediate 
charge of th^ poor maintained 
here. The number of poor main- 
tained at the almshouse, is usually 
from 50 to 75. In 1805, the aggre- 
gate expense of this establishment, 
was 1^2,615, of which $616 was 
for State paupers ; and the receipts 
for the labour, 1^337. The poor 
supported here are conifortably 
provided for, and treated wiA 
great humanity. 

7%€ dvii divisions a£ New-Ha- 
ven are two located ecclesiastical 
Societies, and an incorporated 

* NEW-HAVEN CITY, incorpo* 

rated in 1784, is situated at the 

[head of the bay or harbour, and 

[comprises an area of about si$ 



\ 



\ 



Ids 



NEWJHAVEN, 



mmm 



■miaimmiimimm 



aqoare miles ; being aboot three 
miles in lengdi from eas^t to west, 
aad two in breadth from north to 
80Qth« It has a beautiful and in- 
teresting site, consisting of a lerel 
plain, ti^e soil of wbich is hard 
and dry, and is surrounded with a 
iiorel, grand, and peculiarly in- 
teresting amphitheatre of hills, al- 
aready noticed, several of which 
present bold anid perpendicular 
columns of rude and naked rocks 
of nearly 400 feet in hei^. 
The oity is regularly laid out, and 
consists of two parts, called the 
M ^iiid new townships. The old 
or original towniUhip was laid out 
in nine squares, of 52 rods upon 
a side* These squares are form- 
od by streets ranning upon each 
ride of fibem, and intersecting each 
«1her at right angles. The cen* 
Ural square is open, having been 
feft as a pubic square ; and is one 
of the handsomest iti the United 
States. It is inclosed with «l hand- 
some railing. The surrounding 
iquu4>es of this part of the town 
|^«t *have, by a bye-law, been 
divided each imto lour, by which 
ike tiumber of streets has been 
d<^crb1ed, and most of which are 
w«tl built. The tiew township 
Mies directly 'east of the old, and 
e9£t6nds to the east riv^r. kis<a 
beautiftil kfvei pie^e of ground, 
A<Hd4aid-out 141 a regular and 'hand- 
some manner, comprising a: con- 
vtwient 'number of streets, which 
cposs <rach other at nearly dght 
awgtes. Besides these two divis- 
ions, a section has lately been 4aid 
<yut by the Hon. James Hi IHiouse, 
Yipon ti>e iworth «part of the oki 
^own, oommenciingatgFOv6-streeit, 
tmd extending to Mount Pleasant ; 
»nd romprii^ing a number of hand- 



some squares, and pleasant and 
convenient streets. There has al- 
so a section been laid out on the 
west side of the harbour, com- 
monly called the oyster point di- 
vision. It contains a numl>er of 
streets and building lots, but at 
present has but few buildings. 
There are in all thirty-six streets; 
of which the principal areGhapel, 
State and Church streiets. These 
streets are compactly built, and 
are the seats of a considerable 
proportion of the commercial bu- 
siness of the city. They comprise 
the Banks, most of the public Inns, 
Printing-offices, Professional offi- 
ces, Book and Stationary Store?, 
numerous Dry Goods and Grocery 
Stores, &c. Next to these, the 
most important streets are Elm, 
George, Broadway, College, Wa- 
ter and Fleet streets. These are 
all considerable streets ; miost of 
them well built, and some are seats 
of activity and business. 

New-Haven, for a {dace of its. 
size and importance, is characteri-' 
zed by an. appearance of plainness, 
neatness and order ; and presents 
little of that stately magnificence, 
or gorgeous splendour, which are 
to be found in most of the cities 
in the United States. The hous- 
es are in general two stories high, 
and built of wood, in a neat and 
handsome style, but are not ex- 
pensive or elegant. Witliin some 
y«ea«s past, however, several brick 
and stone buildings ^ve been 
erected^ which aire elegant and 
stately edifices. HHost of the build- 
ings «tand. upon the streets fonrnng 
tiie 'squlKnes ; tiie compact part of 
the jcity being comprised within 
^ limits of about a xnilo square. 
The buildings are not arranged in 



I»;W-fiAVEN. 



101$ 



lines ; many of tiiem -being set 
back, leaving open fronts, which 
are neatly fenced, and ornament- 
ed with evergreens and flowering 
shrubs* Almost every dwelling- 
house is furnished with a piece of 
ground in the rear, sufficiently 
large for a good garden ; and ma- 
ny for a supply of fruit trees and 
other purposes. These advanta- 
ges and improvements afford the 
inhabitants many conveniences in 
the summer season , and ^t the 



hitherto yielded a^ good profit* 
The public buildings in New<-Ha* 
ven, exclusive of the coUegiale 
buildings, consist of a Stute-housei 
which is an ancient and plain 
brick structure, situated upon the 
public squarsB ; two Congregation-^ 
al churches, both recently erected, 
and elegant brick edifices ; an 
Episcopal cliurch, a Methodist 
church, a Custom-bouse buildingf 
situated in Fleetrstreet, near the 
commencement of the long^wharf. 



same time contribute greatly to| recently &oro«ghly repaired tirnd 



the pleasantness and interest of 
the city* Whijst noticing these 
objects, it is worthy of remark, 
that there is now landing in the 
garden of Abraham Bishop Esq* 
(Which is the same that belonged 
to his ancestor, James Bishop , fer- 
meriy depnty governor qf the co- 
lony ; and which, during a period 
of more than 130 years, has re« 
mained in the «aine family,^ a 
pear-tree, that is 142 years ola* 

A^ong tif objects in the city 
ckeserving ojknotice, is the long- 
wharf* This is a pier^ extending 
from the lower part of Fleet-street 
to the channel. This pier is 3943 
feet in length, and 45 feet in 
breadth, for more than half the dis- 
tance, and 32. feet for the rest* 
The o|ie fourth part, at the farther 
extremity, is constructed of stone 
entirely; and the other three 
fourths of wood, sods and earth* 
About half its length is lined with 
store-houses and their yards, to 
the number of 40. This is twice 
the length of Boston pier, and 
longer than any other in the Uni- 
ted States* It has h^en construct- 
ed by an incorporated company, 
called the Union wharf Company 
of New-.Haven ; and the stock has 



finished ii^superior style, and ren« 
dered very commodious, three 
Academic buildings, and six School 
houses* 

Of the public buildiogSt th& 
Episcopal churdi deserves a con- 
spicuous notice. It is a large and 
stately stone edifice, construeled 
' in a style of superior elegance* . It 
is one of the finest specimens >of 
the arts in, this State; and m 
style of accbitecture, solidify 0£ 
structure, ridiness of ornameftt^ 
and the general elegance of ii» 
appearuice, is surpassed by few 
public buiUings in the United 
States* The stonesof which it i« 
constructed, were from thegreenr 
stone strata of East and West rode* 
This, together with die twe Coii* 
gregational Churches, is also situ* 
aied upon the public square ; these 
several pubBc buildings being ra&« 
ged upon the west side of the ave« 
nue, by which the public square 
is intersected* 

YALE COLLEGE. Among 
theinstitutionsof New-Haven, and 
indeed of the State, Yale College 
holds a pre-eminent rsmk, and de- 
serves a conspicuous notice* It 
was founded in 1700; being the 
third collegiate institution estabv 



104 



NEW-HAVEN- 



lished in the United States^ The 
Assdciation^by whom it was fo^md- 
ed, consisted of ten of the princi- 
pal clergymen in the colony; de- 
signated for this purpose by the 
general consent of the congrega- 
tional clergy and the inhabitants. 
In 1701, the legislature granted 
them a charter, constituting them 
trustees of a collegiateschool in his 
minesty's colony of Connecticut. 
The institution was first located 
at Saybrook; and the first com- 
mencement was held therein 1702* 
In 1717, it was removed to New- 
Haven; for which purpose, a small 
collegiate building was erected, 
from the pecuniary meaus afforded 
by various individuals, but princi- 
pally from the aid received from 
the legislature. Among the most 
distinguished of the early benefac- 
tors of the institution, was the Hon* 
Elihu Yale of London, Governor 
of the East-India Company. In 
1718, this gentleman bestowed up- 
on the institution several dona- 
tions, amounting to £500 sterling : 
soon after which, as ^ respectful 
acknowledgement of such distin-^ 
guished liberality, the institution 
was named. Yale College. Subse- 
quently it has received several ve- 
ly liberal individual donations. 
Among its more considerable be- 
nefactors, was Doct. Berkley Bish- 
op of Cloyne, Jeremiah Dummer 
Esq. of Boston, James Fitch Esq. 
of Norwich, and his Excellency 
Oliver Wolcott, who, in 1807, 
gave the institution j^^OOO, to be 
applied to the augmentation of 
the library. In 1811, a superb 
cabinet of minerals was deposited 
in the seminary by George Gibbs 
Esq. for the }ise of the institution. 
Since the establishment of the in* 



stitution its charter has undei|;one 
several modifications. In 1745, 
it received a new charter, drawn 
by the Hon. Thcanas Fitch, after- 
wards Gov. in which the style and 
name of the members of the cor- 
poration were changed from that 
of trustees, to " The President 
and Fellows^ Yale College.^^ In; 
1792, the charter was further al- 
tered, by a provision, that the Go- 
vernor, Lieut. Gov. and six senior 
Assistants, should ex officio be 
members of the corporation. This 
alteration, which has given addi- 
tional weight and importance to 
the institution, was effected by an 
arrangement with the trustees ; 
the legislature at the same time 
having granted to the coiporation 
a very liberal donation. The cle* 
rical branch of the board, howev- 
er, retained the power of a per- 
petual succession, by the .right of 
filling its own vacancies. The 
charter, as modified in 1792, has 
been confirmed and established by 
the constitution of the State, rati- 
fied on the fifth of October, 1818. 
In 1816, the General Assembly 
granted to this institution a certaiti 
proportion of the monies which 
might be received from the gov- 
ernment of the United States, up- . 
on certain claims for expenses 
incurred during the late war. The 
institution has received from this 
grant the sum of about $7,000. 
This seminary is now very am- 
ply * endowed, and is in a very 



. * The f%mds and other productive 
property of the institution afford an 
annual revenu^of about $4000; and 
it possesses unproductive property ^ 
inclusive of its buildings to the 
amount of about $ ] 75,000. 



»MW-HAVm 



109 



prosperous aad floarishiiog condi* 
tion. It has, sitice its first' esta- 
blishment, beisn an object of the 
peculiar solicitude of the legis- 
lature^^has repeatedly experien* 
ced its fliunificeiice, tod at all 
iiiaes its fe^erin^ care* 

Yale College has, fr<HB an early 
period, ranked among ihe first of 
the Hterary institotions in the Uni<^ 
ted States ; and although numerous 
HvbI seiwiairies hare been estab- 
lished in the neighbouring Stales^ 
yet neither its prosperity nor ite 
reputation has decUaed; bitt on 
the contrary^ both have increased 
with the age of the institution. 
Under the direction of its two for** 
mer presidents, Doet. Stiles and 
Poet* Dwi^, it attained a disttn« 
guidied eminence^ and a solid re* 
patation, which have justly rend^* 
e»sd it the pride of the State, and 
the acknowledged sounce of tlw 
C(4ebrity of many of its citizens^ 
both at home and kbroa»i* lis dia^ 
tinguished reputation, and known 
advanta^s, have secured to it at 
all times, a large number of stui> 
dents from almost every section 
of our country ; and oa a review 
of this institution, it is gratifying to 
reflect, that the reputation which 
it has acquired ia stiU nrniiitaioed, 
and that no apprehensions can be 
indulged of its dechning, so long as 
the institution remains under the 
direction of the distinguidied set* 
entific gentleman, who at present 
presides over it* ■ 

There are at tiiis institution, six 
professorships ; a professorship of 
divinity established in ! 755 ; a pro- 
fessorship of mathematics and nat- 
ural philosophy in 1 770 ; a profes- 
dorship of law^ in 1 801 ; a profe&- 
^rship of chemistry and natural 



history, in 1 804 ; a professor- 
ship of languages and eccle8iasti«> 
cal history in 1805 ; and a profe«» 
sorship of rhetoric and oratory* 
The faculty of the college, to which 
the executive government ia com^ 
mitted, consists of the president, 
professors and tutors* 

There is a valuable and exteiv 
sive lil)rary belonging to the instil 
tution, oonsisting of between sif 
and seven thousand volumes; be^ 
sides this, there are three iibrarieii 
belon^ng to the students; on^ 
caHed the Linoniaa library, con- 
sisting of 854 volumes ; one, the 
Soother's library , consisting of 860^ 
and one, the Moral library, compri* 
sing 303 volumes. The whole 
number of v<dumes, ezeiusive of 
those possessed by the officers of 
&e college and individual studentif^ 
amounts to nearly 9000. 

There is t valuable philosophi- 
cal and chemical apparatus, both of 
whidi are extensive and complete ^; 
and a valuable cabinet of mineraUi 
already noticed* 

The number of students in 1 818^9 
was 283* 

The college edifices consist of 
five buildings, handsomely arraor 
ged in a line, having a spacious 
and beautiful court yard in front* 
Nortii iDoUege is 108 feet by 40 ; 
tiie Lvceum is 5Q by 46 ; the mid« 
dlecollege 1 00 by 40 ; the chapel 50 
by 40; south college 104 by 38> 
These buildings are all fourstoriei 
in hei^t* In the third story in th^ 
thapel, there is a philosophical 
chamber,conteining the philosophi-- 
cal apparatus* The Lyceum con*- 
tains seven recitation rooms, and 
tiie chemical laboratory and its ap- 
pendages ; aod the three college| 
contain mnety^fiix Cl^obers. 



106 



NEW-HAVEN. 



A medical faculty has recently 
been connected with this institu- 
tion. It consiists of three professor- 
ships, besides that of chemis- 
try ; one of materia medica and 
botany; one of the theory 
and practice of physic, sui^ery 
and obstetrics ; and one of anatomy 
and physiology. The medical in- 
stitution is accommodated with a 
bi^e and handsomie stone building, 
and a botanical garden adjoining 
the same* There are at present 
about 50 medical students. 

The following have» been the 
presidents of Yale College.-^The 
Kev. Abraham Pierson, appointed 
in 1701 ; the Rev. Timothy Cutler, 
appointed in 1719; the Rev. Eli- 
sha Williams, in 1 726 ; the Rev- 
Thomas Clapp, in 17S9 ; the Rev. 
JKaphtali Daggett, in 1766; the 
Rev. Ezra Stiles, in 1777; the 
Rev. Timothy Dwij^t, in 1795; 
die Rev. Jeremiah Day, in 1817. 

New-Haven is well supplied 
with schools ;^there are, in the lim- 
its of the city, 18 public schools, 
whiclv were included in the num- 
ber of public schools, stated as be- 
longing to the town. There are 
about 750 scholars attend these 
schools, all of whom are under tt)e 
' age of fourteen years* 

Besides the public schools, there 
is a grammar school, which has a 
Hind that produces ^233 annually. 
The proceeds of this fund reduces 
the tuition of the pupils at this 
school^ to a small sum. 

There is a decent school house 
belonging to the institution. There 
is also an academy called the new 
township academy, incorporated 
in 1809 ; two schools for young la- 
dies, and one for the French lan- 
guage. In addition to thesO) there 



are four or five private, or subr 
scription schools for the primaiy 
branches of education. 
. There are two social libraries 
in New-Haven, one called the mcr 
chanics^ /i6ra'ry,established in.l 793^ 
the oilier the ^ocia/ /i6ra7^, foun- 
ded in 1807. Both of these Ubrar 
ries have a respectable number c^f 
volumes, a'bd. are under excellent 
regulations. 

TAc Museum in New-Haven^ 
commonly called Mix's museum, 
was established by Mr. John Mix, 
its present proprietor, in 1806 — 7; 
and first opened for public exhibi- 
tion, on the 4thof July, 1807. Mr; 
Mix has, with unwearied perseve* 
ranee and attention, and at great 
expense, been making continued 
additions to his museum since its 
first establishment, both by dona- 
tions ; of individuals and purchases 
of his own ; so that at the present 
time, it contains a vast CQilectipn^ 
and interesting variety of articles, 
consisting of most of the noVel, 
curious and striking productions of 
nature and art, from the different 
quarters of the globe. For the pe- 
riod this museum has been estab- 
lished, it has acquired great cele- 
brity, and is entitled to rank a- 
mong the first establishments of 
the kind in the United States. The 
building conte^iaing the museum 
is situated upon Olive-street, at 
the east end of Court-street. The 
collection of articles occupy two 
rooms, one of 50 feet by 24, the 
other 38 by 32 ; both of which are 
completely filled, and handsomely 
arranged with a great number and 
rich variety ^ tiio productions of 
nature and art, worthy the inspec- 
tion of the curious^ as well as the 
common Qbserver^ Op the top of 



NEW-HAVEN. 



lot 



9> 



the building, Mr. Mix has erected 
a Cktmera Obscura^ on a large 
scale, which affords much gratifi- 
cation to all who vietr this curious 
and surprising invention. 
« Attached to the establishment 
©f the Museum are the public gar- 
dens of Mr. Mix, known by the 
fiaiiie of the Columbian Gardens* 
These are a pfece of much resort 
in the summer Reason,: afibrding a 
pleasant and delightful walk ; and 
visitors are accomhiodated with 
the choicest luxuries of the sea- 
son, prepared by the proprietor. 
At the extremity of the gardens 
ih^re is a bath-house, comprising 
fourteen separate bathing rooms, 
all of which are provided with the 
necessary conveniences and appa- 
ratus for bathing. A bathing es- 
tablishment is very important in a 
populous town, as a means of pro- 
moting health, cleanliness and 
comfort, during the intense heat of 
summer. 

The Gcmcfciy in New-Haven is 
of a novel and interesting charac- 
ter. It is situated opposite to the 
north comer of the original town ; 
and the- ground is handsomely 
smoothed and enclosed. It is di- 
vided into parallelograms, each of 
64 feet in breadth, and from 1 80 to 
200 in length ; neatly railed, 
and separated by alleys of suffi- 
cient width to enable carriages 
to pass each other. The jparal- 
lelograms are divided into family 
Jurying lots of 32 feet in length 
and 18 in width ; against each of 
which is an opening to admit of 
a funeral procession* At the 
division between tfie lots, trees 
are set out in the allej^, and the 
name of each proprietor is niarit- 



lots have been given to the seve- 
ral congregations, the college, and 
reserved for the poor. The mon- 
uments in this ground are almost 
universally of marble ; a conside-* 
rable number are obelisks ; others 
are tables and .otiiers slabs, pla^^ 
ced at the head and foot of each 
grave. The obelisks are arranged 
on the middle line of lots ; and 
thus stand in a line successively 
throughout each of the paralleled 
grams. This is a very unusual ha* 
rying ground, and is peculiarly 
solemn and impressive* 

There are two banks in New- 
Haven : New-Haven Bank, incor- 
porated in 1 792, and at this tin^ 
with a capital of ^300,000 ; the 
Eagle Bank, incorpoi^ted inlSll, 
with a capital of $500,000. There 
is a Marine Insurance Company, 
incorporated in 1797. It has a 
capital of $50,000, (which may 
be increased at pleasure,) and ig 
governed by nine directors. The 
Ocean Insurance Company, incor- 
porated in October 1818, with a 
capital of $60,000, and the liber- 
ty to extend it to $100,000. The 
objects of.it are confined tonMi- 
rine insurance. A Fire Insur^ 
ance Company was incorporated 
in is 1 3, witfi a capital of $200,000. 

In 1794, a chamber of com^ 
merce was formed by voluntary 
association. Its officers are a Pre- 
sident, vice-presidentj treasurer 
and s^cretaiy, who are elected 
annually. 

A Mechanics^ Society Was form* 
ed in 1807, called the General 
Society of Mechanics of New-Ha* 
ven, and was incorporated in Oc^ 
tober the same year. The Society 
has some fijinds. Its objects are to 
cdon the railing. A number oflis^giilatejaid promote 



lOS 



NfiW-HAVEN. 



nkal arts and business, and to as- 
sist young mechanics bj loans &c. 

There are in New-Haven three 
news-paper establishments, at each 
of wbick a weekly news-paper is 
published ; one an imperial and 
the other two a super royal sheet. 

In the city of New-Haven fliere 
are more than 800 dwelling hous- 
es ; in 1 800, there were 4049 itt- 
habitants ; and in 1810, 5772; be- 
ing an i(icrease in ten years of 
1723 ; which far exceeded that of 
any other town in the State* 

The next census will probabty 
disclose a proportional increase 
for the last ten years. 

COMMERCE, &c- The com* 
merCe of New-Haven is very res- 
pectable. In 1 8 16, there were^O 
vessels, amounting to 5901 tdm, 
employed in foreign trade. At 
tile same period, there was 14S1 
tons eniployed in the coasting 
trade ; i^d the total of registered 
Vessels, excltisive of those em- 
ployed in New- York, added to 
these sums, amounted at this 
period to 6697 tons. 
' Besides the vessels engaged in 
ft(e fbneign and coasting trade, 
there ahe six or seven packets that 
^y resuhkrly between this place 
aiwt New- York* There is also 
Sl line of Isteam-boats that com-^ 
thunicate thrice a week, (except- 
ing during the winter niOHfts,) 
tvift New- York, and likewise with 
Kew-London and Norwich* 

The extent and importance of 
the commercial interests of this 
dty afibrd a conspicuous demon- 
istration of what has often been 
asserted, that commerce frequent- 
ly depends more upon enterprise 
and industry than up<m local Ad- 
•v^ntsfl^s. 



mm 



The maritime business of New- 
Haven is more extensive tbatt 
that of any other town m the 
State , and particularly its foreign 
trade* This, it is believed, is 
more to to be ascribed to enter- 
prise, industry and pecnHar ha^ 
bits of the inhabitants, than to 
any advantages which are attach- 
ed to the place. As it respects a 
back country, which is generally 
regarded asr die support of cam- 
mercial interests, this tewn it 
greatly inferior to Hartfoni, and 
perhaps to some others* It is si- 
tuated, it is true, upon a bay of 
Long-hland sound ; but still its 
harl^nr is .far &om Mng a very 
good one, or from posf^essing any 
superior advantages for naviga-* 
tion* ^terprise and i»d«stiy 
have a reciprocal infltBence vpM 
each other, and generally exlnbft 
a corresponding increase a«d!«K^ 
tension; And when e<$onoiiiy amI 
plainness, as to style of liviitgi, 
are associated with these cfaaiac* 
teristics, their happy results are 
more striking and conspicuous. 
Th^re are vmocis oflier oinsufli- 
stances, which have a saitntjary or 
injcrriOQs influence upon the ptvB^ 
perity of a cominercial or p o j p u - 
lous town ; and among tliese^ ttat 
of the hi^ price of rents, wbidi 
depends upon a local or ftctittoua 
value that is attadbed to boiUing 
fots, and to -the style and es- 
peHfiiveiiess of buildings, dcs 
serves p^iticitlarly to be noticed, 
as having an injurious operaticm. 
Whatever expectatiiHi9 may 1>e in- 
dulged by the inexperienced, it is 
a feet, establtsfasd by the united 
testimony of all men of practical 
kno^ledgef that the great majori- 
tf of those engaged in buan«ds 



NIW-HAVEN- 



109 



^f every kind, can realize bat wic// 
profits* Thk is more erophati- 
eafiy true with respect to nt^e- 
ohaoicsl employments of every 
descpiption. Excessive reiita are 
a very burdensome tdx upon bu-« 
nnesa alS>rding bat small gains ; 
anfd necessarily tend to depress 
and discourage^ those engaged in 
it. Meefaanical pursaits are par- 
Itciitarly favoured by moderate 
weuts, .New-Haven possesses ma- 
ay i£ ziot all of these advantages 
to a greater extent than most of 
our other kkrge towns. The dwel- 
Kng-hottses and other buildings are 
ki general neat hut not expensive, 
Kid the rents; pcoportionvfaly low. 
The inhabitants are cfaamcterized 
hy a. commen&ble plain&ess in 
iheiy style of living ; and are re* 
BUffkable &m their systematic ha* 
Utft ei indsstcy and attention to 
WaiAeis* The aggregate of me- 
ehanical industry of die town is 
very great, and haifi always been 
iHieoiaaged ; being justly regard- 
ed as n». inq^ortimt auxiliary to 
eoopnercev fiind as essentially cim- 
4nbatittg to the gen^^al proq»erity« 
The merchants' of New-Havei^fof 
some years past, hsiTe been very 
. enterprising, and in general the 
inhabitants hcive been* governed by 
im enlarged and enli^tened po»- 
Jicy; and howfever varianl their 
interests mdiy have been in other 
fespects, they have, on all oecs- 
-sions, exhibited a common interest 
in w^ateve^ has conoeriied their 
ow^ towQ^ and with: united coun- 
sels and exertions have endeav- 
oured to promote its growth, its 
prosperity and importance. And 
hence, for the last twenty years, 
it has exhibited an increase oi 
population, buildings andbusiness, 



^y ■ ^ ■ ■ - ■ ■ • • -v^P^^^^K^^^^^v^^^^^^^v' 

unequalled by any other town in 
the State* 

HISTORY. New-Haven, an4 
the country in its vicinity, was 
called by the natives Quinipiackr 
In 1638, a tract of 18 miles io 
length; and 13 m breadth, com- 
prising, besides the townsbi{> of 
New-Haveuythose of Woodbridge^ 
Hamden, East-Haven, JNortb-Ha/- 
ven, and a part of the towDsfa^># 
of WalFingford,Cheshireand Bran- 
ford, was purchased partly of Me^ 
mauguin, sachem of Quinipiack^ 
and partly of Monlowese, sachem 
of Mattabeseck, now Middtetown. 
The purchase wai made by the 
Rev. John Davenport and TheiM 
philu9 Eaton Esq. for themselves 
and others. Among the first set> 
tters were J^n JDaven^povt, The^ 
ophilua Eaton, Samud flal«%> 
Thomas Giegvon, Robert N«w« 
i man, Matthew Gitbert, Nadianiel 
I Turner, Thomas PugiU, Francii 
i Newman, Ste;phen Goodyear and 
I Joshua Atwater. In June, HS% 
\ the settlers formed a compact, ot 
I regulations ibr their government; 
and 'uk October following, organize 
ed their government accordingl;fy 
when Mr. Eaton was chosen gov- 
ernor. In 1640, ti^ General 
Court substituted the uome of 
New-Hayen> for that of Quinipi- 
ack. In I65d, a system of laWB 
was adopted, which had been fi^^ 
med by Gov. Eaton, and printed 
in En^nd. In 1657, Gov. Eaton 
died, and vras succeeded bf Fran- 
cis Newman, who also died ki 
1 66.1 » In the spring of thi» year, 
Whal«ey and Goflfe, two judges of 
king Qiarles I. came to New-Ha- 
veuy and the October foltowing 
remcMred to Hadley. New-Haven 
[sttiTered eonsiderably during i!sk^ 



110 



BIOGRAPHY. 



revolutionary war. It was rava- 
ged by Gov. Tryon, July 1779, 
and the property burnt and de- 
stroyed was estimated, by commis- 
sioners appointed by the General 
Assembly for that purpose, at 
^84,566. The sufferers in this 
town, in common with those in 
other towns in the State, received 
a grant of a tract of land in the 
western part of the lands in the 
state of Ohio, reserved by this 
State at the cession which they 
made' to the United States. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Ja^ 
red Ingersoll was for many yejirs 1 
ft citizen of this town. He was 
bom in Milford, in 1735, receiv- 
ed his education at Yale College, 
and took his first degree in 1742. 
A few years after this, having gone ; 
fhrough with the usual course of 
professional studies, he commen-; 
ced the practice of law in this 
town. His talents were of the^ 
highest order, and peculiarly adapt- j 
ed to forensic debate ; so ti^at he! 
0oon became distinguished in his* 
profession, and acquired a great! 
and solid reputation as an advo-j 
cate. 

Such was the reputation which 
he had acquired, and the estimation 
in which he was held by his fel- 
low citizens, that in 1757, he was 
tent by the General Assembly of 
the colony, as their agent to the 
court of Great-Britain. In 1764, 
about the period of the passing oif 
the Stamp Act, he went to Eng- 
land again. In 1770, he was ap- 
pointed judge of the vice admiral- 
ty court in the middle district of 
the colonies ; the duties of which 
office rendered it necessary for 
him to reside in Philadelphia. Ac- 
cordingly he removed to that city 



the year after, where he resided^ 
until his office ceased, in conse<* 
quence of the American revolu- 
tion ; whereupon he returned to 
this town, and continued here un< 
til his death. The most remarka^ 
ble feature, in the character of 
Judge Ingersoll, was that of ' an 
ingenuous and dignified frankness, . 
candour and fairness, which al- ! 
ways characterized his deport- 
ment. This resulted from a. con- 
sciousness of integrity and abili- 
ties, which led him to despise the 
Jesuitical arts of hypocrisy and dis* 
simulation, which are so often the 
only resource of small minds. As 
an advocate, there have been few 
if any individuals in this State, 
who have been his equals ; few 
who have had more resources of 
j mind, more amplitude of know- 
j ledge, more clear or coinprehen^ 
I sive views, or more energetic pow- 
ers of reasoning. 

The Hon. Roger Sherman^ dis- 
tinguished for his public services, 
and the important offices which he 
held during an interesting period of 
Our history, was for many years 
a citizen of this town. He was 
bom in Newtown in Massachu- 
setts, in the yeftr 1721. His ad- 
vantages as to education were ve- 
ry limited ; having attended only 
at a common English school. In 
1 743, he removed to New-Milford 
in this State. Several years after 
this, he applied himself to the stu- 
dy of law, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1754. The next year he 
was appointed a justice of the 
peace, and soon after a represen- 
tative in the General Assembly. 
In 1761, he removed to New-Ha- 
ven. From this time his reputa- 
tion was rapidly rising; ai^ ht 




BIOGRAPHY; 



111 



soon ranked among the first men 
in the State. His knowledge of 
the human character, his saga* 
€ious and penetrating mind, his 
^enejal political views, and his 
acciirate and just ohservation of 
passing events, enabled him, on 
the first appearance of serious 
-difficulties between the colonies 
aiid the parent country, to. per- 
ixeive the consequences tibat would 
follow ; and the probable re- 
sult of a contest arising from a 
spirit of resistance to the exercise 
of unjust, ^oppressive and uncon- 
stitutional acts of authority, over 
a free people, having sufficient in- 
telligence to know their rights, 
and sufficient spirit to defend 
them. Accordingly, . at the com- 
mencement of ^e contest, he 
took an active and decided part 
in favour of the colonies, and 
subsequently in support of the re- 
volution, and their separation from 
Great-Britain. In 1 774, he was 
chosen a member of the first con- 
tinental Congress ; and continued 
to be a member, except when ex- 
cluded by the law of rotation; He 
was a member of the immortal 
Congress of 1776 ; and was one 
of the committee that drew up 
the declaration of Independence, 
which was penned by the venera- 
ble Thomas Jefferson, who was al- 
so one of die committee. After 
the peace, Roger Sherman was a 
member of the Convention which 
formed the Constitution of the 
United States ; and he was chos- 
en a representative from this State 
to the first Congress under this 
Constitution. He was removed 
to the Senate in 1791, and re-j 
mained in this situation until his 
death, July 2d, 1793, in the 73d 



year of his age. The life of Mr- 
Sherman is one among the many 
examples of the triumph of na« 
tive genius and talent, aided by- 
persevering habits of industry, 
over all the obstacles arising from 
the want of what is generally con- 
sidered as a re^l^r and systema* 
tic education. Yet. it deserves 
consideration, whether a vigorous 
mindjstimalatedby an ardent thirst 
of knowledge, left to its own ex- 
ertions, unrestrained and unem- 
barrassed by rules of art, and un- 
shackled by systematic regula- 
tions, is not capable of pursuing 
the object of acquiring knowledge 
more intensely and with more suc- 
cess ; of taking a more wide and 
comprehensive survey ; of explor- 
ing with more penetration the 
fields of science, and of forming 
more just and solid views. ^^ Mr* 
Sherman possessed a powerful 
mind, and habits of industry, 
which no difficulties could discou^ 
rage, and no toil impair. In early 
life, he began to apply himselif 
with unextinguishabl^ zeal to the 
acquisition of knowledge* . In this 
pursuit, although he was always 
actively engaged in business, he 
spent more hours than most of 
those who are professedly stur 
dents* In his progress, he became 
extensively acquainted with math- 
ematical science, natural philoso- 
1>hy, moral and metaphysical phi- 
osophy, history, logic and theolo* 
gy.'' As a lawyer and statesman, 
be was very eminent ; having a 
clear, penetrating and vigorous 
mind, and as a patriot, no great- 
er respect can be paid to his me- 
moir than the fact which has al- 
ready been noticed, that he was a 
I member of the immortal Cou^^^u^ 



tie 



PIOGRAPHY. 



q£ '76, which declared these colo- 
t^iesAo be free and iadependecit* 

Samuel Biekop Esq* distinguish- 
ed ft^rthe numerous and responsi- 
ble public offices which be held, 
during a long life, landfor bjs un- 
ii^p^achable integrity, was a na- 
ti^^ of this (town, and lived and 
diodfaer^. He was born in the 
year 1724, and died in August 
IdOSy in the 80ih y^ar of his age« 
Aliyiost his whole life was spent in 
pu^ic ^mploy^mejits ; ihe duties 
of many of which were peculiarly 
arduous «9d responsible* For 
fifty-fouf je^rs he held the of- 
fice and discharged the duties 
of town-clerk ; and for twenty- 
nin. year9 wm a representative of 
the town in the General Assem- 
bly« Dmng the revolution, he 
wa« a scealous and decided whig, 
and took an active utar t in favour 
of the colonies and their separa- 
timi from Great-Britain* At' this 
period, be was a member of the 
committee of correspondence and 
of the Governor's Council of safe- 
ty* For a great number of years 
be wa$ a magistrate or justice of ^ 
tk^ ipeace ; also judge of probate j 
aod chief judge of the county . 
eouf t* At his death, and for some ! 
years preceding, he was mayor 
of the city of New-Haven, aud 
Collector of the district. The 
duties of all these various offices 
he discharged with ability, faithful- 
ness and integrity, and to the ge- 
neral satisfaction of his fellow-ci- 
tizens* Few men have been 
engaged an equal period in. public 
employments, or in so great a di- 
versity of them, & few have dischar- 
ged their duties with equal faith- 
felness and int^rity ; few who in 
the eiirde of their action have been 



more extensively useful, or wh^ 
have more perfectly finished the 
work and objects of life* 

The Rev. Timothy Dwight^ Dm 
D. was born in Northamptoi^ 
Mass. May 14th, 1752. Atavery 
•early period he disclosed um^ual 
indications of genius, and an ex- 
traordinary propensity and apti- 
tude for study and the acquisitioA 
of knowledge. Such was the ex- 
traordinary pFoficiency be had 
madse in elementaiy studies, that 
he was admitted a member of 
Yale College ia 1765, when be 
had but just entered Jiis Idthyear* 
At college he sooa acqiaired the 
character of a good scliolar, and 
of being remarkable for hts flevo<> 
tion to study* He graduated in 
1769, having gone 4ju«»ugh the 
UBual cpurse.otf studies with great 
credit. In September 1771, 
when he was but 1 9 years of age^ 
he was chosen tutor in this semina* 
ry. He remained in this situation 
for six years, and discharged its 
duties with unusual success aad 
reputation* During this period 
he composed the well known epic 
poem entitled the '^ Conquest of 
i Canaan'," the poem having been 
finished when he was only 22 
years of age* In 1 777|, it being du* 
ring the revolutioiTary war, he was 
licensed as a clergyman ; and the 
same year received, the appoint** 
ment of a chaplain in Gen. Pari* 
sons' brigade, and joined the ar*' 
my at West-Points Soon after 
this, whilst in the aimy, be wrote 
his much admired patriotic a.-d 
national song, Columbia* This 
has justly beeo esteemed as the 
best effusion of his muse* He 
did not continue long in the army, 
for, in 17789 he returned to hU 



felOGRAPHY. 



113 



IS! 



feative town, where he remained 
for five years. During this peri- 
ad, he was employed, a portion 
of the time, as an instructor of 
youth; and occasionally officia;ted 
as a Clergyman* Whilst in this 
situation, he was twice chosen a 
representative of the town in the 
legislature of the State. 

In 1783, having received an in- 
vitation, he became settled as a 
clergyman in Greenfield^ a socie- 
ty in the town of Fairfield in Con- 
necticut. He continued in this 
situation for nearly twelve years, j 
and became highly distinguished I 
in his profession, and as a sound, 
able, eloquent, orthodox and prac- 
tical preacher. During his resi- 
dence in this delightful and highly' 
interesting situation, he conceived, 
and wrote his poem, entitled: 
'* Greenfield Hill," consisting of 
seven parts, and a work of consi- 
derable merit. This publication, 
together with his Conquest of Ca- 
naan, was republished in England. 
Whilst in this situation also, he 
established and maintained an aca- 
demic school, which deservedly 
sustained a high reputation^ In 
the spring of 1795, Dr. Dwight 
was called, from this delightful 
abode and favourite retreat, to the 
presidency of Yale College, as the 
successor of President Stiles. In 
this important and responsible si- 
tuation, he continued nearly 22 
years ; during which lengthy peri- 
od he presided over the institution 
with great ability and astonishing 
success. 

Notwithstanding the extensive 
erudition of President Stiles, and 
the high reputation which the in- 
stitution, while he presided over 
rt, had acquired, yet its reputa-K 

15 



tion and prosperity were greatly 
increased during the presidency of 
Dr. Dwight ; although a portion 
of this period was one of peculiar 
difficulties. At the accession of 
President Dwight, there were but 
about 110 students; whereas, at 
some periods subsequently, the 
number amounted to 313. 

Few men have possessed the 
various and important qualifica- 
tions necessary for a situation of 
this description, in so eminent a 
degree as President Dwight. He 
possessed a sound and penetrating 
mind, indefatigable industry, a lau* 
dable and elevated ambition for 
literary fame, adequate scientific 
acquisitions, and an extensive fund 
of general information. With 
these qualifications he united oth*- 
ers, although more common, yet 
equally important ; an agreeable 
and dignified person and deport- 
ment ; a fine constitution ; an unu- 
sual share of common sense ; an 
accurate and extensive knowledge 
of the human character ; an ex- 
tensive and just observation ; great 
practical knowledge, and an unu- 
sual portion of prudence or poli- 
cy. His writings, which were pub- 
lished in his lifetime, consist, in 
addition to his poetical works, the 
most important of which have al- 
ready been noticed, of aumerous 
sermons or theological discourses^ 
delivered on various important oc- 
casions. Since his death, a series 
of bis sermons, comprising a l^s^ 
tern of Theology, has been pub- 
lished in five large octavo volumes. 
This edition of his sermons, which 
was published at Middletown iu 
this State, in 1818, has also been 
pubUshed in England. He died 
on the 1 1th of January, 1817, M 65. 




114 



BRANFORD. 



BRANFORDis a post township, 
situated upon Long-Island sound, 
8 miles from New-Haven, and 40 
miles from Hartford ; bounded on 
Ihe north by Wallingford, on the 
cast by Guilford, on the south by 
Long-Island sound, and on the 
west by North and East-Haven. 
Its average length is 9 miles, and 
its average breadth 5 miles ; com- 
prising 45 square miles, or about 
30,000 acres. 

The township is uneven, con- 
sisting of hill and dale ; upon the 
borders of the sound, there are 
some small sections that are level. 
The soil is more generally a red, 
gravelly loam ; in some sections, 
argillaceous loam prevails. There 
are also some tracts of salt marsh. 
The natural growth consists of oak, 
eIm,walnut,botternut,buttonwood, 
&c. The lands, when cultivated, 
produce grass, Indian corn, rye, 
and some wheat; but corn receives 
the most attention, and is princi- 
pally cultivated. 

There are no considerable riv- 
ers in the town. The lai^est 
stream discharges itself into the 
harbour, which is a small but con- 
venient one, and admits of vessels 
of from 40 to 60 tons* 

Upon the western boundary of 
the town there is a small lake, 
called Saltonstall lake. 

Tliere are a cluster of small 
islands in Long-Island sound, be- 
longing to this town, called Thim- 
ble Islands ; and another cluster 
called Indian Islands. 

This town, being situated upon 
the sound, possesses great con- 
veniences fdr fishing : various 
kinds of salt water fish, both shell 
and fin, are taken plentifully in 
almost every month in the year. 



Of the shell fish, the oyster and 
clam are the most important. The 
fish, with which the town is sup- 
plied, are a convenience and lux- 
ury to the inhabitants, and a source 
of considerable profit* In addi- 
tion to the business of fishing, 
there are other maritime employ- 
ments and interests : the coasting 
i business has received considera^ 
ble attention ; there are six ves- 
sels of from 40 to 60 tons en- 
gaged in this business, which be- 
long to this town. The maritime 
situation and interests of the place 
have a tendency to affect the cha- 
racter of the inhabitants, and to 
give a direction to their pursuits 
and industry. 

There is a small but pleasant 
village in the town, consisting of 
about 30 dwelling-houses, a post- 
office, church, stores, &c. It is, 
from its contiguity to the sound, 
and the fish with which it is sup- 
plied, a place of some resort in 
the summer for health or pleasure* 

The town is accommodated with 
the turnpike road from New-Ha- 
ven to Middle town, which leads 
through its northern section. 

Its population, in 1810, was 
1 932. There are 280 dwelUng- 
houses, 220 qualified Electors, and 
two conipanies of militia. The 
amount of taxable property, ihclu^ 
ding polls, is ^54,739^ 

The manufactures and mechani- 
cal employments consist of 1 small 
Furnace ior casting, 1 Carding Ma- 
chine, 3 Fulling Mills, 4 Grain 
Mills, and 2 small Distilleries* 
There are 6 mercantile stores^ 

The town contains 3 loca- 
ted Congregational Societies and 
Churches, and 2 Episcopal Soci- 
eties, which are also accommoda- 



'^' 



.^■ 



CHESHIRE. 



115 



ted with houses for public woi^hip. 
It has 15 School Districts and 
Schools, 2 small Social Libraries, 
1 Episcopal and 3 Congregational 



Clergjmen, and 5 Physicians. 

Branford was settled in the year 
1644. 






CHESHIRE. 



CHESHIRE is a post township, 
situated in the northern section 
of the county, 25 miles from Hart- 
ford, and 13 from New- Haven, 
bounded on the north by Wolcott, 
and SoutUngton, in Hartford 
county, on the east by Meriden 
and Wallingford, on the sokuth by 
Woodbridge and Hamden, and on 
the west by Waterbury. Its ave- 
rage length from north to south is 
7 miles, and its average breadth 
from east to west, nearly 6 miles ; 
containing about 40 square miles. 
The northeastern section of the 
town is watered by the Quinipi- 
ack ; its northern section by a 
branch of this stream, called ten 
mile river; and in its southern 
section several branches of Mill 
river have their sources. 

The township is moderately un- 
even ; being pleasantly diversified 
with hill and dale, except its wes- 
tern section, w^hich is hilly and 
mountainous, embracing the West 
rock range of mountain. The 
prevailing soil is a gravelly loam, 
and is generally rich and fertile, 
affording grass, rye, oats, Indian 
corn and other productions com- 
mon to this district. Of the na- 
tural growth of timber, chesnut, 
oak of the various kinds, and wal- 
nut, are the most prevalent. The 
geological structure of the town- 
ship consists of argillaceous schis- 
tus and greenstone ; and there are 
appearances of several minerals : 



'galena, or lead ore, and copper are 
have been discovered ; but its 
mineralogy has received but little 
attention. 

The Farmington and New-Ha- 
ven turnpike passes through the 
centfe of the town ; and a turn* 
pike which is contemplated to be 
laid out, to be called the Wolcott 
turnpike, will also pass through 
it. 

' The town contains two located 
Ecclesiastical Societies, and one 
Society of Episcopalians ; each of 
which is accommodated with a 
house for public worship. It con- 
tains 1 2 School districts and com- 
mon Schools, and an incorporated 
Academy. 

The Episcopal Academy in this 
town is a very respectable institu- 
tion. It was incorporated in 1 801 , 
being styled the Episcopal Acade- 
my of Connecticut. It has a fund 
of about $25^000, and a library, 
containing about 200 voluines. 
The institution is under the direc- 
tion of a Principal and a Profes- 
sor of languages. It has also a 
Treasurer and Secretary. The 
stated anniversary is the first Vlf^ed- 
nesday of October ; and the ave- 
rage number, of scholars is about 
70. The academical building con- 
sists of a substantial brick edifice, 
54 feet by 34. It was erected by 
the town, in 1 796, and has a plea* 
sant and interesting site, and is sur* 
rounded by a spacious <io^tV^^x^» 



'^ 1 



116 



DERBY. 



The population of Cheshire, in 
IBlQj was 2388; and there are 
about 350 Dwelling houses, 350 
Freemen or Electors, 3 compa- 
nies of Infantry, and a part of a 
company of Cavalry, of militia. 
The amount of taxable property, 
including polls, is ^53,514. (n 
the centre of the town there is a 
considerable village, having a 
pleasant and prospective situa- 
tion* It contains forty or fifty 
dwelling houses, two Churches, 
the academical building, a Post-of- 
fice, and several Mercantile Stores. 



There are in the town, 4 Grain 
Mills, 2 Fulling Mills and Cloth- 
iers' Woriks, 2 Carding Machines, 
1 Tinware Factory, 5 Tanneries, 
5 Mercantile Stores, and 5 Tav- 
erns. There is also 1 Social 
Library, besides the one belong** 
ing to the Academy ; an Engrav- 
ing and Copper-plate Printing es- 
tablishment, 4 Physicians, 2 Clerr 
gymen, 1 Episcopalian and 1 
CongregationaUst ; and 1 Attor- 
ney. This town, originally be- 
longing to the town of Wallingfbrd, 
^ was incprporated in May, 1780* 



DERBY. 



DERBY, an ancient commer- 
cial post town, is situated upon the 
eastern side of the Ousatonick riv- 
er, 1 2 miles from its mouth, at the 
head of navigation ; 9 miles north- 
west from New-Haven, and 38 
southwest from Hartford ; bound- 
ed on the north by Oxford, on the 
east by Woodbridge, on the south 
by Milford, on the southwest by the 
Ousatonick river, which separates 
it from Huntington, in Fairfield 
eounty , and on the west by a part of 
Oxford. Its mean length is about 5 
& a half miles, and its mean breadth 
4 and a half^ comprising an area of 
about 25 square miles* The sur- 
face is undulating, being pleasantly 
diversified with hills and dales. 
Upon the borders of the Ousatonick 
& Naugatuck, there are some fine 
tracts of alluvial. The prevailing 
soil is a ^^velly loam ; some san- 
dy loam, and some small sectioi^ 
of calcareous loam. There are con- 
siderable forest lands in the town- 
ship, and quantities of wood and 



timber are exported to the city of 
New- York. 

The town is well watered ; its 
southern border being washed by 
the Ousatonick, and the Naugatuck 
runs through it from north to souths 
and unites with the former within 
the town, at what is trailed. the 
landing orharbour. 

The Naugatuck contains some 
excellent privileges for mills and 
manufacturing establishments, 
which have been duly appreciated ; 
and upon the Ousatonick, there 
are several shad fisheries. 

There are several turnpike roads 
that load through the town; the 
Rimmon falls turnpike, and the 
Ousatonick and Derby turnpikes. 

The interests of the town em- 
brace those of agriculture, manu- 
factures and commerce. The agri- 
cultural productions consist of 
wheat, lye, com, oats, grass, but- 
ter, cheese, beef, flax, flaxseed, 
wool and some others. This was 
formerly a place of considerable 




DERBY. 



lir 



.^sss 



commercial importance ; the West 
India trade havinjg once been flour- 
ishing, and carried on to conside- 
rable extent ; but for some years 
past, the commerce of the town 
has much declined. The mari- 
time business is done at the land- 
ing, where there is a small village, 
situated at the confluence of the 
Kaugatuck with the Ousatonick. 
The harbour is good, and the navi- 
gation to the mouth of the river 
into Long Island sound, for vessels 
of about 80 tons ; there being 
about 10 feet of water. The place 
possesses some local advantages for 
trade, being at the head of navi- 
gation ; and the natural depot, for 
the surplus produce of a back 
country of considerable extent, up- 
on the borders of the Ousatonick. 
These local advantages formerly 
gave the place considerable com- 
mercial consequence; but its vi- 
cinity to New-Haven is probably 
a circumstance that has counter- 
acted their operation, and occa- 
sioned a decline of its trade and 
commercial interests. Spme at- 
tempts have recentiy been made, 
to revive its commerce and busi- 
ness; a bank has been established, 
&a fishing company incorporated ; 
but the exertions which have been 
made, have been attended 
with little or no success. The 
bank has now closed its operations, 
the business of the pteice being un- 
able to sustain it ; yet, notwith- 
standing these facts, and the inau- 
spiciousness of present appearan- 
ces, it is not improbable, that at 
some future period, the local ad- 
vantages of the place will over- 
come the causes, whatever they 
may be, which have restricted and 
depressed its commercial interests, 



and give it that character and im- 
portance, which circumstances at 
an early period seemed to forebode. 
At the present time, the wholes 
shipping of the place consists of 
four coasters, which are employed 
principally in a trade with ttie city 
of New- York. 

Of the manufactures of this town, 
the lai^e Woolen Factory , erected 
by the late Gen. David Humphrey, 
is the most important. This was 
one of the first establishments in 
the United States, and is «ituated 
upon the Naugatuck river, several 
miles back from the Ousatonick. 
The buildings connected with this 
establishment, and the Cotton Fac- 
tory belonging to the same compa- 
ny, and other buildings which have 
been erected for the residence of 
the workmen, boarding houses, &c. 
have formed considerable of a vil- 
lage, which, in honour of its foun- 
der, is called Humphreysville. 
This establishment is upon an ex- 
tensive scale ; the proprietors of 
which, consisting of David Hum- 
phrey and his associates, were 
incorporated in May, 1810, by the 
name of "The Humphreysville 
Manufacturing company,'' with a 
capital of $500fiQO. The woolen 
manufactures of Humphreysville 
are known throughout the United 
States, and have acquired a repu- 
tation, at least equal to that of any 
other in this country. There is 
also a Cotton Factory at this vil- 
lage, belonging to this incorpora- 
ted munufacturing company ; a 
Paper Mill, and a Grain Mill. At 
some periods, the company have 
had in their employ, at the Wool- 
en, Cotton, and other manufactu-- 
ring interests at this village, nearly 
200 workmen. There ave^ ^J^t^s^ 



118 



BIOGRAPHY. 



— > 



mercantile stores and a post-office | 
at the village. 

In addition to the manufactures 
at the village of Humphreysville, 
there is one Brass Foundery, two 
Oil Mills, six Limekilns, four Grain 
Mills, one of which is a Flouring 
Mill, one Fulling Mill and Clo- 
thiers' Works, one Carding Ma- 
chine and seven Tanneries. 

The population of this town, in 
1810, was 2051 ; and there are 
300 Dwelling Houses, 200 Free- 
men or Electors, and 3 companies 
of militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, as rated In making up lists, is 
S31,307, 

The civil divisions of the town 
are two located Societies or par- 
ishes, and eight or nine School 
Districts. There are five religious 
Societies and Churches, two of 
Congregationalists, two of Episco- 
palians, and one of Methodists. 
In each of the School Districts, 
there is a School House, and a 
primary or common school main- 
tained a suitable portion of the 
year. There are in the town, 
two small villages, of 30 or 40 
houses each, in additon to the 
manufacturing village of Humph- 
reysville. 

There are 7 mercantile Stores, 
2 Social Libraries, 3 Clergymen, 
2 Physicians and 2 Attomies. 

This place was originally called 
Paugassett, and belonged to the 
town of Milford. Some settlements 
were attempted in 1 764, but were 
not permanent. In 1657 — 59, the 
lands were purchased of the na- 
tives ; soon after which, the set- 
tlement made considerable pro- 
gress. In 1671, the inhabitants 
presented a petition to the General 



— Wlfc 



Court, to be incorporated as a 
town, and renewed their applica- 
tion. In 1675, when at the Octo- 
ber session, the town was incorpo- 
rated by the name of Derby, at 
which time there were but twelve 
families 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen. David 
Humphrey^ was a native of this 
town. He was a son of the Rev. 
Daniel Humphrey, and was born 
in July 17ir2. In 1767, be enter- 
ed Yale Colleg^, and received his 
first degree in 1771. Whilst in 
college, he cultivated an attach- 
ment to the muses, and disclosed 
early evidences of poetical talent. 
During the revolutionary war, he 
entered the army as aeaptain ; but 
at what time we are not informed. 

In 1778, however, he was aid 
to Gen. Putnam, with the rank 
of major. Two years after this, 
he was appointed aid to the Com- 
mander in^ chief ; having been 
the successful candidate of four 
who solicited the office. His 
competitors were Col. Talnmdge, 
Gen. William Hull, and Roger 
Alden. He continued in this si- 
tuation during the war, having the 
rank of a colonel, and was par^ 
ticularly distinguished at the me- 
morable siege of York ; and Con- 
gress, as a respectful testimony of 
their high estimation of his valour, 
fidelity, and signal services on this 
occasion, voted him an elegant 
sword. At the close of the war, 
he accompanied Gen« Washington 
to Virginia. In 1 784, he embark?* 
ed for France, in' company with 
the brave but unfortunate Kosci- 
usko ; having, on the appointment 
of Mr. Jefferson as ambassador to 
France, been nominated as bis se- 
cretary. In 1 786, he returned to 



EAST-HAVEN. 



119 



»te 



America, and revisited the scenes 
of his youth in his native town. 
Soon after his rptum, he was 
elected by his fellow citizens to 
he their representative in the le- 
gislature of the State, and con- 
tinued to be elected for two years , 
when he was appointed to the 
comnaand of a regiment raised for 
the western service. During the 
period that he held this office, he 
remained most of the time in Hart- 
ford ; and, with Hopkins, Barlow 
and Trumbull, assisted in the pub- 
lication of the Anarchiad. On 
the reduction of his regiment, 
he repaired to Mount Vernon, and 
continued with Gen. Washington 
until 1790, when he received an 
appointment to the court of Por- 
tugal. In 1 794, he visited Amer- 
ica, but soon returned to Lisbon. 
Soon after this, he received an ap- 
pointment to the court of Spain, 
where he continued until 1802, 
when he again returned to his 
native country. This was the end 
of his public life. After his return 
to America, he was, until his death, 
extensively engaged in various ob- 
jects of public utility, particularly 
manufactures and agriculture. He 
is well known to have been one 



of the first who introduced meri- 
no sheep into this country, which 
has greatly improved the quality 
of wool, and given ,a strong im- 
petus to domestic manufactures. 
The extensive woolen and cotton 
factory ,which he established in this 
town, has already been noticed. 
He also did much for the promo- 
tion of agriculture ; and just pre- 
previously to his death was making 
exertions to form a society, for the 
purpose of procuring a firm for 
agricultural experiments. 

Gen. Humphrey possessed con- 
siderable literary acquirements, 
although he published no work of 
magnitude ; his writings consist 
principally of various poetical pro- 
ductions. Of these, the most im- 
portant are an address to the ar- 
mies of the United States ; a pb- 
em on the happiness of America ; 
a poem on the future glory of the 
United States ; a poem on the in- 
dustry of the United States ; a po- 
em on the love of country ; and 
a poem on the death of General 
Washington. He wrote also a 
memoir of Gen. Putnam, various 
political tracts, &c. He died in 
New-Haven, 21st Feb. 1818, aged 
66 years. 



EAST-HAVEN. 



EAST-HAVEN is a small town- 
ship situated Upon Long Island 
sound and New-Haven bay, four 
miles from the city of New-Ha- 
ven, and 40 from Hartford ; boun- 
ded on the north by North-Haven, 
on the east by Branford, on the 
south by Long Island sound, and 
on the west by New-Haven bay 
arid the Quinipiack river. Its av- 



erage length is 6 miles, and its 
average breadth nearly 3 miles ^ 
comprising about 17 square 
miles. 

Upon the Quinipiack the land is 
level, and the soil is light and 
sandy. For a considerable dis- 
tance into the interior^ it conti- 
nues level, and the soil is a sandy 
loam ; but the eastern boTrdax: x^ 



129 



GUILFORD. 



hilly and stony, and the soil a gra- 
velly loam. The agricultural pro- 
ductions consist of Indian corn, 
some rye, barley, grass, salt hay ; 
there being about 400 acres of 
salt marsh or meadow in the town. 

The Quinipiack river washes 
the western border of the town ; 
besides which, it is watered by 
several small streams* Salton- 
stall Pond or Lake, a small body 
of water, is situated partly in this 
town and partly in Branford. 

There are three considerable 
bridges in the town ; the Dragon 
bridge, the Tomlinson bridge, and 
the Turnpike bridge. Shell fish 
are taken plentifully at Dragon ; 
and there are several other small 
fisheries. Oysters and clams are 
the most important of the shell 
fish ; and the black fish, of the 
" finny tribe." Large quantities 
of the white fish are taken for ma- 
nure, for which purpose they are 
found to be very valuable. 

The Middlctown and Durham 



turnpike road leads through this, 
town. 

Agriculture and fishing are the 
principal occupations of the inha- 
bitants ; and manufactures or me-' 
chanical employments have recei- 
ved but little attention. There is 
1 Grain Mill, 1 Fulling Mill and 
Clothiers' works, 1 Carding Ma* 
chine, 2 Mercantile Stores, and 
3 Public Inns. The population 
of the town, in 1810, was 1209; 
and there are 130 qualified Elec- 
tors, one company of militia, and 
about 200 dwelling bouses. 

The town contains one located 
Congregational Society & Church, 
one Society of EpiscopaUans, 5 
School Districts and Schools, and 
one small Social Library. The, 
professional men are two Clergy- 
men and one Physician. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $22,694. 

East-Haveii was taken from 
New-Haven, and incorporated in 
Mar, 178 J. 



GUILFORD. 



GUILFORD, an ancient and 
populous maritime post township, 
is situated upon Long Island sound, 
15 miles east of New-Haven, and 
36 south from Hartford ; bounded 
on the north by Durham, on the 
east by Hammonassett river, which 
separates it from Killingworth, on 
the south by Long Island sound, 
and on the west by Branford. Its 
mean length from north to south 
is about eleven miles, and its mean 
breadth nearly seven ; comprising 
about 72 square miles. The sur- 
face and face of the country are 
various ; on the border of the 



[sound, are some tracts of alluvial 5 
I the interior is broken, and rough, 
being rocky and hilly ; and in some 
sections mountainous. The rocks 
are primitive, consisting of gra- 
nite, and other original forni- 
ations. The prevailing soil is a 
gravelly loam, interspersed with 
some sections of sandy loam. 
It is considerably strong and fer-^ 
tile. In the interior of the town- 
ship, and in its northern section, 
there are extensive tracts of fo- 
rests and timber lands, consisting 
principally of oak, walnut, ches- 
iiut and other species of hard 



jguilpord; 









mM 



wood. These lands are too rough 
and stonyfor cultivation, and have 
therefore been suflered to remain 
to forests. The wood is sound 
a.nd hard^ and of an excellent 
quality, both for timber and fuel, 
and is now becoming valuable; 
being situated within a tolerably 
convenient distance of navigable 
waters. Lai^e quantities of wood 
and timber are annually got to 
market, principally to the city of 
New-York* The improved lands 
in the town produce rye and corn ; 
besides which, butter, cheese and 
cattle receive some attention. 
Of the hay produced, a Conside- 
rable proportion is from the tracts 
of salt marsh, which are somewhat 
extensive. The farming interests 
of the town are not very flourish- 
ing; and there is an apparent 
general want of agricultural im* 
provements and enterprise'. The 
township is well watered ; its sou- 
thern border being washed by 
Long Island sound, and its east- 
cm by the Hammonassett river, 
and the Menunkatuck, which rises 
in Quinapaug pond in the north 
part of the township, runs through 
it, and discharges itself into the 
harbour. East river, and several 
other small streams, accommodate 
different sections of the town. 
Some shad are taken in these 
rivers, and shell fish and white 
fish in the sound. The latter are 
valued only for manure, for which 
purpose large quantities of them 
are taken. They afford a rich 
and valuable manure, particularly 
for arable lands. Of shell-fish, 
oysters are BW>st important ; of 
which large quantities are amiu» 
ally taken, there being often from 
twenty to thirty ovster boats em- 

J6 



ployed in the business. There 
are two harbours in ^ the town, 
one called the town harbour, the 
ojher sachem's head harbour ; the 
latter of which is esteemed a very 
safe and convenient one. The 
shipping of the town consists of 
three vessels engaged in the coast* 
ing trade, and five regular pack^ 
ets, which ply between this place 
and New- York. There is a turn* 
pike road leading from the society 
of East-Guilford in this town to 
Durham, and thence to Hartford. 
The civil divisions of the town 
consist of 4 located Ecclesiasti- 
cal Societies, 19 School Districts, 
and an incorporated borough. 
The borough of Guilford, which 
was incorporated in 1815, is hand- 
somely situated upon a traCt of 
alluvial or maritime plain, about 
two miles back from the harbour, 
and near the Menunkatuck river. 
Its limits embrace the ancieqfc 
town plot, which is handsomely laKT 
out, having considerable regulari* 
ty. In the centre, there is a pub- 
lic square, at which five consider- 
able streets are concentrated. 
The several streets surrounding 
the square are well built, compris- 
ing many neat and handsome' 
dwelling houses. There are, with- 
in the limits of the borough, 150 
Dwelling houses, 3 Churches and 
a Town house situated upon the 
square, 5 Schools, 16 Mercantile 
Stores, a Post-office, several pri- 
vate offices, and a number of Me- 
chanics' shops. The most consi- 
derable a&d important manufactu- 
ring or mechanical business in the 
town, is that of making shoes. 
There are 1 1 shops engaged in 
thisbusmess intheborou^, some 
of wbic^i pursue it upon an e\tcn- 



«. 



12>2' 



GUILFORD, 



sive scaie. This mairafacture is 
carried on to a greater extent here, 
than in any other town in the State ; 
and the prodacts of the business 
form an important article of ex- 
portation, being principally sent 
to the southern states ior a mar* 
ket* Except the shoemaking bu- 
siness, the manufactures of the 
town are inconsiderable ; the grea- 
ter portion of the industry of the 
place being engaged in the pur- 
suits of agriculture, or the fishing 
and seafaring business* There 
Sure 1 Forge, 5 Grain Mills, 3 Cloth 
dressing establishments, 3 Carding 
Machines, and 4 Tanneries. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 3845 ; and there are 
about 500 Freemen or Electors, 4 
Companies of Militia', and about 
550 Dwelling houses. The ag- 
gregate list of the^ town,4n 1816, 
was* $84,945. Besides the 4 lo- 

«ted Societies, which are Congre- 
tional, there is 1 Episcopal So- 
ciety, 1 of Baptists^ and 1 of 
Methodists ; all of which are ac- 
commodated with bouses for pub- 
lic worship. There are in the 
town 19 primary or common 
Schools, one in each district,^ 4 So- 
cial Libraries, 20 Mercantile 
Stores, 5 Clei^men, 6 Physi- 
eians, and.l Attorney. 

This town, being pleasantly si- 
tuated upon the seaboard ; afford- 
ing in the summer months a cool 
and salubrious atmosphere; hav- 
ing an abundant supply of shell 
and other salt-water fish ; and pos- 
sessing various facilities for enjoy- 
ing the ajr, healthfulness and plea- 
santness of the salt water ; is, in 
the warm season, a place of much 
resort, both for health and plea- 
-sJire I there being few if any towns 



Bfi 






upon the sea-coast, uniting so ma-* 
ny agreeable and interesting ob- 
jects. 

Guilford was settled at an early 
period ; the settlement having 
commenced in 1639, the year af* 
ter that in New-Haven. The first 
setHers were Mr. Henry White- 
field, and several member of his 
church and congregation in Engr 
land, to the number of about forty 
persons. It is represented that 
they selected this location, from 
the circumstance of the near re^ 
semblance it bore to the place 
from whence they had emigrated. 
They purchased the lands of the 
natives, stipulating that they should 
immediately abandon them. But 
notwithstanding this amicable ar- 
rangement with the aboriginal in- 
habitants, it was thought prudent, 
as a measure of precaution^ to 
build one house, which should be 
so constructed, that, ia case of 
necessity, it might serve as a for- 
tress, for security & defence. This 
house, which was built of stone, 
is still standing, having been re- 
cently repaired. It is situated at 
the head of the great plain, iipon 
a small emineBce, and is two sto- 
ries high, it is frequently visited 
by strangers, as an object of curi- 
osity, and as a monument of the 
first settlement oC the town, and 
of " times that are past.'^ 

BIOGRAPHY. Tb^Hm.Mra" 
ham Baldwin^ was a native of this 
town. FKs talents, his vi rtues, his 
patriotism, and his distinguished 
public services, were an honour to 
his native State. He graduated 
at Yale College, in 1772, imme- 
diately after which he was appoint- 
ed a tutor at the same seminary, 
in which situation he continued 



.A. 



BIOGRAPHY. 



123 



BS 



B 



for five years. In the year 1 777, 
he entered the continental army, 
in the capacity of a chaplain, and 
continued therein until the close 
of the war. Not long after ^is 
period, he renwved, at the request 
of Gen. Greene, to the State of 
Geoxpa. On his arrival and set- 
tlement here, he abandoned the 
clerical professidK for that of the 
law. His talents and patriotism 
were too conspicuous to remain 
unnoticed eyen among strangers ; 
he was soon elected a member of 
the legislature of that State, and 
in 1 784, a member of the old Con- 
gress, and continued in that situa- 
tion until the National Constitu- 
tion superseded the system of go- 
vernment, (if it deserved to be 
called a system,) then in existence. 
He was also a member, and a dis- 
tinguished one, of the Convention 
which formed the present Consti- 
tution of the United States ; and 
upon the organization of the go- 
vernment, was chosen a member of 
Congress vender the same, and so 
continued without interruption un- 
til he was removed therefrom for 
a more exalted station^ being ap- 
pointed a member of the Senate, 
in which office he continued until 
his death, March 4th, 1807. He 
died at the city of Washington, 
during the session of Congress, 
aged 53, in the midst of his use- 
fulness, and surrounded with ho- 
nours. 

It is a remarkable circumstance, 
and an instance of assiduity and 
attention to public duties which 
scarcely have a parallel,that during 
his long parliamentary life, he was 
never known to be absent a single 



hour daring ihe session of Con- 
gress, until the week preceding his 
death, from ihdisposj^on. 

He was the found# of a coUep^ 
at Athens in Georgi?!^' of which jhc 
was President for several years. 
He was a man of great talents, ar- 
dent pJBitriotism, and extensive be- 
nevolence ; lived in an eventful 
and important period of our history, 
and acted a responsible and impor- 
tant part in me establishment of 
our present system of government, 
which will go down to the latest 
posterity, and with it the names of 
its illustrious founders. Few have 
acted in a more extended sphere 
of usefulness, or filled more space 
in the public eye'. 

The Hon. Thomas Chittenden^ 
for many years governor of the 
State of Vermont, was a native of 
this town. He was bom 6th Jan. 
1730; and at the age of twenty- 
one years, in 1751, he removed 
to Salisbury in this State, where he 
continued until 1 773, when he, the 
second time, encountered the pri- 
vations and hardships of a new 
country, by emigrating into the 
State of Vermont. But he wa« 
amply rewarded for his enter- 
prise ; having made a valuable lo- 
cation of land upon the beauti- 
ful alluvial of the Onion river, 
which soon became valuable, and 
enabled him to leave a large es- 
tate to his posterity. He was al- 
so honoured with the confidence 
of the public, and attained to dis- 
tinguished public employments ; 
having been elected tfie first go- 
vernor of that State, in March, 
1 778. He died August 25th, 1 797. 






124 



ifikMDEN. 



y 



V 



HAMDEN 18 a small toworiiip, 
centrally situated in the county^ 
five aiul 9. half miles from. Neir^Ha- 
Tea, and 33 from Hartford \ bomidr 
ed iKNrthbj, Cheshire and yiTalUiig- 
ford, east by North-Haven, soath 
by New-Haven, and west by tho 
Weat rock range of mountain, 
Which ^eparatefif it from Wood- 
bridge. Its average length is sev^ 
en and a half miles, audits average 
breadth about three and a. half, 
making about 26 square mile. A 
considerable section of the^ town- 
ship is level ;'^the western border 
of it is mountainous, and the east- 
em considerablv hilly* The town- 
ship i^ situated between the West 
rock range of n^buntain, and the 
east rock range. East rock is ttie 
ternunation c^^n e;ctensive green** 
stcMie range at mountains, wUlcb 
extends far into the interior of New- 
England, leading through Cheshire, 
Southingtpn, Farmington, Sims- 
bury and Granby, info Massachu- 
setts. It consists of a bn^en ric^, 
or a succession of hills, which be- 
come more elevated as von pro- 
ceed from east rock* At Fannii^ 
ton, Simsbury and Granby, &e 
ridge is more continuous and lofty, 
and bold in its features. West rock 
is the termination of the west rai^ 
of the same mountain ; it extends 
as far into the interior as the west- 
* ern section of Southingto^ where 
it subsides, or more properly unites 
with the east rock range, of which 
it is properly a branch. This range 
consists also of greenstone, and is 
a succession of eminences ; and ex- 
hibits similar features to the other. 
Hamden is situated between these 
two ranges ; the one being upon 
its west, and the other upon its 
eastern border. Mount Carmel, 



which is in seme measure an insu- 
lated eminence^ and appears to be 
a spur of the east rock range, lies 
wholly within this town. This is 
one of the most elevated grden-^ 
stone eminences in the State. The 
greenstone of these mountains 
forms an excellent building-istone, 
and is extensively used for that 
purpose in Ne#^HaveQ. In the 
greenstone bills of this town, van^ 
ous minerals have been discovered. 
Iron pyrites innsnute^eces, and 
sometimes imperfectly crystal- 
ized, is found disseminated >^ and 
sulpfauret of copper is so^metimes 
founds connected witit chiystali^ed^ 
qu^tz. At a distant period, alar^ 
mass of native tcopper, weighing/ 
about S^fts, was accidently dis- 
covered upon 4>n9& of the green^ 
stone hillslof this tQwn« II was pre- 
served for a long time, and the re* 
mains of it were -used not more 
than 15 or SM) years since^ in New* 
Haven ; it wassaid to be very pure, 
and free fromr alloy. It is net 
known precisely, upon what spot 
this mass ef native xopper was 
found pbttt e(^[^r is now known 
to exist. inYariouspIaiees, in the 
gfetnstonehilisofiiiiitowa; Lead, 
in small quantities^ has also been 
found. 

The soil in this town is a grav- 
elly loam, and generally fertile; 
the naliirair,gn>vthis%8iritut, oak 
of the various kihdsiiandiiiherde- 
ciduotts teees^ The lands^ ia a cuU 
tiyated slate, produce rye^ corn, 
oats &c. and tatay/^ood and heavy 
crops* 

The town is watered by Mill 
river, a fine mill stream, affording 
numerous sites for waterworks. 

The Farmiogton and New-Ha« 
ven turnpike road passes throu^ 



MERIDEN. 



>< 



135 



the centre of this town, and the 
Hartford aad Nev-Havea tampike 
runs within its cistern limits. 

The extensive Gun Factory, or 
establishment ibr the manufacture 
of fire arais, of Eli Whitney £sq. 
erected upon Mill river within this 
town, is partiihilarly deserving of 
notice. The ''business at this facto« 
ry, it is believed, is carried on up- 
on novel principles. The various 
operations and processes, necessa- 
ry in the formation of the different 
parts of the musket, are peicformed 
by the aid of machinery and me- 
chanical powers. The hammering, 
cutting, turning, perforating, grind-* 
VD% and polishing, are performed, 
or, the performanceuregulated and 
facilitated, by machinery. This oc- 
casions such unifoFmity in the 
work, that the parts of the lock, 
and their different proportions and 
relations are so much alike, that 
they may be transferred from one 
lock and fitted to another, without 
any material alteration. From the 
mechanical principles by which 
every part of the manufacture is re- 
gulated at tlus factory, thefiieams 
manufactured here.are cbaracteri- 
zed by a uniformity, not to be 



found in those made at any o^er 
place. And what is a most striking 
evidence of ingenuity andmechani- 
cal genius of ^e proprietor/of this 
establishment, the business was un- 
dertaken wiUiout anj previous 
knowledge of it ; but genius is more 
than a substitute for experience. 

In addition to this establishment, 
there are 1 Paper Mill, 1 Fulling 
Mill, 1 Carding Machine, 1 Distil* 
lery, 2 Grain Mills and 3 Tanne- 
ries. There are ^Mercantile Stores, 
and 3 Taverns. 

The town contains two located 
Congregational Societies and 
Churches, one Society of Episco- 
palians and one of Independents. 
It contauis, also, nine School dis* 
tricts and Schools, one Social Li- 
braiy, two Clergymen, and two 
Physicians. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1716. There are 260 
Dwelling Houses, 200 Electors & 
1 company of militia. 

The amount of taxable proper-, 
ty, including polls, is |^36,806. 

Hamden was incorporated in 
May 1786, previously to which, 
it belonged to New-Haven. 



MERIDEN. 



MERIDEN is a small post town, 
situated in Ae northern section of 
the county, 17 miles from Hait- 
ford, and about the same irom 
New-Hav<^n; bounded on the N. 
by Berlin, in Hartford county, on 
the east by Middletown, on the 
south by Wallingford, and on the 
west by Cheshire and Southing- 
ton. Its average length from east 
to west is five milesi, and its ave- 



rage breadth four and a half miles ; 
c<mtakiing twenty-two and a half 
square miles. The township is 
hilly, and some sections of it moun- 
tainous. The Middletown and 
Wallingford range of mountains 
or hills passes through the eastern 
border of this town. pf this 
range, Mount Lamentation; which 
is in the northeastern part of the 
township, is far the most elevateds 



136 



MERIDEN. 



This eminence has some very stri- 
king features. In the northwest 
part of the town also, is an emi- 
nence which affi>rds a considerable 
curiosity : there is a deep and nar- 
row valley, having a ridge of moun- 
tain on the one side, and a bold 
Riural ledge on the other; in which 
solid cakes of ice may be obtained 
at any season of the year. The 
congelations, or cakes of ice, are 
found under large projecting rocks. 
" A few years since," says our 
correspondent, ^' I found snow and 
ice, in this frosty vale, under the 
couth side of a loose rock, about 
the 1 st of September, from whence 
I took a small cake of ice, and car- 
ried it six or seven miles. At this 
time, gooseberries were but just 
ripe, and were growing among the 
rocks ; and strawberries have beeri 
gathered ^ere as late in the season 
as this." North of this vale is a 
deep, narrow and almost impervi- 
ous glen; its width is only sufficient 
for a path and a rivulet, on each 
side of which are elevated ridges 
of mountain, forming an angle 
of about 45 degrees. This pass is 
called Cat hole, and is more than 
a mile in extent ; in which, and 
in the.valley noticed before, the 
sun shines but a few hours in the 
longest days. Hence the order of 
the seasons is entirely inverted ; 
and spring and summer fruit is not 
brought to perfection until au- 
tumn. This place in every res- 
pect is characterized by features 
the most irregular and romantic, 
and has more the appearance of 
illusion than reality. 

The soil in this town is a gravel- 
ly and sandy loam, and is conside- 
rably fertile. It produces grass, 
grain. &c. The Quinipiack river 



washes the southwestern border of 
the town, and several of its bran- 
ches run through the interior. 

The town is accommodated with 
the Hartford and New-Haven turn- 
pike, which passes through its cen- 
tre ; also by the Middletown and 
Waterbury turnpike, which inter- 
sects the former. 

There is a small village in the 
town, consisting of a Post office, a 
Congregational church, about 30 
Dwelling houses, and a number of 
Mechanics' shops. 

A spirit of enterprise and acti- 
vity in business characterizes the 
inhabitants of this town. Various 
manufactures and mechanical em- 
ployments are carried on; but 
those of tin ware and buttons are 
the most important. There are 5 
distinct Factories of the former, 
and an equal number of the lat- 
ter, for making metal buttons ; and 
I Factory for ivory buttons. There 
are also 1 Factory for ivory combs, 
and 2 block tin or hard metal spoon 
Factories. The wares and manu- 
factures of these establishments, 
like those of other towns in the 
vicinity, are sent abroad for a mar- 
ket. This furnishes employment 
for a number of hands ; and it has 
been estimated that there are from 
20 to 40 persons that are constantly 
employed in vending the wares 
that are manufactured in this town. 
Most of them are employed in the 
southern and western states, which 
afford an extensive market for the 
products of our industry. And this 
market will not be likely soon to 
fail ; for wherever slavery prevails, 
mechanical ingenuity and industry 
will be excluded. In addition to 
these manufactures, there are 12 
Cider Distilleries. 2 Grain Mills. 



n 



MIDDLEBURY. 



i2r 



1 Fulling Mill, 1 Carding Machine, 
and 2 Tanneries. There are 2 
Mercantile Stores, and 2 Taverns. 
The town contains 1 Congrega* 
tional Society and Church, 1 Epis- 
copal Society, and 1 of Baptists, 
all: of which have houses for 
public worship. It contains 7 
School Districts apd common 
Schook, 1 Social Library, 1 Cler- 
gyman, 1 Attorney and 1 Physician. 



The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1249. There are about 
200 Dwelling houses, 1 Company 
of Militia and a fraction of ano- 
ther, and about 175 Electors. 
The amount of taxable property, 
including polls, is ^27,425. 

Meriden was incorporated ia 
1806; previously to which it be- 
longed to WaUingford. 



MIDDLEBURY. 



MIDDLEBURY is a small 
township, situated in the north- 
western extremity of the county, 
being 22 miles from New-Haven, 
and 36 frpm Hartford ; bounded 
on. the north by Woodbury and 
Watertown, in Litchfield county, 
on the east by Waterbury, on the 
«outh by Oxford, and on the west 
by Woodbury ; having an average 
length from north to south of 5 
miles, and an average breadth of 
nearly 4 miles, containing about 1 9 
square miles, or about 1 3,000 acres. 

The township is watered by 
Hop river, a branch of the Nau- 
gatuck, 8i numerous small streams. 
In the southeast section of the 
town there is a small pond or lake, 
called Quasepaug, which dis- 
charges its waters into the Ousa- 
tbnick. 

Its surface 4s hilly and rocky, 
and its appearance rough and for- 
bidding. The rocks are mostly 
granite, and the soil is a hard, 
course gravelly loam, which af- 
fords tolerable grazing ; it also ad- 
raits of the growth of grain, and 
rye is cultivated with considerable 
success. 



The principal agricuftural^pro-' 
ductions are rye, butter and c];ieese/ 
and some beef and cattle. The 
town does little or nothing at ma- 
nufactures, except those of a do- 
mestic character. It contains St 
Grain Mills, 1 FuUing Mill and 
Clothier's works, 1 Carding Ma- 
chine, 3 Tanneries, 1 Distillery^ 
and 1 Mercantile Store. 

The general hst of the town, in- 
cluding polls, amounts to |||1B,920. 
Its population, in 1810, was 847 -^ 
and there are now IQO Freemen 
or Electors, 1 Company of Mili- 
tia, and 125 Dwelling houses. 

The town forms 1 located Con- 
gregational Society and Church, 
and contains besides a Society of 
Methodists. It is divided into & 
School Districts, each of which 
supports a school for several 
months in the year. It contains 
2 small Social Libraries, 2 Tav- 
ersn, 1 Physician and 1 Clergy- 
man. 

It was incorporated in 1807; 
previously to which, it formed a 
part of Waterbury. Woodbury and 
ISouthbury. ♦ 



-^t* 



136 



MILFORD. 



'^^^r-imm^m'imAm^* 



MILFORD, an ancient mari- 
time post township, is situated on 
the soudiwestern border of the 
county, 9 mile^ west from New- 
Haven, and 43 from Hartford; 
bounded on the noKh by Derby 
and Woodbridge, on the east by 
New-Haven, on the south by Long 
Island sound, and on the west by 
the Ousatonick river, which sepa- 
rates it from Stratford. Its ave- 
rage length from north to south is 
about seven and a half miles, and 
its average breadth from east to 
west nearly live miles, comprising 
an ajiea of about 34 square miles. 
The prevailing character of the 
sur&ce is undulating, being plea- 
santly diversified with hill and dale. 
There are also some mountainous 
«dges, consisting plHncipally of 
greenstone slate, and facing ge- 
nerally to the southeast, with 
considerable chasms or valleys be- 
tween them. There is also one 
ridge, or rather a series of ridges, 
of limestone, of three or four miles 
in length, and about one fourth of 
a mile in breaddi, which intervenes 
between the greenstone ridges. In 
these calcareous ridges there are 
exhaustless beds of valuable mar- 
ble; and indeed the primitive 
limestone strata, of which they are 
in part composed, deserve that 
name. The following interesting 
account of these calcareous ridges 
and strata, has been given by Pro- 
fessor Silliman. 

" About five miles west of New- 
Haven commences a range of ser- 
pentine, both common and noble, 
and mixed more or less with primi- 
tive limestone and bitterspath. As 
this range proceeds westward, the 
limestone predominates more and 
more over the serpentine, ands^on 



the rock becomes primitive stra^ 
tified limestone. Ihis continues 
in nearly the same direction, in al« 
most uninterrupted riches, for three 
miles at least ; and, as is asserted, 
for several miles further. Thus 
a circumscribed space, not^xceed* 
ing one fourth of a mile in breadth, 
and running in length as has juf t 
been specified, intervenes between 
ridges of greenstone, and in some 
instances alternates with it; this 
rock forming its boundary on the 
north, and also on the south, and 
in some places coming into direct 
and visible contact with it. These 
strata of limestone are remarkably 
regular. Their direction and dip 
is the same with that of the green- 
stone slate. Iiii & f*^^ instances, 
the limestone is interrupted by ' 
greenstone and chlorite slate. A 
quarry has recently been opened 
in these calcareous strata, for the 
purpose of obtaining marble ; for 
the limestone which has been men- 
tioned appears properly to deserve 
that name. The structure of the 
rock is schistus, and its texture 
minutely granular. Its prevailing 
colour is that of the Italian dome 
marble, but very much variegated 
by innumerable veins of calcare- 
ous spar or bitterspath of a very 
bnlliant white, by an admixture oi 
serpentine, forming green spots, 
and by black spots and clouds, 
which sometimes are magnetic icon 
ore, and sometimes appear to be 
serpentine of a dark hue. Mar- 
ble also occurs here of a deep 
black, beautifully illuminated by 
white clouds. As far as the inves- 
tigation has gone, these calcareous 
strata are diyided into lai^e dis- 
tinct tables ; so that they can be 
taken out, in many instances, with- 



MIL^ORt>. 



tSd 



Its 



north to south, and discharges it- 
self^into Milford harbour. There 
are several shad fisheries in the Ou- 
satonick, there being fifteen seines 
owned by individuals ; and it was 
estimated that tliere were 1 12,000 
shad taken in 1816. Shell fish 
and black fisih ^re taken in the 



out making any other fracture than 
what' exists naturally. Pieces of 
the marble have been sawed and 
polished ; and although only wea- 
thered pieces have hitherto been 
tried, the stone exhibits so fine a 
texture, so high a lustre, and such 
bea»itiful delineations of colour, as 
to jiistify the belief that it will; sound. The great Atlantic road 
prove a valuable acquisition to the I fr(Hn New-Haven to New- York 
cbuntry." ! leads through the centre of this 

And it is a circumstance of no town, tipon which the Washington 
small importance, that it is situa- I bridge connects the town with 
ted immediately upon a stream of ; Stratford. This bridge is about 
water, communicating directly ;j 80 rods' long, and has a draw, for 
withMilford harbour, and which is' j the accommodation of the naviga- 
navigable to the sound, and suffi-:; tion to Derby and elsewhere up 
ciently copious to operate the mills; j the river. The town does some- 
necessary for saving it. The pre- j thing in navigation, and possesses 



vailing soil is a rich gravelly mould 
or loam of a daric co^lour ; 'some 
sections of sandy loam, some of ar-i 
giliaoeous, and the calcareous tracts ! 
already described. Itis general- 
ly strong and fertile, and a good ag- 
ricultural township. The fot^ests, 
Which are valuable, from. their vi- 
cinity to navigable waters, consist 
of walnut, oak; chesnut, &c. The 
Agricultural productions consist of 
corn, rye, oats, flax, as the pro- 
ducts of tillage ; and butter, 
.chesse and beef from grazing. Of 
the hay whicli is produced, large 
Quantities are from the tracts of 
salt tnarsh, of which there are 
about 300 acres iii the town. 
From the contiguity of the town 
to New-Huven, considerable at- 
tention is paid to the supplying 
of various small meats^ and escu- 
lent roots and vegetables for the 
market at that place. 

The waters of the town are the 
Ousatof)ick, which washes its wes- 



tern border, and the Wapawaug, 
whichransthro^b itocentre ftonijiaHd 3 Taunerieii. 

17 



four vessels engaged in foreign 
trade, and several in the coasting 
trade ; there being in all 1500 tons 
of shipping here. Th^re is a 
cohvenient harbour at the mouth 
of the Wapawaug, having suflS- 
cient water for vessels of 200 tons. 
There is a considerable and 
pleasant village, which is of an* 
cient date, situated upon the great 
turnpike road leading through th^ 
town, about nine miles west frond 
New-Haven. It comprises, with^ 
in the liinits of about a mile square, 
nearly 1 00 Dwelling houses, many 
of which are neat and handsome 
buildings, a Post-office, 3 Church- 
es, and several Mercantile Stores* 
The manufactures andmechaf^cal 
employments of the town, inde- 
pendent of those of a domestic 
kitid, are inconsiderable. There 
are 4 Grain Mills, one of which 
is a large merchant's mill, fop 
flouring, and contains four run of 
stones, 3 Pulling Mills and Cloth*- 
iers' works, 3 Garding Mat^hima 



ISO 



NOBTH-HAVEN. 



The civil divisioos of the town 
are 3 located EiGclesiastical Socie- 
ties and 1 1 School IXstricts. Ber 
lidos the located, &€^e is 1 So- 
ciety of Episcopalians ; and a pra- 
mary or common school is mw-^ 
tained in each. of the School Dis- 
tcicts, and 3 Gtrammar Schools, 
The population of the town, in 
iaiO, waf 3€74; and tiiere are 
al^ttt 400 FreeiJ^n or Electors, 



3 Companies of Militia, and about 
380 Dwelling honses. The ^ig-' 
gregate list of the town, in lB16j 
Was ^54,3?d 

There are in Milford, 4 Church- 
es, 6 Mercantile Stores, 2 T^vernfi» 
3 Spcial Librarif^, 3 CjergypieJUj 
3 Physicians, and ? Attprniei^^ 
This is lOhe of th# anciept towQS 
in the State, and was sjstiled as 
early as 1638. 



NORTH-HAyEN. 



NOBTH-HAVEN is a town- 
i^ip^ centrally situated in the 
cg^^Lfy being 8 nail^s frpm New- 
ilav^n, and 26 i^les from Hart- 
lord;; bounded on the north by 
Wallingfc^d, on the east by Wal- 
Ungford, Bcaiiford aad East- 
{iaveq, on the ^uth by East-Ha- 
yen, and on the west by Hamden. 
Me^Ln length from north to south, 
§ noiles, with a mj&diiim breadth of 
liie^ly. 9 miles, >poQipiisiiig ahout 
17 isqiiare pajlies. The tpwB^bip is 
gi^eraUy l§yd, but tihe extern & 
ire^tem efLtremitiesare cplaiside- 
}^h)y hiHy, or mountainous ; the 
sf^il ii^ mostly a Jight sandy loam, 
^4 produces rye, corn, &c. 

There is an extensive and beau- 
tiful tract of salt and dike marsh, 
or meadow, in this town. These 
meadows produce large quantities 
of grass, which is usually mowed 
and stacked upon the land, from 
nrhence it is removed in the winter 
season. UpQii the salt auarshjthe bay 
is salt; bat, those meadows wluch 
are protected from the salt water, 
by meansi>f dikes, &are thence call- 
ed dike marshes or i^adonfs, the 
grass is fresh,&of a better quality. 

The town is watered by the Qui- 



nipiailk, which mi^s through it, m 
a southwesterly di^ecti/^n ; thence 
i^pon the bQjrders of Kew-Saven j^ 
East-Haven, and di^isharges its wa-* 

ter9intoJ^ew-Hay0p4>ay« Thisriv- 

pr ia nayi^ble jfor boats U> Mans-? 
field^js bridge in this i^W9i, heiftg 8 

milies from its m.oiiith« Th^ lide 
£iows tothis. place, and occasions 
a rise of 4 and a half f^et of water* 

There are seven of eighl^ ^a4 
fisheries in this rivef, at which 
there jare considerable quantities 
taken aimiirily* There is a 
valuable qaarry of red sandstone^ 
whichisa.gopd freest;on.e« 

From the vi^iruty of .this town 
to New-Haven, and from tb** light, 
warm, and sandy character of the 
soil which favours early vegetation, 
there are various culinary vegeta- 
bles, and particularly p^as, culti- 
vated for the New-Haven market. 

The town is accommodated with 
th^ Hartfoitl and New-Haven turn- 
pike, which leads through its west- 
ern siectiou ; and also by the Mi4-' 
dletown and, Durham turnpike, 
which passes through its eastern 
section. , 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1 239 ; and there are 200 



OXFORD. 



131 



MM 



Mi 



— jMM—l 



W 



Electors, 1 company of militia, and 
about 200 Dwelling houses. The 
amourit of taxable property, ihclu- 
ding polb, is $26,975. 

Agrfculturie is the principal 
business of the town, but some 
portion of the men are engaged 
in sealanng, or maritime pursuits. 
Manufactures have received but 
Iktle attention. Thereare 1 Wool- 
en Factory, 2 Grain Mills, 2 Ful- 
ling mills^ 1 Distillery, 1 Tannery, 
2 Mercantile Stores, & 5 Taverns. 

The town' contains 1 located 
Congregational Sopiety & Church, 
1' Society of Baptists, and 1 
of Episcopalians, all of which 
have houses for public worship. 
It cbntairis also, 8 School districts 
and Schools, 2 Social Libraries, 1 
Physician, 1 Congregational, and 
1 Baptist Olergymaii. 

North-Haven was settled in 1 660, 
fey 35 men, principally ftom Say- 
brook, and was incorporated as- a 
town, in October, 1786. 

BIOGRAPHY. Dr.EzraSHles, 
late President of Yile College, 
was a native of this town. Dr. 
Stiles Was the sdn of the Rev. 
Isaac Stiles, and was bom Bee. 
15th, 1727. He was educated at 



Yale College, took his first degree 
in 1 748^ was chosen Tutor in 1 749^ 
arid continued in tfiis situation for^ 
six years. In J 765, he was ordaiB-* 
edniihistefr of the second Congre-' 
gdtional Church in Newport, R. L^ 
In 1778, he Was installed Presi-^ 
dent of Yale College, where he' 
continued until his death, Itfay 
12th, 1795, in the 68th year of hiff 
agCi The literary aequinementit^ 
and character of Dr. Stiles are- 
well known, and justly apprecia-' 
ted ; but his character as a scholar^-^ 
deservingly high as it stood, is in* 
our view, of less importance to hia 
memory, than that conspicuous 
zeal' and' patriotic ardour in ^e 
cause of his cotilitry and of civil- 
liberty, which distinguished him 
through the whole course of his 
life . Al&ough at the head df the 
clerical order, he fkvoured no 
vi^W9 of ecciefiiafiti^al aggrandize- 
ment 6r pdWei*. His whole life 
was characterized by the humanity 
atidben^votenceof his disposition 
and views ; and his nastfe deserves- 
t^ be enrolled ataofigthe beneftfc- 
tore of fnankind. 

(Se* Dr. Holmes' account of 
(the Kfe and writings of Dr. Stites.) 



OXfOtit). 



OXFORD is * fd^ township, I 
situBited in 1^ lioi'thw^sfern sec- j 
tion of the county, 14mil^s north-! 
westerly froih N€h«r<^Haven, and 
40 southwefitferly froirt? Hartforf;j 
bounded 6n the norf h by Middle- 
bury and Waterbury, on the east - 
by Woodbridge atid Derby, on 
the south by Derby, and on the 
touthwest by the Ouatofiidk riv- 
er, which sepa^te^ it from New« 



tovmv in Fairfield county, and on 
the west by S6u Abury. Ite mean 
length from northeast to southwest 
is about 8 miles, and its mean ^ 
biN^dth neariy 5 miles ; compris- 
ing about 38 square miles. The 
st^Ce is uneven, being diversified 
with hill and dale. The prevail- 
ing soil is a gravelly loam ; but in 
th^ western section of the town, it* 
in a cakai^cmsloftm, and is gene-* 



VS2 



SOUTHBURY- 



rally fertile and productive. Ther^ 
18 a large proportion of forests, 
the timber of which is principailv 
oak, walnut and chesnut. Consi* 
derable quantities of wood and 
timber are a'^nually got to market^ 
p'rincipallj to New^Haven ; but 
some of which is sent to New- 
York* The leading agricultural 
productions consist of wheat, rye, 
a:td some other grains, grass, but- 
ter and cheese ; small meats, fowls, 
esculent roots and culinary vegeta- 
bles are sent to New-Haven mar- 
ket. 

The town is well watered ; the 
Ousatonick washes its southwest- 
em border, and the Naugatuck 
nia^ through its northeastern sec- 
tion, in addition to which, there 
are numeroua small streams. Up- 
on the Ousatonick there are seve- 
ral shad fisheries. The Woodbury 
turnpike, leading to New-Haven, 
passes through this town ; and also 
the Southbury tun^ike leading to 
the same place, from up the Oui^a'^ 
tonick river. 

Of the mechanical employments 
and establishments in the town, 
the most important are, 1 Wool- 
en Factory, 3 or 4 Limekilns, 1 



large Hat Factoty, 2 Fulling Mills 
and Clothiers' works, 3 Carding 
Machines, for customers, 3 Grain 
Mills and 6 Tanneries. There 
are 3 Mercantile Stores and 1 Pub-« 
liclnn. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1445; and there are 
about 200 Electors or Freemen, 
about 220 Dwelling houses, and 1 
Company of Militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, as rated in the 
making up of lists in 1816, was 
g35,020. 

The town contains 1 located 
Ecclesiastical Congregational S6* 
ciety and 13 School Districts ; be- 
sides the located, there are 2 Epis- 
copal Societies, and a Society of 
Methodists. There is a primary 
or common School maintained in 
each of the School Districts, for 
a suitable portion of the year. 
There is 1 Social Library, 1 Gler- 
gyman, 1 Physician and 1 Attor- 
ney in the town. 

Oxford was incorporated, with 
town privileges, in October 1798, 
previously to which it belonged to 
tbe town of Derby, 



SOUTHBURY, 



SOUTHBURY is a post town, 
situated in the northwestern sec- 
tion of the county, upon the north- 
east side of the Ousatonick river, 
40 miles southwest from Hartford; 
bounded on the north by Roxbury 
and Woodbury, in Litchfield coun- 
ty, on the east by Middlfbury, on 
the southeast hy Oxford, on the 
south and southwest by the Ousa- 
tonick riyer, which separates iti 



from Newtown, in Fairfield coon^ 
ty, and on the wept by New-Mil- 
ford, in Litchfield county. The 
average length of the township, 
fr4)m east to west, is 8 miles, and 
its average breadth 4 miles, com- 
prising an area of 32 square miles. 
The surface is wavinsp, being 
pleasantly diversified with mode- 
rate hills and dales. The pre^ 
vailing soil is a sandy loa^n, gene* 



WALLIN6F0RR. 



1S3 



■'OBSCSi 



m 



999 



rally warm and fertile. The na- 
^«ral fijrowth of timber is decidu- 
ous; and it is estimated by our 
correspondent^ that the forests 
embrace nearly one fourth part of 
the lands of the township. The 
agricnltural productions consist of 
rye, com, oats, flax, potatoes, 
pork, beef, cider, cider briandy and 
some others. 

The Ousatonick washes the 
south and southwestern borders of 
the town ;^ the Shepaug waters its 
western section ; and the Porope- 
ratig runs through its centre from 
north to south. TJie two latter 
are considerable mill streams^ and 
discharge their waters into the Ou- 
satonick in this town.' There are 
several shad fisheries upon the! 
Ousatonick. The Ousatonick mid- 
dle road and the Oxford turnpike 
lead through the town. 
. The more considerable mecha- 
nical interests and employments 
are, 1 Tinware Factory, 4 small 
Distilleries, 3 Tanneries, 4 Card- 
ing Machines, 3^ Clothiers' works 
and 4 Grain Mills. There are 6 
Mercantile Stores. 

The population of the town, in 



wamam 



m 



1810, was 1413, and there about 
200 Freemen or Electors, 2 Com- 
panies of Militia, and about '330 
Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper^ 
ty, in 1817, including polls and 
assessments, was ^39,284 ; of which 
there was $ 1 0,890 for polls, ^1 445 
for assessments, and $26,949 of 
taxable estate. 

The civil divisions of the towB 
are 2 located Ecclesiastical Socie^ 
ties or Parishes, and 8 School Dis- 
tricts. Besides the located, there 
is a Society of Methodists, all of 
which' are accommodated with 
houses for public worship ; and 
there is a primary School main-* 
tained in each of the School Dis- 
tricts. There are 1 Social Library, 
2 Physicians and 3 Attomies in the 
town. 

' Southbury was settled in 1672, 
and incorporated as a part of 
Woodbury, to which it then was 
annexed, in 1674. It was set off 
from Woodbury, and incorporated 
as a town, by the name of South- 
bury, in May 1787; and a few 
years since, it was annexed to tha 
county of New*Haven« 



WALLINGFORD. 



WALLTNGFORD, a pleasant 
post township, is situated in the 
northeastern section of the coun- 
ty, 23 miles southwest froni Hart- 
ford, and 13 northeast from New- 
Haven ; bounded on the north by 
Meriden,^on the east by Middle** 
town and Durham, in the county 
of Middlesex, on the south by 
Branford and North-Haven, and 
OA the west by Cheshire. Its mean 
length; irom «9LSt to wost, is nearly 



7 miles, and its mean breadth 
nearly 6 miles, comprising an 
area of about 39 square miles. 
The prevailing surface of the 
township is undulating; being 
pleasantly diversified wim mode- 
rate hills and dales. Upon the 
Quinipiack there are extensive 
tracts of valuable alluvial, a con-i 
siderable proportion of which are 
annually overflown, and the east- 
I em extremity of the township is 



ts* 



yfAhtmGfcmi 



ittou&taiiDoits, the MidcUetown 
range ^f mountaiil formng its 
feotmddrj m thai direction; Tkis 
township IB embi^G^ftd witlmfi ^he 
{menstone a«d iairgilbce^nfs dis- 
fipict &[ Aie Staite. The liioun'tak)- 
mis ti^cty up6ii^it8^6ii8fefW Wrders, 
toDSi8t& ^ gre^sto^nej having an 
Md^r 8tx^4idin(df argi]ls<fe6tiS8chid- 
tttSy or ckj slate, which genetsin^ 
]|^¥<svaik throughout the town. Of 
its mtk&t^lagf^ ^e have obtained 
UUh hiferftiatidri. it is said thei'e 
iSf& 86fA€ lAdi^iation^ o^ copper or^, 
aeadi Iherle is a vailua'ble quarry of 
1^ sandsfdne, ^ich ii^ an excel- 
laitt frag stdM ; beii^ ant indura- 
tion of dsmd, supported by a clay 
«tete 6sLsisv The prevailing goil is 
a light gravelly Mghii, which in 
s(Mtie s^tions approxim^fes to a 
sandy loam. It is warm and fer- 
tile, and well dalculated both for 
gi^n and grazitig. It is ^Iso very 
fevtttiratoSe for fruit. * 

The- agricultural pi^odiictiohs 
are rye, Cdrn, oats, grass, flaix, ci- 
der;- potatoes, &c. Large quanti- 
ties of broom^ corn are annually 
rfiiised and mati^fectured iiito 
brooms, which are sent abroad 
for a market. Wallingford plain, 
situated upon the eastern bank of 
the Quinipiack, is a very singular 
tract of land. It is nearly four 
ntilefi^ in length, arid ab^ut three 
fo<irths of a mile in breadth, and 
is the most extensive tract of level 
Ismdin^ the State; and; under its 
present cultivation, the niost ste- 
rile and barren. Its soil is a coarse 
S£ind ; and it seems to be consider- 
ed go batrreh as not to be worth 
culti^v^^^on^, a considerable pi*opor^ 
tio^ of it being wholly unenclos- 
ed* Yet there is but ai very sttiall 
pmp'ortiorf-of it Which WoWsi or but 



^—— — ■ ' — — — ■ - ^ . .— w^p^^^v^^^^ 

what has sufficient consistence of 
soiljOrtheuppersurface of the hiiid, 
to sustain itsself, and to retain th€f 
vegetable substances, and othe^ 
jmanures which collect, or' are de-* 
posited upon it. Notwithstanding 
,tbe sterile appearance of this tend, 
it is feel'teVed, that by a judicieurf 
and ameliorating system' of eulti-* 
vation ; by the use of ctever, dheep, 
and summer fallow 5 or by the ap- 
plication of some earths or ma- 
nures, calculated to corrie^ct the* 
predominating silicious chiarkcter 
of the' soil; it might be rescued^ 
from its present condition^ a 
waste and agricultural void, and' 
rendered suitable arid Vfiluable-for* 
a grain culture. 

The town is well watered hj 
the Quinipiack, an interesting and 
valuable mill stream, which runs 
through the whole extent of the« 
township. Thiff stream is famous 
for its irilll sites ^ It affords also 
some shad fisheries. In the south- 
east corner of the township is a* 
pond, called Paug Porid. The 
turnpike from Hartford to New-/ 
Haven runs through the Wi^stern 
section of this town. 

There are some Manufactures 
in the town; 1 Woolen Factory, 

3 Tin ware Factories, 2 Button 
Factories, 2 Metal Spoon Facto- 
ries.- The tin ^'are, buttons and 
other articles; are mostly sent 
abroad foi^ a market, and not od^ 
ly prortbfe inchjstiy at home, but 
enteilpri^ abroad. Bedides'thede 
manufactures, there are 3 Fulling 
Mills and Glothiet^' woi*s, SCard- 
ing' Machines, 5 Grain Mills, and 

4 Tanneries. 

The town contains 2 located 
Ccingiiegationkl Societies or Pa- 
rishes, and 11 School Blfitri<its. 



WATBRBilRY. 



mo 



In the first Society there is a con-i 
siderable village, having a. plea- j 
9ant and prospective situation. It; 
cpntains about 75 Dwellinghouses, < 
3 Congregations^l and 1 Episcopal 
Church, a Post-office, Academy, 
Stares, Mechanics' Shops^&c. Be- 
fu}es the located Societies, there 
is 1 of Episcopalians, 1 of Bap^ 
ii$tBj and 1 of Methodists ; all of 
which are accommodated with 
houses for public worship. There 
«ceU primary or common Schools, 
and one Academy, which usually 
is attended by about 45 scholars. 
There are 3 Mercantile Stores, 1 
Social Library, 2 practising Physic 
cjuans and Sui^eons, 2Clei^men, 
one CongregationaUst and one 



Baptist, and 1 Attorney. The {poratedaoon afterwards. 



population of the town, in 1810, 
was 2335 ; and there are about 
400 Electors, 2 Companies of Mi* 
litia,aod about 340DwelUng:hou- 
[ ses. The amount of taxable pro? 
perty, as rated in making up lists, 
including polls^ is ^54,837. 

Wallingford belonged to New- 
Hajven ; and, before it was incorpO'^ 
rated as a town, was called New- 
Haven Village. Thetown^^was 
purchased by Gov. Eaton, Mr. 
Davenport and others of New-Ha-' 
ven,in 1638. But the settlement 
was not attempted until the year 
1669, when a committee were ap- 
point^ by the town of New-^Ha^ 
ven, to manage the concerns of the 
settlement. The town was mcor'^ 



WATERBURY. 



WATERBURY is a post town- 
ship, situated in the northwest paii 
of the county, 20 miles distant 
from New-Haven ; bounded north 
by Watertown and Plymouth, east 
by Wol<?ott and Cheshire, south 
by Woodbridge and Oxford, and 
west by Oxfprd and Middlebury, 
comprising an area of about 40 
square miles ; having an average 
let^th of 8 miles, and an average 
bjceadth of 5 miles. Its surface is 
diversified with bill and dale. The 
soil is generally a gravelly loam, 
and affords tolerably good grazing, 
and such productions as are com- 
mon to this region . 

This town is watered by the 
Naugatuck river, which runs tfiro' 
it from north to south. This and 
other streams afibrd numerous 
$ites and privileges for milk .and 
other hy<}fsuilic works. 



The Waterbury river turnpike 
passes .through this town ; and one 
leading from Middletown througb 
Meriden extends into it. 

Although in this, like the other 
towns in the county, agriculture it 
the principal business of the in- 
habitants ; yet considerable atten- 
tion has been paid to manufactures 
of different kinds. 

The late war had a favourable 
influence in stimulating the natu- 
rally enterprising spirit of our ci- 
tizens, to engage in various manu- 
iacturingpursuits,therebydevelop. 
ing new. resources, and opening a 
more extensive and varied field of 
industry. Many of the germs of 
m9nufacture6, to which the war af- 
forded life and growth, have' been 
blighted with the mildew of foreigii 
goods, with which the peace inun- 
dated the country. Many esta- 



136 



WOODBRIDGE. 



mmmim 



blishments have fallen, and many 
individuals, who had invested their 
wliole capitals in the business, have 
been sacrificed, and others severe- 
]jr injured. On the score of gain, 
although this was tlie efficient mo- 
tive which influeace.d most of those 
who engaged in manufactures, the 
business has been generally unfor- 
tunate. But it is not uncommon, 
that pursuits, which are sources of 
loss and ^ruin to individuals, are 
often productive of the greatest 
and most important public and na* 
tional advantages. The seeds of 
manufactures were sown in this 
country during the war ; and how^ 
ever they may have since declin* 
ed, or may languish at the present 
time, they cannot be exterminated. 
Those who engaged in the business 
upon a moderate scale, and con- 
ducted it upon principles of econo- 
my, have best withstood the shock. 
Hence the small manufacturing es- 
tablishments of this town have 
maiptained themselv^. They 
consist of 1 Woolen Factory, 4 
Button Factories, 3 of metal and 
1 of ivory^ and 2 Clock Factories. 



There are also 5 DistilJeries, 5 
Grain Mills, 2 FulKng Mills, 2 Car- 
ding Macliines, 1 Oil Mill, and 3 
j Tanneries. There? are 5 Mercan^ 
tile Stores and 4 Taverns. 

The town, contains 2 located 
Congregational Societies & Chur- 
ches, 1 Society of EpiBcopalians^^ 
and 1 of Baptists. It contains 2 
villages, one in the centra of the 
town, having 30 or 40 Dwelling 
houses ; the other is in Salem So- 
ciety, and consists of Id or 20 
Dwelling houses* , 

The town contains 19 Sehoal 
Diattricts and Schools. Its popu* 
lation, in 1810, was 2874; and 
there, are ,400 Dwelling housesi 
350 qualified Electors, and 3 Com* 
panics of Militia. . 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is ^53,622. 
The professional men at-e 3 Cler- 
gymen, 3 Physicians and 4 Attor- 
nies at law. The town was first 
settled in 16^6. 

Dr. Lemuel Hopkins, a distin*- 
guished physician and poet, was a 
native of this town. (See Uapt-^ 
ford.) 



WOODBRIDGE. 



WOODBRIDGE is an interior 
township of this county, 7 miles 
from New-Haven, .and 40 from 
Hartford ; bounded on the north 
by Waterbury and Cheshire, on 
the east by Hamden, on the south 
by New-Haven and Milford, and 
on the west by Derby and Oxford. 
Its average length from north to 
south is 10 miles, and its average 
breadth 4 miles, coinprising about 
40 square miles. 

The township is Ully andmoun- 1 



tainous ; and a portion of the Iands> 
not being calculated for cultiva- 
tion, have been suffered to remain 
for timber. There are cpndidem- 
ble forests in the town, and large 
quantities of wood aire annually 
carried to New- Haven for a mar- 
ket. The timber^ being of moun-' 
tain growth, is of an excellent 
quality, and consists of oak of the 
various kinds^ walnut, maple, iic. 
The soil is a bard gravelly loam ; 
and the lands^ when cleared stkid 



WOLCOTT. 



137 



cultivated, aitfaongh they are rough 
and stony,' af&pd good grazing ; 
and butter and cheese, and beef 
and pork, are the principal agri- 
cultural productions of the town. 
The farmers here have paid con- 
siderable attention tb sheep, for 
"the raising of whi(:h the lands are 
Well adapted. The town is water- 
ed by West river, running thence 
through New-Haven ; and also by 
the Wapawaug, an inconsiderable 
fttream,whichruns through Milford. 

There are two turnpike roads 
irhich pass through this town ; one 
called the Rimmon's Falls turn- 
pike, and the other the Litchfield 
turnpike, both of which lead to 
New-Haven. 

There are, in this town, 4 small 
Distilleries for cider spirits, 31 



Grain Mills, 2 FulHng Milb and 
Clothiers^ woiks, 2 Carding Ma« 
chines, 1 Tannery, 2 Mercantile 
Stores and 2 Taverns. There are 
2 located Congregational Socie- 
ties and Churches, and 1 of Epia* 
copalians, 1 small Society of Me- 
thodists, 2 Social Libraries^ 2 Phy- 
sicians and 2 Clergymen. There 
are 10 School Districts & Schools. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2084 ; and there are 2 
Companies of Infantry, and a part 
of a Company of Cavalry, of Mi- 
litia, about 250 Electors,, and 
about 300 Dwelling houses. The 
amount of taxable property, inclu- 
ding polls, is j^49,013. 

Woodbridge was incorporated in 
1784, and belonged previously to 
New-Haven and MiUbrd. 



WOLCOTT. 



WOLCOTT, a small elevated ; 
township, is situated ia the north- j 
ern extremity of the county, 22 ! 
miles from Hartford ; bounded on 
the north by Plymouth, in Litch- 
field county, and Bristol, in Hart- 
ford county, on the east by Soy th- 
ington, on the south by Cheshire 
and Waterbury, and on the west by 
Watcrbury and Plymouth. It com- 
prises an area of about 1 8 square 
miles; having an average length 
of 6 miles, and an average breadth 
of about 3 miles. The township is 
hilly and mountainous, and is situ- 
ated in the vicinity of the com- 
mencement of the granitic dis- 
trict, which extends through the 
western section of the State, and 
comprises a considerable part of 
Litchfield county. 

The soil is a hard^ coarse, gra- 

18 



velly loam, and radier sterile ; the 
lands however afford tolerable gra- 
zing, but are rough and stony. 
The dairy business, or making of 
butter and cheese, is the leading 
agricultural interest. 

The town is watered by Mad 
river, a branch of the Naugatuck, 
which is a small but rapid stream. 

Tb6 Middletown and Waterbu- 
ry turnpike road, leads through the 
south part of the town. 

The manufactures and mecha- 
nical employments of the town, 
in addition to those of a domestic 
character, are 2 Distilleries for 
cider spirits, 2 Grain Mills, 1 Ful- 
ling Mill, 1 Carding Machine, and 
3 Tanneries, lliere are 2 Mer- 
cantile Stores and 2 Taverns. 

The town contains 1 located 
Congregational Society and 1 Epis- 



iM wouxnrr. 



cppd Society ;bodi of wUchkiTeHlbereafe IdOEleclon, 1 Cooqn- 
ho«M»lbrp«llicwonUp. Hcon-jlnyof MilHa, ud liO Dvdimg 
pmMTSdMiolDiflliiclf^Scho^lb^^ The oMNBt of tuaUe 
OMi ft ha§ 1 Social Libcuy, 1 Qer-t Ipffopertj, iadiidiBg poHs, ii 
fpmm^A^Pkpkkam. Hi po-M^lS^SOi. Wolooli w iMwcpo- 
riia^Mf tft lilO, «ai952; Mdi luted ia 1796. 




.«• " 



NEW-LONDOH 



COUNTY 



NEW-LONDON is an ancient 
iuaritime county, situated in the 
southeastern section of the State, 
upon Long Island sound ; bounded 
on the north bjvHartford, Tolland 
and Windham counties, on the east 
by the county of Windham and the 
State of Rhode-Island, on the south 
by Long Island sound, and on the 
west by the county of Middlesex. I 

The following Topographical and Statistical Table exhibits a 
view of the several towns in the county; their situation, with rela- 
tion to New-London ; population, according to the census of 1810 ; 
dwelling houses ; religious societies ; school districts, and post-* 
offices. 



Its form 18 very irregular, which 
renders it difficult to give its area 
with exactness. It has, however, 
an average length from east to 
west of about 26 miles, with a 
medium breadth from north to south 
of nearly 20 miles ; comprising 
an area of about 519 square 
miles. 



Towns. 


Post- 


Popu- 


Dwelling 


Religious 


School Distance from 




offices. 


lation. 


houses. 


societies. 


districts. 


from N. houi 


New-London. 1 


3283 


475 


4 


2 




Norwich. 


2 


3552 


568 


6 


15 


13m.N. 


Bozrah. 




960 


150 


2 


3 


Hm.N.W. 


Colchester. 


2 


2697 


450 


5 


16 


19m.N.W. 


Franklin. 


1 


1161 


170 


3 


9 


20iii.N.W. 


Griswold. 


1 


1520 


230 


2 


12 


20 m. N. E. 


Groton. 


1 


4451 


529 


7 


25 


1 m. E. 


Tiisbon. 




1121 


170 


3 


8 


SOm.N.E. 


Lyme. 


2 


4321 


567 


7 


24 


16m.W. 


Montville. 


1 


2187 


320 


4 


13 


8m.N.W. 


N. Stonington. 1 


2524 


360 


4 


17 


14m.N.E. 


Preston. 


1 


17C4 


250 


5 


14 


14m.N.E. 


Stonington. 
Watcfford. 


2 


3043 


450 


2 


8 


13m.E. 




2135 


300 


2 


11 


♦ 4m.N.W. 



140 



NEWLONDON COUNTY. 



New-London county is in some 
respects advantageously located) 
and possesses superior maritime 
advaatages, having an extensive 
border upon Long Island sotmd, 
which affords numerous bays, in- 
lets and harbours. 

The face of the country, soil 
and geological character of this 
county present a conspicuous and 
characteristic uniformity. The 
surface is generally uneven, or 
rather hilly ; but no considerable 
section of the county is mountain- 
ous. One of the branches of the 
eastern granitic range terminates 
in the western section of this coun- 
ty, near Connecticut river. Ex- 
clusive of this small section, which 
is principally in the town of Lyme, 
no portion of the county can be 
considered as mountainous ; but it 
is generally hilly and elevated, and 
comprises a small proportion only 
of alluvial. The hills and eleva- 
ted tracts are considerably rough 
and stony ; and hence an inconsid- 
erable portion of the lands are im- 
proved for arable purposes. The 
prevailingsoilis a strong, rich, gra- 
velly loam, corresponding with 
the features of the. primitive gra- 
liitic geology, which prevail 
throughout the county. The lands 
in general are not adapted to a 
grain culture ; although upon the 
"intervals and other tracts, Indian 
corn is raised to advantage, and to 
a considerable extent. Rye and 
wheat receive less attention ; the 
principal agricultural interests de- 
pending upon grazing. There is 
very little waste land in the coun- 
ty ; and few if any tracts having a 
light and sterile soil. The farm- 
ing interests of the county are re- 
spectable, auq its physical resour- 



» 



ces abundant and durable ; al^* 
though the objects of husbandry 
are not pursued without a greats* 
requisition of agricultural industry 
than is necessary in some other 
sections of the State. Amd ibis, 
industry is not wanting, as the in- 
habitants are remarkable fdr their 
hardy and persevering habits* But 
industry b not always connected 
with enterprise ; and here, as well 
as in other parts of the State, and 
more so perhaps than in some oth- 
er sections,, there ia an evident* 
want of a spirit of enterprise and 
improvement in tbe important 
concerns of agriculture. But it is 
gratifying to perceive that exer- 
tions are making, by the organiza^ 
tion of a County Agricultural Soci- 
ety, to excite this spirit, to direct 
the efforts which it may produce, ' 
and, in general, to encourage:and 
promote the important interests of' 
husbandry. 

RIVERS. The waters of the ? 
county are abundant and valuable. 
Its southern border, for more than 
thirty miles, is washed by Long Is- 
land sound, and its western border, . 
for a considerable . distance, by 
Connecticut river ; and the interi- 
or of the county is intersected and 
fertilized by the Thames ; its two 
great branches, the Quinibaug and 
Shetucket ; and numerous other se- 
condary streams, some of which 
are tributary to the Thames, and 
others dis€;ha]:^e thei^ waters into 
the sound. The Yantic, distin-. 
guished for its cataract and falls, 
and the valuable hydraulic sites 
which it affords, unites with the. 
Thames at Chelsea landing. Be- 
sides this, thePochaugaud Poqua- 
tanock discharge their waters in- 
to the Thames ; and the Niantic 



NEW-LONDOSi 



l4^ 



mmt 



a? 



empties into Niantic bay upon the 
sound. In the eastern section of 
tfie county^ aife the Mystic and 
Paucatuck rivers, the latter of 
which fonns the eastern boundary. 
The principal harbours are the 
New-London h&rbotnr, which is one 
of the best in ^e ' United States, 
tlie Norwich; Stoniiigton, Mystic 
and Niauttc harboufs. The com- 
mercial interests of the county are 
respectable, although not extend- 
ing. The fishing business receives 
great attention, and is more ex- 
tensively carried on here than in 
any other section of the State. 
There are usually from 50 to 60 
vessels engaged in the cod, mack- 
erel and black fisheries. Besides 
these, &e oyster, shad, and other 
less important branches of the fish- 
ery business, receive considerable 
attention ; and recently, in a few 
instances, the sealing business has 
been engaged in. The various 
conceals of the fishing business 
afibrd an extensive employnient, 
and are a very productive source 
of industry. Connected with the 
maritime interests, is that of ship 
building, wiiich, id some sections 
of the county, receives considera- 
ble attention. 
A manufacturing spirit has b^en 



excited in this county, and has pro- 
duced some important results. In 
addition to the domestic manufac- 
tures, which are very extensive 
and' important, the woolen and 
cotton branches are pursued to a 
considerable extent, by manufac- 
turing establishments. There are 
16 m>olen Factories, and 9 Cotton 
Factories in the county. Of the 
latter, there are several which are 
upon an extensive scale. Besides 
these, there are 1 5 Cloth Dressing 
establishments, and 18 Carding 
Machines, for customers. Of oth- 
er manufacturing and mechanical 
establishments, there are 2 Oil 
Mills, 3 Paper Mills, 2 Forges and 
70 Grain Mills. 

There are, in the county of 
New-London, 56 Religious Socie- 
ties, 23 School Societies, each of 
which is divided into a convenient 
number of School Districts, of ^ 
which there are in all 1 77 ; 12 So- 
cial Libraries, and about 212 Mer- 
cantile Stores. 

The population of the county, 
in 1756, was 22,844; in 1800, 
34,888; and in 1810, it contain- 
ed 34,707 ; and the aggregate 
amount of taxable property, inclu- 
ding polls, in 1817, was ^643,953. 



NEW-LONDON. 



NEW-LONDON, thesemi-seat 
of justice of the county, and a con- 
siderable maritime pb^t town, is 
situated upon the west bank of the 
Thames, borderingupon the sound, 
13 miles south of Norwich, 42 
southeast by souilh of Hartford, and 
53 east of New*Haven ; bounded 
on the north by Waterford, on the 



east by the river Thames, which 
separates it from Groton, on the 
south by Long Island sound, and on 
the west by Waterford. The town- 
ship is about 4 miles in length, up- 
on an average estimation, and more 
than three fourths of a mile in 
breadth, comprising about 2,400 
acres, or nearly 4 «quare miles. 



I4e 



NEW-LONDON. 



Btte 



aii 



. The geological character of the 
township is granitic, and its surface 
uneven and rough, hcing hilly 
and rocky ; the soil is a dry grav- 
elly loam. Of the natural growth 
of timber, oak and walnut prevail 
most ; and the agricultural prodiic- 
tiiins consist of Indian com and 
some other grains, hntter, cheese, 
beef, pork, grass, potatoes atid 
other roots, and culinary vegeta- 
bles ; but the lands are best adapt- 
ed to grazing, and the natural qual- 
ity of the soil must always, in a 
greater or less degree, control the 
agricultural pursuits and interests. 

The Thames washes the town 
upon its eastern border, and Long 
Island sound upon its southern 
border ; the waters of the former 
are navigable for the lai^est ves- 
sels, and afford one of the finest 
harbours in the world ; it is large, 
safe and commodious, and has five 
fathoms of water. On the west side 
of the entrance is a light-house, on 
a point of land which projects 
considerably into the sound. 

The town is accommodated with 
a number of turnpike roads : one 
leading to Hartford, one to Nor- 
wich, (the first road constructed by 
an incorporated company in the 
State,) and one to New-Haven 
passing through Lyme. 

From the maritime location of 
the town, the inhabitants have been 
led to engage iti navigation, com- 
mercial and fishing business ; which 
pursuits occupy the attention of a 
considerable proportion of the 
earning part of the population of 
the place, and still greater of it^ 
industry andenterprise. TTie navi- 
gation business, consists, principal^ 
fy, of a coasting trade with the 
southern states, and a trade with 



the West India islands. There are 
also four packets^ which regularly 
ply between this place^nd the ci- 
ty of New- York; but the line of 
steam boats; which has been estab* . 
lished between these two places, 
and which runs daily, arriving one 
day and returning the aext, has 
reduced the number of regular 
packets. Formerly there was con- 
siderable foreign navigation carri- 
ed on at this place, but ior some 
years past it has much declined, & 
become nearly extinct. At th« 
present time, the fishing bufiiiiese 
is the most important maritime 
pursuit; there being 35 fishing 
smacks engaged therein, which be- 
long to the inhabitants of this town. 
The theatre of their labours if 
principally from Cape God to Egg 
Harbour. Mackerel and black fish 
are principally taken,butsome cod. 

The wh6l<? registered tonnage 
of the district of New-Loisdon, in 
1805, amounted to 13,397 tons; 
in 1815, to 13,182 tons. 

New-London contains 14 Dry- 
goods stores, 4 Druggists' stores, 
42 Grocery and Provision stores, 
2 Book stores, 1 store of Hard-^ 
ware, 1 of Tin ware, 2 of Saddle, 
Trunk and Harness work, 2 Hot 
stores, 1 Shoe store, 1 Silversmith's 
store, and about 20 houses con- 
cerned in navigation. There are 
10 public Ihns or Taverns. 

Although this town is not distin- 
guished for its manufactures or 
mechanical interestis, it contains 2 
Printiiig-offices, 3 Rope wsilks, t 
Distillery, 1 Pottery, 3 Tanneries, 
6 House carpenters, 3 Ship car- 
penters, 2 Block and Spar makei^, 
1 Sail maker, 2 Saddlers, 6 Shoe 
miakers, 4^ Tailors, 5 Botchers, 7 
Bakers, 2 Tin witf e factories and 



J<BW^!^PNI>ON. 



143 



i^anuiactarers, 2 Hattefs, 1 Go 
ajad Silver, smith, 3 Maftooa aod 
Stone cutters, 2 Barbers, 4 Tallow 
chandlersy 3 Curriers andTaiuier^, 
3. Coopers, and 2 Bl^cksmithsif 

The population of the towo, in 
1810^ was 3,283; and there are 
3^0 Freemen or Electors, 3 com* 
panies of militiay and about 475 
Dwelling housiBii-, 

The amount of taxable property, 
including polls, is ji42,6 1 8. 

The c^vil divisions of the town 
afe^ pne located Ecclesiastical So<^ 
Giefy, two School districts, and an 
incorporated city. Besides the lo- 
oat^, there is ^ Society of Epis- 
copalians, 1 of Baptists, and 1 of 
MethodistSf These several Soci- 
eties are all accommodated with 
bottse^ for public worship. There 
is a district or primary School 
maintained in each of the School 
DiS|tricts, for several months in the 
y^ear; besides which there i^ a free 
Grammar School, that usually con- 
tains from IdO to 20Q scholars ; a 
Feinale Academy, and a School 
called the Union School. 

The city of New-London was 
incorporated in 1784, by the name 
of tlie Mayor, Aldermen, Common 
Council men and Freemen of the 
city of New-London, who possess 
the corporate or municipal autho- 
rity of the city. Tlxe Mayor is 
elected by the Freemen, but holds 
his office during ; the pleasure of 
the General Assembly ; the Al- 
dermen and Cop(unQn Council men 
are annually appointed by the 
Freemen. Since the last division 
of the town, it has been reduc^ed 
to the sam^ corporate Hmits as the 
city ; fio that in noticing the latter, 
V<r€^ shall have no reference to its 
corporate exi^i^iy but^o^ly to the 



compact settlement, or the idea of 
a city in common acceptance. 
The city of New-London is plea^ 
santly situated upon the west banl^ 
of the Thames, about 3 miles from 
its entrance into the Sound. Its 
site, being a declivity of land bor- 
dering upon the river, is excellent,, 
and its harbour unrivalled. The 
city is irregularly laid out, and ia 
built upon nearly thirty different 
streets ; many of which, however^ 
are very inconsiderable. The, 
principal is Court-street, . which^ 
extending from Market-square, 
adjoining the river, in a northwes- 
terly direction to the Court-house 
upon Huntington-street, dividea 
the city into nearly two equal sec- 
tions. This street is spacious and 
pleasant, is well built, and contains 
some of the public buildings and 
public and private offices, the na- 
val office, the two banking houses^ 
two printing offices, and many neat 
and handsome dwelling houses, 
and a proportion of the mercan- 
tile stores. At the east end of 
this street is Market-square, bor- 
dering upon the river, upon which 
stands the market and the public 
gaol. Bank-street commences at 
Market-square, and extends south- 
erly, parallel i?^ith the river ;. and 
Beach-street commences at Mar- 
ket-square, and runs northerly, 
parallel with the river. Both of 
these streets coipmunicate with 
the wharves, are the seats of most ♦ 
of the maritime business, and con- 
tain a great proportion of the gro- 
cery and provision stores, and a 
number of private offices. Main- 
street is situated back of Beach-* 
street, and runs in nearly a paral- 
lel direction,extendingfrom Coui:t- 
str^t to the northern extremity of 



\ 



144 



NEW-LONDON. 



the city ; it is well built, and con- 
tains a denser population than any 
other street. There is a commu* 
nication between this street and 
Huntington-strect, by Federal- 
street, situated in the eastern sec- 
tion of the city, and by Church- 
street, situated farther west. 
These streets are tolerably well 
built, and the latter contains the 
Episcopal church. 

Union-street intersects Court 
and Church streets, and extends 
northerly to Federal-street. The 
Baptist, Methodist and Congrega- 
tional meeting houses are situated 
upon this street, which communi- 
cates with Bank-street, by Golden- 
street, and the Intter is intersect- 
ed by Green-street. In the back 
part of the city, upon the height 
of ground, is Huntington-street, 
running in nearly a parallel direc- 
tion with the river. This street 
has an elevated and prospective si- 
tuation, overlooking most of the 
other parts of the city. It affords 
a pleasant and healthful residence, 
although it is but imperfectly built. 
' The city of New-London con- 
tains about 450 Dwelling houses, 
more than 60 Stores of every de- 
scription, 4 Houses for public wor- 
ship, one for Congregationalists, 
one for Episcopalians, one for Bap- 
tists and one for Methodists ; the 
Naval office of the District, a Post 
office, two Newspaper establish- 
ments, each of which issues a 
weekly paper, th<e one a super- 
royal and the other a medium 
sheet ; 2 Banks, one called New- 
London Bank, incorporated in 
1807, with a capital of g500,000 ; 
the other called Union Bank, in- 
corporated in 1792, with a ca- 
pital of g 1 00,000 ; and a Marine 



Insurance Company, incorporated 
in 1805, with a capital which can- 
not be less than ]J 100,000. There * 
are in the city 6 Physicians, 7 At- 
tornies and 4 Clergymen. 

The city is defended by Fort 
Trumbull and Fort Griswold ; the 
former situated upon the New* 
London, and the latter upon the 
Groton side of the river. Fort 
Trumbull has undergone, at dif- 
ferent times, important repair?, 
since the revolutionary war, the 
expense of which had amounted 
to 1^19,318 previously to the late 
war ; during which this, and also 
Fort Griswold, received additional 
repairs. . 

The first English settlement in 
New-London was made in 1646 ; 
and the township was laid out into 
lots in 1648. This place was call- 
ed by the natives Nameaug ; and 
from its being the seat of the Pe- 
quot tribe of Indians, was called 
by the English, at an early period, 
Pequot. It was the seat of Sassa- 
cus, the Grand Sachem of Long 
Island and of part of Connecticut 
and Narragansett. New-London 
has been rendered conspicuous for 
its suJflTerings during the revolution- 
ary war, and as the theatre of va- 
rious hostile operations. On the 
6th of September, 1781, a lai^e 
proportion of the town was burn- 
ed by Benedict Arnold. After the 
close of the war, in 1 783, the Ge- 
neral Assembly appointed Com- 
missioners to ascertain and esti- 
mate the damages which had been 
sustained by the several towns in 
this State, that had been ravaged 
by the British troops during the 
war. From the investigation which 
was mSde in pursuance of this au- 
thority, it was estimated, that the 



BIOGRAPHY. 



115 



damages sustained by the town of 
New-London, amounted to ||i485,- 
980 ; which estimate, hawever, in* 
eluded not only buildings, but mer- 
chandize, and losses of almost eve- 
ry kind. 

To compensate the sufferers in 
this, and the other towns, the Gen- 
eral Assembly, in May 1793, grant- 
ed them 500,000 acres of the tract 
of land reserved by Connecticut, 
at their cession of lands to the Uni- 
ted States ; lying south of the west- 
ern part of Lake Erie, being what 
are now called the fire lands, in 
the western part of the western re- 
serve, in the State of Ohio. 

During the late war, New-Lon- 
don was again the theatre of hos- 
tile indications. A considerable 
squadron, under the command of 
Commodore Hardy, haying chased 
two of our frigates into its har- 
bour, blockaded it for a length of 
time. The concentration of a con- 
siderable force of the enemy, in 
the vicinity of this place, produced 
considerable alarjgn, and occasion- 
ed a lai^e proportion of the militia, 
in the vicinity, to be called out ; 
and subsequently, more regular and 
equal drafts were made, and de- 
tachments of militia, from different 
parts of the State, were concentra- 
ted at this place and vicinity. Be- 
sides the militia, there was a con- 
siderable body of United States' 
troops stationed here. The forts 
were well supplied, and strongly 
garrisoned; but, notwithstanding 
th« " dreadful note of preparation," 
the, enemy made no attempt upon 
a town, which, nearly forty years 
before, they had reduced to deso- 
lation, and its inhabitants to ruin, 
by a spirit of warfare, which be- 
longs only to barbarians. New- 
London will long remain upon Ibe 

19 



page of history, alike a monument 
of the evils of war, and of the ex- 
pense at which our glorious ind^? 
pendence was achieved. 

BIOGRAPHY. Gm.Jedediah 
Hmitington^ although a native of 
Norwich, was long a resident in 
this town. He died 25th Septem- 
ber, 1818, aged 75 years; having 
survived every general officer of 
the revolution, except Gen. Starke, 
the hero of Bennington* 

Gen. Huntington was regularly 
educated at Harvard College, and 
in early life, engaged in mercan^ 
tile pursuits ; but, at the com- 
mencement of the revolutionary 
contest, his active and enteqprising 
mind, and ardent attacfainent to 
the cause of liberty and his country, 
would not suffer him to remain in 
the " dull pursuits of civil life,'* 
and he entered the army at an ear* . 
ly period. In 1 775, he commanded 
a regiment. His intelligence, acr 
tivity, bravery, judgment and fidel- 
ity as an officer, secured to him ad- 
vancement ; the affections of the 
army; the respect and gratitude 
of his country ; and the attachment 
and lasting confidence of Washing- 
ton. He continued in the service 
through the war, and attained to 
the rank of a general officer. Af- 
ter the peace of 1783, securing the 
independence of the colonies, the 
object of his solicitude and of his 
toils, he retired to his residence in 
his native state, were he was em- 
ployed in various civil oflices, un- 
til appointed by President Wash- 
ington collector of the public reve- 
nue of the port of New-London ; 
the duties of which office he diBr 
charged, to the entire satisfaction 
of the public and the government; 
during a period, embracing four 
successive administrations* 



U6 



NORWICH. 



m 





I, a wealthy com- ( 
mercial post town, and the semi- 
seat of justice of the bounty, is 
situated at the head of navigation, 
on the Thames or Pequot river, 
in north lat« 41^ 34' and west Ion. 
TS*' 29'. It is 13 miles north of 
New-London, and 38 southeast of 
Hartford ; hounded on the north 
by Franklin, on the east by the 
Shetucket and Thames rirers, 
which separate it from Lisbon and 
Preston, on the south by Mont- 
ville, and on the west by Franklin 
and Bozrah. The township has 
an average length of 7 miles, with 
a medium breadth of about 3 
miles, comprising an area of about 
31 square miles. 

The surface of the township 
presents an interesting diversity 
of hill and dale. Its geological 
character is primitive, and the 
prevailing soil is a dark coloured 
gravelly loam, genemlly strong 
and fertile. The natural growth 
consists of oak,waInut,chesnut and 
other deciduous trees ; and the ag- 
ricultural productions, of Indian 
corn, grass, butter, cheese, &c. 
Upon the borders of the Thames, 
Shetucket and the Yantic, there 
are considerable tracts of alluvi- 
al, which are very productive in 
Indian corn. The uplands are 
best adapted to grazing. The 
various objects of husbandly and 
horticulture^ common to the State, 
are attended to in this town. 

The township is well watered, 
its eastern border being washed, 
througliout its whole length from 
north to south, by the Thames 
and Shetucket ; and its area in- 
tersected by the Yantic, which 
runs through the town in a north- 



tion, and, uniting with the She- 
tucket, forms the harbour. This 
stream, about a mile from its 
mouth, has a very remarkable ca- 
taract. The bed of the river con- 
sists of a solid rock, having a per- 
pendicular height of ten or twelve 
feet, orver which the whole body 
of water falls in an entire sheet 
upon a bed of rocks below. The 
river here is compressed into a' 
very narrow channel, the banks 
consisting of solid rock, and being 
bold and elevated. For a distance 
of fifteen or twenty rods, the chan- 
nel or bed of the river has a gra- 
dual descent, is crooked and co- 
vered with pointed rocks. The 
rock, forming the bed of the ri- 
ver at the bottom of the perpen- 
dicular falls, is curiously excava- 
ted, some of the cavities being 
five or six feet deep, from the con- 
stant pouring of the sheet of wa- 
ter for a succession of ages. At 
the bottom of the falls, there is 
a broad bason, where the enraged 
and agitated eleAient assumes its 
usual smoothness and placidity.. 
The scenery at these falls is pe- 
culiarly novel and sublime; and 
the river here affords some of the 
finest sites for hydraulic works 
that are to be found in the State, 
or perhaps in New-England. 

There is a safe and commodi- 
ous harbour, formed from the un- 
ion of the Yantic with the Slie- 
tucket ; it consists of a spacious 
bason, and has sufficient depth of 
water to admit of vessels of con- 
siderable burthen. 

There are two|»rincipal bridges 
in the town, one across the moutli 
of the Yantic, which is a perma- 
nent and commodious bridge, con- 



easterly and southwesterly direc-||structed in the form of a wharf, 



NORWICH. 



147 



and at a great expense ; and one 
across the Shetucket, which is a 
toll bridge, erected in 1817, at an 
expense of Ji 10,000, and connect- 
, ing the town with Preston. Besides 
these, there is a footbridge across 
the Shetucket, about half a mile 
below the toll bridge, which was 
erected in 1 8 1 8. It is 1 20 feet in 
length, and 5 feet wide, being de- 
signed only for foot passengers. 

The fisheries in the Thames are 
important; large quantities of shad, 
and some salmon, being annually 
taken. Oysters also abound in 
this river. They are taken plen- 
tifully, and are of an excellent fla- 
vour. 

Norwich is accommodated with 
several Turnpike roads ; one lead- 
ing to Providence, one to Hartford, 
through Lebanon, one to the same 
place through Colchester, one to 
New-London, one to Woodstock, 
one to Windham, and one authori- 
zed to New-Haven, and laid out as 
far as Connecticut river. 

The population of Norwich, in 
1810, was 3528; and there are 
about 400 Electors, and 4 Compa- 
nies of Militia, 1 Regular Compa- 
ny, 1 of Artillery, 1 of Light In- 
fantry and 1 of Cavalry. 

There are in Norwich 568 Dwel- 
ling Houses, about 45 Dry Goods, 
Hardware, and Crockery Stores, 

5 Book Stores, 2 or more Drug- 
, gists' Stores, 2 Paper Mills, 1 Mar- 
ble Paper Manufactory, 1 Gin Dis- 
tillery, 1 Pottery, 2 Manufactories 
of Morocco Leather, 1 Cotton Fac- 
tory, containing 1200 spindles, 1 
Woolen Factory, 1 Carding Ma^ 

' chine for customers, 5 Tanneries, 

6 Grain Mills and 6 Saw Mills. 
There are 6 Religious Societios, 
2 of CongregationaUsts, 2 of Me- 



thodists, 1 of Baptists and 1 of Epis- 
copalians; 15 primary Schools; 
10 practising Attomies, 6 Clergy- 
men and 5 Physicians. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1817,was|60,371. 

ITie civil divisions of the town 
are 2 Parishes or located Socie- 
ties, 15 School Districts and an 
incorporated City. 

Jionoich City was incorporated 
in May, 1 784. Its limits are ex- 
tensive, and comprise a great pro- 
portion of the population of the 
township. It is divided into three 
distinct and compact sections ; the 
first atkd most important is Chelsea 
Landing. This section is situated 
at the point of land formed by the 
junction of Shetucket and Yantic 
rivers, whose united waters consti- 
tute the Thames. Its site is very 
irregular and romantic, consisting 
of the declivity of a hill, which is 
high and rocky. The houses are 
built in tiers, rising one above an- 
other, having partially artificial 
foundations. There are here more 
than 150 Houses, a Post ofiice, 
4 Churches, more than 30 Stores, 
several excellent public Inns, vari- 
ous Warehouses, Mechanics^ shops, 
&c. This is a compact settlement, 
and an active and busy place ; be- 
ing the seat of most of the com- 
mercial and maritime business of 
the town. The next section is 
called the Town ; and is situated 
in a pleasant vale, partially sur-* 
rounded with lofty hills, about two 
miles northwest from Chelsea. 
This section is more extensive, 
but less compact than Chelsea, 
consisting of a number of pleasant, 
rural streets. Here there is a 
spacious public square, a Court 
House, Post office, Church, and 



148 



NORWICH. 



about 200 Houses and Stores. The 
other section, which is called Bean 
Hill, is dituated upon the Hartford 
road, in the western part of the 
town. It consists principally of 
one street, is less compact and 
populous than either of the other, 
and has little commercial busi- 
ness ; but is a pleasant and pros- 
pective situation, and affords a 
very agreeable residence. 

In Norwich city there are about 
500 Dwelling houses, 5 or 6 Hou- 
ses for pubHc worship, a Court 
House and County Gaol. Besides 
the public District Schools, alrea- 
dy noticed, there are in the city 
two Schools for young ladies, and 
several other private Schools, for 
instruction in the common and 
higher branches of education. 
There is one respectable Social 
Library, consisting of about 500 
volumes. There is one Newspa- 
per establishment, a Bank, called 
the Norwich Bank, incorporated 
in 1 796,with ^ <:;apital of ^200,000 ; 
a Fire Insurance Company, incor- 
porated in 1818, with ia. capital of 
1^100,000; a Mutual Assurai^rce 
Company, Sind the Norwich Chan- 
nel Cotifij^ay, incorporated some 
years since, for the purpose of 
improving the navigation of lite 
river Thames, below Chelsea Lan- 
ding. 

Norwich, situated at the head 
rf navigable waters, and having a 
considerably extensive interior 
country, generally well settled 
and flourishing, possesses very 
considerable advantages for com- 
merce. Its commercial interests, ; 
however, and its general prosperi- 
ty, have experienced various vi- 
cissitudes. At one period, the 
commercial business of Noiwicb 



was extensive and important, and 
rapidly increasing. The tonnage 
of the place, for one of its size, 
was very great ; there having once 
been GOOD tons of shipping owned 
here. But for several years since, 
from the general declension of the 
West India trade, and from vari- 
ous other causes, tending to divert 
the industry and capital of the 
place into other channels, the com- 
merce of Norwich has very much 
declined. There are at present 
but 12 vessels owned here, which 
are employed principally in a 
coasting trade to New- York and 
elsewhere. There is a line of 
steam-boats which communicates 
between this place and New- York. 
Norwich is the natural depot of 
the produce of a back country of 
considerable extent, upon the two 
great branches of the Thames ; 
and, being at the head of naviga- 
ble waters, and uniting other ad- 
vantages, its commercial interests 
are respectable, although its navi- 
gation business is but inconsidera- 
ble* It is also favourably situated 
for the fishing business, which re- 
ceives considerable attention ; it 
possesses superior advantages for 
manufactures, which at'no distant 
period, it is believed, will be im- 
proved to an extent corresponding 
with the private interests and pub- 
lic utility, that must ultimately 
proceed from the permanent and 
extensive establishment of manu- 
factures in this countiy. From 
these and other considerations, it 
is believed that the population, 
business and importance of Nor- 
wich will progress in an equal ra- 
tio with those of most of the 
otj^er considerable towns in the 
State. 



BIOGRAPHY. 



149 



The township of Norwich was 
purchased of the Mohegaa sa- 
chem, Uncas, and his two sons, 
Owaneco and Attawanhood, by 
Thomas Leffingwell, John Muson, 
James Fitch and others, to the 
number of thirty-five, in 1659. 
About I^^SO were given as the 
purchase money. In the spring 
of the next year, 1660, the settle- 
ment was commenced ; the ^rst 
settlers consisting of the Rev. 
James Fitch and a considerable 
part of the members of his socie- 
ty from Saybrook. The settle- 
ment being begun, it soon receiv- 
ed the accession of three or four 
families from New-London, and 
several from Plymouth, and oth- 
er towns in Massachusetts. In 
1663, the deed of the township 
was recorded by order of the Ge- 
neral Assemby, its limits ascer- 
tained, and a patent granted there- 
for. For a number of years after 
the commencement of the settle- 
ment, Uie Mohegans were its prin- 
cipal security from the Pequots 
and other hostile tribes. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Sa- 
mud Htmtington^ for several years 
Governor of this State, was a re- 
sident in this town. He was elec- 
ted Governor in 1785, succeeding 
Matthew Griswold ; and was re- 
elected for eleven years, and until 
his death. The long period in 
which he enjoyed the confidence 
of his fellow citizens, and the most 
distinguished honours of the State^' 
is tlie best evidence of his conspi- 
cuous talents and virtues. In his 
public and private relations and 
duties, he was considered a very 
estimable man. He died 5th Jan. 
1796, aged Q5 years. 

Asa Spalding Es-q. of this town, 



was a very eminent lawyer, and a 
distinguished citizen. He was a 
native of Canterbury, and born in 
1757. He was educated at Yale 
College; and soon after he gradua- 
ted, entered upon the study of 
law with Judge Adams of Litch- 
field. Having completed his pro- 
fessional studies, he came to this 
town, previously to the close of 
the revolutionary war, in 1783, 
with a view to establish himself ia 
business, and remained here until 
his death. He soon became dis- 
tinguished in his profession, and 
ultimately at the head of it ; rank- 
ing among the first lawyers in the 
State. His talents were solid and 
profound, but not brilliant ; and, 
although he was an able, he 
was not esteemed an eloquent 
speaker. For a comprehensive 
and penetrating mind, for soliditjr 
of judgment, for legal science, for 
a faculty of investigation^ which 
enabled him to discover the me- 
rits of the most intricate cause, 
however involved in obscurity and 
difiiculty, from folly, artifice or 
frauds and for persevering hahits 
of professional industry, he has 
been surpassed by few. He was 
for many years attorney for the 
State, for the county in which he 
lived ; he was also^ for several years 
preceding his death, supported as 
a candidate for the office of Go- 
vernor. But, however eminent a$ 
a lawyer, and however important 
his public consideration, Mr. Spal- 
ding was most distinguished for his 
private virtues, and the peculiar 
traits of his personal character. 
He was remarkable for his faith- 
fulness and perseverance in every 
concern . in which he engaged, 
and for his indefatigable industry, 



i 



150 



BOZRAH. 



which no obstacles coald discou-| 
rage, and no difficulties impair. | 
He was also equally distinguished 
for a rigid and systematic econo- 
my, which he never abandoned, 
and for the simplicity and plainness 
of his style of living. He was in 
an eminent degree both a plain 
and an honest man. And these 
qualities, if not necessarily asso- 
ciated, have, it must be admitted, 
a striking affinity. They are not 
only plants which grow in the 
same soil, but they flourish best 
in the neighbourhood of each oth- 
er. His integrit}', his talents, and 
his characteristic sincerity and re- 
gard for truth, led him to despise 
the arts of dissifnulation and flat- 
tery, and to exhibit to the world) 



his own character and that of oth- 
ers in the image of truth, and free 
from all disguises. Hence he had 
his enemies as well as friends. 
But if he had enemies, they were 
such only because " truth will of- 
ten ofiend." From the necessary 
operation of those personal quali- 
fications which we have noticed, 
he acquired a very large estate ; 
and his life adds one to the innu- 
merable examples which demon- 
strate, that success in life, the ac- 
quisition of property, the attain- 
ment of character, of influence 
and of consideration, essentially 
depend upon just and regular mo- 
ral and social habits, integrity, in- 
dustry, economy and prudence. 
He died in August 1811. 



BOZRAH. 



BOZRAH is an inconsiderable 
township, situated on the north- 
em border of the county, 33 
miles from Hartford, 1 4 from New- 
LfOndon, and five from Norwich ; 
bounded on the nprth by Lebanon 
and Franklin, on the east by Nor- 
wich, on the south by Montville, 
and on the west by Colchester and 
Lebanon. Its average length is 4 
and a half miles, and its average 
breadth 4 miles, comprising an a- 
rea of about 1 8 square miles. The 
township is uneven, consisting of 
hill and dale ; its geological char- 
acter is granitic, and the soil a grav- 
elly loam, which is generally rich, 
warm and fertile. The natural 
growth is oak, walnut, chesnut, 
&c., and the agricultural produc- 
tions, grass, corn, rye, oats & flax, 
the latter of which is cultivated to 
a considerable extent, wdis of an 



excellent quality ; butter, cheese, 
beef and pork. 

The most considerable stream, 
by which the town is watered, is 
the Yantic river, a branch of Nor- 
wich little river. There is a small 
{>ond or lake, called Gardiner^s 
ake, partly in this town, and part- 
ly in Montville and Colchester. 
The Norwich and Colchester turn- 
pike passes through the northern 
section of the town. 

The population of the town, ia 
1810, was 960 ; and there are 150 
Dwelling houses, 100 Freemen or 
qualified Electors, and 1 company 
of militia. 

There are in this town, 1 Cotton 
Factory, 1 Forge, 3 Grain Mills, 
2 Fulling Mills & Clothiers' works, 
2 Carding Machines, 1 Tannery, 
2 Mercantile Stores, and 3 public 
Inns, 



COLCHESTfeR. 



151 



le amount of taxable property, 
including polls, is ^24,647. 

The town comprises one located 
Congregational Society & church, 
and one church and Society of Bap- 
tists; three School districts and 



Schools, and one small Social Li- 
brary* The prefessional men are 
two Clergymen, & ooe Physieian. 
Bozrah was incorporated as a 
town, in 1786, previously to which 
it belonged to Norwich. 



COLCHESTER. 



COLCHESTER is a post town^ 
ship, situated in the northwestern 
extremity of the county, 23 miles 
from Hartford, and 40 from New- 
Havea ; bounded on the north by 
Marlborough and Hebron, the for- 
mer in Hartford, and the latter in 
Tolland county, on the east by 
Lebanon and Bozrah, the former 
in Windham county, on the south 
by Montville and Lyme, and on 
the west by East-Haddam and 
Chatham, in Middlesex county; 
so th^-t the township borders upon 
four different counties, and eight 
different towns. Its average length 
is about 9 miles, and its average 
breadth nearly 6 miles, compri- 
sing an area of about 50 square 
miles. The face of the country is 
uneven, being considerably hilly, 
and is somewhat rough and stony ; 
the prevailing soil is s^ gravelly 
loam, and generally hard and 
coarse, but tolerably strong and 
fertile. The geological oharacter 
of the township is primitive, and 
its internal structure consists of 
granite, micaceous schistus, and 
other rocks of an original forma- 
tion. We have ascertained nothing 
as to its mineralogy. Its natural 
growth is deciduous. The soil is 
best adapted to grazing ; and but- 
ter, cheese, beef and cattle consti- 
tute the most important agricultu- 
ral interests. Some grains are cul- 



tivated ; oats, com and rye are the 
principal* 

The town is watered by Salmon 
river, and several small streams. 
In addition to the public or county 
roads, the town is accommodated 
with several turnpikes; New-Lon- 
don and Hartford turnpike, Nor- 
wich turnpike, and East-Haddam 
and Middletowu, turnpike, all lead 
into the centre of the town, where 
they intersect each other. 

The only considerable manufac- 
turing establishments are one 
Woolen Factory j*^ and one Iron 
Works establishment, or forge. 
Besides these, there are three 
Tanneries, eight Grain Mjills and 
eight Saw Mills. There are seven 
Mercantile Stores. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2697; and there are 
about 350 Freemen or Electors, 
2 entire companies, and a part of 
another company of militia, and 
about 450 Dwelling houses. The 
amount of taxable property, inclu-* 
ding polls, is j570,887. 

The civil divisions of the town 
are 3 located Ecclesiastical Socie- 
ties or parishes, and 1 6 School dis- 
tricts. Besides the located, there 
is a Society of Baptists, and one 
also of Methodists. The Method-, 
ist, Baptist and located Societies 
are all accommodated with houses 
for public worship; and one of the 



153 



FRANKLIN. 



latter, West-Chester Society, is 
possessed of a fund, sufficient for 
the support of the ministry, and 
also, a free grammar School, for 
two third5 of the vear. The seve- 
ral School districts are provided 
with School houses, and maintain 
primary Schools for several months 
in the year. 

In the first located Society, there 
is a small, but pleasant village, hav- 
ing an elevated and healthful situ- 
ation ; it contains about 40 Dwel- 
ling houses, and a Congregational 
church, and an academy of consi- 
derable celebrity, called Bacon 
Academy, from Mr. Pierpont Ba- 
con, its benefactor and founder. 
It was established in 1 800, and pos- 
sesses $35fiOO in funds; has al 



large brick building, 75 feet by 34, 
and three stories high, which i^ 
spacious and commodious, uniting 
all the advantages and convenien- 
ces, required by the number of 
scholars that usually attend the in- 
stitution, and the different branch- 
es of learning which are taught. 
It is a free School for the inhabi- 
tants of the Society, and is open 
for scholars from abroad, upon ve- 
ry accommodating and moderate 
terms. This institution is consider- 
ed as one of the most flourishing 
academies in the State. 

There are in the town, 3 Clergy- 
men, 2 Attornies, and 5 Physicians. 

Colchester was settled in 1699, 
being within the original limits of 
the county of Hartford. 



FRANKLIN. 



FRANKLIN is a post township, 
situated on the northern border of 
the county, 34 miles from Hart- 
ford ; bounded on the northeast 
by Windham, and the Shetucket 
river, which separates it from Lis- 
bon, on the southeast by Norwich, 
on the southwest by Bozrah, and 
on the northwest by Lebanon, in 
Windham county. Its average 
length from northeast to southwest 
is 5 miles, and its average breadth 
4 miles, comprising about 20 
square miles. 

The township is diversified with 
hills and dales, and the geologi- 
cal structure and soil are of a gra- 
nitic character, the latter being 
generally a gravelly loam ; but in 
some small sections it is a rich, 
deep, chocolate coloured loam. 
The lapds are best adapted to 
grazing, and the making of butter 



and cheese, and beef and pork, are 
leading agricultural interests. 

The Shetucket washes the north- 
eastern border of the town, and it 
is intersected by a branch of the 
Yantic river, an inconsiderable 
stream. Thrre are several fishe- 
ries on the Shetucket. 

The Hartford and Norwich turn- 
pike passes through this town, and 
also one leading from Norwich to 
Windham. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1161 ; and there are 150 
Freemen or Electors, 1 Company 
of Militia, and a part of 2 oth- 
ers, and 170 Dwelling houses. 
There arc 1 Woolen Factory, 3 
Grain Mills, 1 Fulling Mill arid 
Clothier's works, 1 Tannery, 4 
Mercantile Stores, and 4 Public 
Inns. 

The town contains 1 located 



GRISWOLD. 



153 



Congregational Society & Church, 
1 Society of Baptists and 1 of Me- 
thodists. It has 9 School Districts 
and Schools, 1 Social Library, 4 
Physicians and 2 Clergymen. 



The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is ^30,287. 

Franklin belonged originally to 
Norwich, and was incorporated in 
May 1786. 



GRISWOLD. 



ORIS WOLD is a post town, 
situated upon the east side of 
the Quinibaug river, 48 miles east 
from Hartford; bounded south 
on Preston and North-Stonington, 
east on Voluntown, north on Plain- 
field and Canterbury, and west on 
the Quinibaug river, which sepa- 
rates it from Lisbon. Its average 
length is 8 miles, and its average 
breadth 4 miles, comprising about 
32 square miles. 

The surface is uneven^ being di- 
versified with hill and dale. The 
geological character of the town 
is granitic. There are, however, 
some rocks of micaceous schistus. 
The prevailing soil is a gravelly 
loam, interspersed with some sec- 
tions of sandy loam ; it is consid- 
erably fertile and productive. 
There are some low marsh lands 
upon the Pochaug river. The na- 
tural growth consists of chesnut, 
oak, walnut, maple, &c. and the 
agricultural productions are grass, 
Indian com, some rye and oats, 
butter, cheese, beef and pork. 

The western border of the town 
is washed by the Quinibaug ; and 
the Pochaug, a sluggish stream, 
runs through it. There are seve- 
ral fisheries for shad and salmon 
upon the former of these streams. 

The Norwich and Providence 
turnpike road leads through this 
town. I 



Although agriculture is the prin- 
cipal pursuit of the inhabitants, 
yet manufactures have received 
considerable attention. There are 
3 Cotton Factories, 1 Woolen Fac- 
tory, 6 Grain Mills, 2 Fulling Mills 
and Clothiers' works, 1 Carding 
Machine and 1 Tannery. There 
are 6 Mercantile Stores and 2 
Public Inns. 

The population of the town is 
1520 ; and there are 230. Dwelling 
houses, 200 Freemen or Electors, 
and 3 Companies of Militia. 

The civil divisions are 1 located 
Congregational Society and 12 
School Districts ; there is also 1 
Society of Baptists ; the Congre- 
gational Society is provided with a 
Church ; and there is a School 
house, and a primary or common 
School maintained in each of the 
School Districts. 

Jewett's City is a pleasaat and 
flourishing village, situated upon 
the Quinibaug, containing about 
30 DwelHng houses and a Post 
office. There are 2 Physicians, 
1 Attorney, 1 Clei^man, and 1 
Social Library in the town. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, as estimated, in making" up 
hsts, including polls, is ;^41,909. 

Griswold was origin»lly a part 
of Preston, and was incorporated 
asatown in 1815. 



20 



^H| 



154 



GROTON. 



GROTON, a large post town, 
is situated on the east side of the 
Thames, beiog 43 miles southeast 
from Hartford) and 54 miles east 
from New-Haven. It is bounded 
north by Preston, east by North- 
Stonington, and the Mystic, which 
separates it from Stonington, west 
by the Thames, which divides it 
from New-London, Waterford and 
Montville, and south by Fisher's 
Island sound*. 

The township has an average 
length of 13 miles, and an ave- 
rage breadth of 6 miles ; and con- 
tains about 72 square miles, or 
46,000 acres. 

The town is watered, exclusive 
of the Thames, which washes its 
western borders, by the Mystic, 
the Poquonock and the Poquato- 
nuck. The Mystic is navigable 
for sloops to Mystic village. The 
Poquonock runs through the cen- 
tre of the town, and discharges its 
waters into Fisher's Island sound. 
The Poquatonock waters the north 
section of the town, and unites 
with the Thames. 

The township is uneven, being 
hilly and stony. The soil is a rich 
gravelly loam, better adapted to 
grazing than to grain. Indian com, 
however, is cultivated extensively, 
and with abundant success. The 
geological structure of the town 
consists of granite and other pri- 
mitive formations. 

The civil divisions of the town 
are two loca^d Societies and 25 
School Districts. There are sev- 
eral small villages, Groton Bank, 
Gales' Ferry, Mystic and Poquo- 
nock* 

If any discriminations are to be 
made in this respect, the inhabit- 
ants of Groton, for industry and 



ffl^r 



enterprise, are not surpassed by 
those of any other town in the 
State. 

In addition to the pursuits of 
agriculture, the fishing business is 
carried on to a considerable extent, 
and domestic manufactures receive 
great attention. 

The smack fishery is engaged in 
by the inhabitants, and pursued to 
advantage, and considerably exten- 
sively. The smacks find a market 
tor live fish at New-York, Charles- 
ton and Savannah, as well as at 
the different markets in this State. 
The cod and smack fisheries afford 
employment to a portion of the in- 
habitants, and are sources of con- 
siderable wealth. 

Whilst the men are employed in 
the business of fishing, the women 
are engaged at the loom, and oth- 
er branches of domestic manufac- 
tures. It has been estimated, says 
our correspondent, that for seven 
years past, there have been, on an 
average, 500,000 yards of cotton 
cloth wove annually in Groton by 
private families, for manufacturing 
establishments in the neighbour- 
hood and elsewhere. The ave- 
rage price of weaving may be con- 
sidered about 8 cents per yard, and 
at this price, 500,000 yds. amount 
to the surprising sum of g40,000, 
as the annual product of one de- 
partment of female industry; ma- 
king, for the 7 years, $280,000, 
which is more than the value of 
the whole real estate of some of 
our towns. Domestic industry is 
almost necessarily accoiupanied 
with economy, simplicity, and 
plainness of life and manners ; and 
it is to .be hoped that these car- 
dinal, social and domestic virtues 
will long withstand the deleterious 




BIOGRAPHY. 



155 



tm^ ^mmmmmmimmmmmmimmim 



and illusory ideas of " fashionable 
life,'* which are becoming diffused 
throughout our country far and 
wide. 

In addition to domestic manu- 
factures, there is 1 Woolen and 
1 Cotton Manufacturing establish- 
ment in the town. There are 1 1 
Grain Mills, 1 1 Saw Mills, 2 Ful- 
ling Mills, 5 Tanneries, 2 Carding 
Machines, 1 9 Dry Goods and Gro- 
cery Stores, 1 1 8 Mechanics' Shops, 
and 215 Corn Houses. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 4451 ; and there are at 
this time 483 qualified Electors, 
268 Militia, and 529 Dwelling hou- 
ses. 

The amount of the taxable 
polls and estate of the town is 
$71,586. 

There are 2 Congregational 
Churches, 2 Baptist Societies and 
Churches, t also for Methodists, 
1 for Episcopalians, and 1 for Ro- 
gerene Quakers. There are 6 
Clergymen, 3 Physicians, 25 Com- 
mon Schools and 1 Social Libra- 
ry. 

Groton was incorporated in 
1705, having, until that period, 
belonged to the town of New-Lon- 
don. The town is conspicuous, 
for some events of the revolution- 
ary war, and for the severity of 
its sufferings. On the 6th of Sep- 
tember, 1781, Fort G riswold, situ- 
ated on a height, on the bank of 
the Thames, opposite New-Lon- 
don city, was assaulted by the Bri- 
tish, under the immediate com- 
mand of Major Beckworth ; Ar- 
nold, who directed the enterprise, 
being at New-London. The gar- 
rison, which consisted of 1 50 men, 
almost all of whom were inhabit- 
ants of Groton, being either mili- 



tia or volunteers, under the com- 
mand of the brave Col. Ledyard, 
made a spirited and gallant de- 
fence ; the enemy being twice re- 
pulsed, and with a severe loss. 
On tjic third assault, the fort was 
carried ; and the infamous Beck- 
worth ordered the garrison put to 
the sword, after they had surren- 
dered themselves prisoners of 
war. Thus 70 men, the flower of 
the town, were sacrificed to the 
vengeance of the enemy; The 
compact part of the town was 
burned at the same tilne, occa- 
sioning a loss to the inhabitants of 
877 390. 

BIOGRAPHY. JohnLedyardy 
the distinguished American trav- 
eller, was a native of this town. 
The enterprising and adventurous 
spirit, by which Ledyard was cha- 
racterized, disclosed itself at an 
early period. Before he had 
scarcely "ripened into perfect 
manhood," he was led, by his ad- 
venturous and enterprising pro- 
pensities, to spend several years 
among the native Indians. He 
was one of Capt. Cook^s men, and 
sailed round the world with that 
bold and adventurous navigator, 
and was with him at the time he 
was killed at the Sandwich Islands. 
After his return to America, he 
published an account of this voy- 
age. After -this, he contemplated 
to engage in a trading •adventure 
to Nootka sound ; and from thence, 
to traverse the continent of Ame- 
rica, from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic, but he was disappointed in this 
object. But neither disappoint- 
ments nor difficulties could depress 
his adventurous spirit, or discou- 
rage him in his favourite objects ; 
d^d, accor4ingly, he determined 



15G 



BIOGRAPHY. 



mam 



to visit Europe, with a view to tra^ 
verse the interior of the eastern 
continent, ad far aa Kamschat- 
ka. With this view, he cross- 
ed from England to Ostend, 
and proceeded from thence by 
Denmark to Stockholm ; and from 
this place be walked round the 
head of the Gulf of Bothnia to 
Petersbuigh. When he arrived 
here, his situation was peculiarly 
distressing ; he was without shoes 
orstockings, and what is still worse, 
haying no money, not even suffi- 
cient ta supply these indispensa- 
ble articles, and in a foreign land, 
and among entire strangers. From 
this distressing situation he was re- 
lieved by the kindness of the Por- 
tuguese ambassador, and the libe^ 
rality of Sir Joseph Banks, a dis- 
tinguished member of the African 
Association in England ; the (oTn 
mer procuring for him 30 guineas, 
on th& credit of the latter. The 
Portuguese ambassador also ob- 
tained fdr him the privilege of ac- 
companying a detachment that was 
to proceed with stores to Yakutz, 
in Siberia, six thousand miles to 
the eastward. Having penetra- 
ted this immense distance into 
the interior of Aaia, he travel- 
led from thence to the shone of the 
Kamschatkan sea,which he intend- 
ed to cross, but was prevented by 
the ice, and was obliged to return 
to Yakuts, Here he experien- 
ced the mortification and personal 
violence of beiog forcibly seized 
by some Russian soldiers, in the 
name of the Empress, s^nd conveyr 
ed upon a sledge to the frontiers 
of Poland, where he was turned 
adrift ; being informed, as a con- 
solation to his wounded feelings, 
that if he was found again in Uie 



Russian dominions, he would be 
hanged* He travelled to Konings- 
berg, in the most destitute and fpr- 
lon condition ; from whence, ha- 
ving again pbtained pecuniary aid, 
upon the credit of Sir Joseph 
Banks, he returned to England^ 
Here, having visited his beneiac-i 
tor, he was soon engaged in the 
service of the African AsftocSation, 
and had the honour of being the 
first person employed by them, to 
explore the interior of the Africait 
continent. On being asked by a 
member of the Association, when 
he would set out on his perilous 
geographical mission ? " To-mor- 
row morning,*' he replied^ without 
the least hesitation. The Associ- 
ation were much pleased with Ae 
manliness of his person, his deter- 
mined resolution, his inquiditive 
and adventurous spirit^ bk indefa- 
tigable perseverance, his unequal- 
led fortitude in enduring hardships, 
and his sagacity and intelligenee* 
Having set out upon this arduous 
and dangerous enterprise, bearri-» 
ved at Cairo in Egypt in August, 
1 788. Whilst here, he constantly 
visited the slave markets, to obtain 
information, upon the various sub- 
jects connected with his mitsioo, 
and the views of the Association, 
of the travelling merchants of the 
caravans. His idea& and observa*- 
tions upon the Egyptians were 
published after his death, in the 
Rq^^orts of the Association, and 
are remarkable for their originali- 
ty, and evince a very acute dis^^ 
cernment, a just and critical ob- 
servation, i^id a sound and discri- 
minating mind, improved by ex-> 
tensive experience, and free from 
local prejudices. The sufferings 
of Ledyard we^ great, beyond 



BIOGJIAPHY. 



137 



•gagBBgagagaaam 



/ 



conception. On speaking upon 
this subject, preTiously to his set- 
ting out upon his African mission, 
he says, ^^ I am accustomed to hard- 
ships ; I have known both hunger 
ana nakedness, to the utmost ex- 
tremity of human suffering ; I have 
known what it is to have food giv- 
en to me as charity to a madman ; 
and I have, at times, been obliged 
to shelter myself under the mise- 
ries of that character, to avoid a 
heavier calamity. My distresses 
have been greater than I have ever 
owned, or ever will own, to any 
man. Such evils are terrible to 
bear,^but theynever yethad power 
to deter me from my purpose. If I 
live, I will faithfully perform, in its 
utmost extent, my engagements to 
the Sodety ; and if I perish in the 
attempt, my honour will still be 
safe, for death canc^ all bonds." 
And it was decreed that the latter 
should be his destiny. Whilst here, 
he experienced repeated vexations 
from the disappointments and de- 
lays, as to the departure of the ca- 
ravan for Sennar, that he was to 
accompany, which, it is thought, 
contributed to throw him into a vi- 
olent bilious fever, with which he 
was seized ; and to relieve himself, 
he most unadvisedly took a'lai^e 
dose of vitrioUc acid, and to re- 
move the pain which this occasion- 
ed, a powerful emetic. These vi- 
olent medicines were too much for 
the firmest constitution, and the 
hardy traveller fell a victim to 
them* Thus died John Ledyard, 
one of the most distinguished tra- 
vellers of the age, and a very ex- 
traordinary man. When we con- 
sider the extent of his travels, and 
the circumstances attending them; 
that most of them were underta- 



ken under appearances peculiar- 
ly discouraging ; witiioutthe aasti- 
tanc6 or patronage of the wealthy 
ai^ tibe great ; and without any 
adequate pecuniary means to sus- 
tain them ; when we consider the 
unparalleled hardships which he 
endured, the difficulties which he 
encountered, and the continual pe- 
rils ^^ by land, by sea, and from 
false brethren," to which he was 
exposed ; what an astonishing cchi-' 
ception does it give us of his un- 
bounded curiosity, of bis bold and 
adventurous spirit, of his enlarged 
and comprehensive views, and his 
determined resolution and unyield- 
ing perseverance, which no obsta- 
cles could discourage, and no dif- 
ficulties impair? He ranks grst 
among American travellers ; and 
the name of Ledyard will go down 
to posterity, wi^ those of Park^ 
Lucas,Hougbton,aBd other adven- 
turers, who have found a grave in 
attempting to explore the interior 
secrets of the African continent, 
that degraded part of the globe. 
Such was John Ledyard, an Amer-^ 
ican, and a native of this State ; 
yet so entirely has he been neg-. 
lected by his country^ that he is 
almost unknown, and no account 
of his life and travels has yet ap- 
peared in his native land, although 
the character, travels and life of 
Ledyard could not fail of doing 
honour to his country. For this 
short and imperfect account, we 
are indebted principally to the 
Quarterly Review. ^ 

JVbiAan Daboll late of this 
town, was a very distinguished 
mathematician. He was the au- 
thor of a very valuable system of 
Arithmetic, designed for common 
schools, which has been very ex« 



Id8 



LISBON. 



»ESil 



^i ■ ^j**^/'^!-^ 1^. ■■' r* 



tensivelj used, and generally ap- 
proved of, as a simplified and impro- 
ved treatise, facilitating the learn- 
ing of the rudiments of this im- 



portant science. From his math- 
ematical acquirements and exer- 
tions, he was eminently a useful 
citizen. 



LISBON. 



.i 



LISBON is a small irregular 
township, situated upon the north- 
em border of the county ; at the 
point of land, or fork of the Quini- 
baug and Shetucket rivers, 7 miles 
from Norwich, and 45 from Hart- 
ford; bounded on the north by 
Windham and Canterbury, in 
Windham county, on the east by 
Griswold, on the south by Preston, 
and on the west by Norwich and 
FrankUn. The form of the town- 
ship is irregular, and its dimensions 
cannot be ascertained with accu- 
racy ; but it comprises an area of 
about 17 square miles. It is une- 
ven, and considerably hilly ; upon 
the borders of the rivers, there are 
small intervals, or tracts of allu- 
vial, f 

The town is well watered by 
the Quinibaug and Shetucket riv- 
ers, which circumscribe it upon all 
sides, except its northern bounda- 
ry. There are sevearl considera- 
ble bridges across these rivers, 
and several fisheries of shad and 
salmon. 

The natural growth of timber 
consists of oak, walnut, chesnut, 
and other trees common to this 
region. The agricultural produc- 
tions are Indian com, some rye, 
butter and cheese, &c. The pre- 
vailing character of the soil is a 
gravelly loam, occasionally inter- 



spersed with a sandy loam, especi- 
ally in the vallies, and it is conside- 
rably fertile and productive. 
There are two turnpike roads that 
pass tlirough the town ; one lead- 
ing from Norwich to Providence, 
in Rhode Island, and the other from 
the formerplace. to Woodstock &c. 

The more considerable manu- 
facturing and mechanical employ- 
ments, aside from those of adomes- 
tic character, consist of 1 Cotton 
Factory, 1 Woolen Factory, 1 Bel- 
lows Manufactory, 4 Grain Mills, 
2 Fulling Mills, and 1 Carding Ma- 
chine. There are 2 Mercantile 
Stores and 3 Taverns. 

The population of tlie town, in 
1810, was 1123; and there are 1 70 
Dwelling houses, 1 50 Freemen or 
Electors, and 1 company of militia. 

The civil divisions of the towk 
are two located Congregational 
Societies, arid eight School dis- 
tricts ; there is also a Society of 
Baptists, two houses for public 
worship, & eight common Schools. 
There are two Physicians and two 
Clergymen, one Baptist, and one 
Congregational. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is |^29,932. 

Lisbon belonged, previously to 
its incorporation as a town in 
1786, to Norwich. 



^ 



LYME. 



159 



m 



•w-i^t* 



,— , • ■ — ~- ' — 7 — »»— - - B 

LYME, an extensive maritime 
post township, ia situated at the 
mouth of Connecticut river, on the 
east side ; 40 miles southeast from 
Hartford, and about the same dist- 
ance east from New-Haven ; bound- 
ed north on East-Haddam and Col- 
chester, east on Montville and Wa- 
terford, south on Long Island 
sound, and west on Connecticut 
river. 

The following lines and courses, 
circumscribe and define the limits 
and extent of the township : from 
the end of black point to Water- 
ford corner, in a N N E course by 
Niantic bay, is 2 and a half miles ; 
thence north upon Waterford line, 
6 miles ; thence N N W upon the 
line of Montville, about 4 miles ; 
thence nearly north, upon the same 
line or boundary, about 2 miles; 
thence west upon the line of Col- 
chester, nearly 3 miles; thence 
south upon the line of East-Had- 
dam, 3 miles; thence west upon 
the line of East-Haddam, nearly 7 
miles ; the line or boundary upon 
Connecticut river, is about 10 
miles ; and that upon the sound, 
is about 8 miles ; comprising an 
area of about 100 square miles, be- 
ing the largest township in the 
State. Its surface is strikingly di- 
versified. About one half of the 
township is level, or moderately 
hilly, comprising the borders of 
the sound ; its bays and inlets ; the 
large tracts of marine alluvial, or 
salt marsh ; the numerous and ex-* 
tensive intervals upon the rivers, 
and other sections. The other di- 
vision of the township is rough ; 
being hilly or mountainous, and 
stony. Of the mountainous fea- 
tures of the town, there are nume- 
rous granitic ledges. Near the 



mouth of Four Mile river, several 
distinct ridges commence, consist- 
ing of a succession of hills, which 
range northwardly, and become 
more elevated, as they extend in- 
to the interior. Within the town- 
ship, near the Connecticut, north 
of Eight Mile river, commences 
one of the branches of the granitic 
mountain, which extends north- 
wardly through the State into Mas- 
sachusetts, and constitutes the 
heights of land which divides the 
waters, that run westwardly inta 
the Connecticut, from those which 
run eastwardly into the Thames 
and other streams. This mountain- 
ous ridge, also, becomes more ele- 
vated, and presents more promi- 
nent features, as it extends inta 
the interior. The geological char- 
acter of the township being gran- 
itic, the prevailing soil is a gravel- 
ly loam, but varies in different sec-- 
tions. The bodies of salt marsh 
and meadows upon the rivers, are 
extensive and productive ; the for- 
mer affording large quantities of 
salt hay, and the latter producing 
fresh hay, grain &c. The hilly and 
mountainous parts of the town do 
not admit of a general cultivation 
of grain, but afford good grazing; 
and the making of butter and 
cheese, areconsiderable agricultu- 
ral interests. Ofthe grains cultiva- 
ted, Indian com receives the most 
attention. The forests comprise 
the deciduous trees common to 
this region ; and among the vege- 
table productions there are some 
valuable medicinal plants, of 
which ginseng and Virginia snake 
root are most deserving of notice. 
The waters of the township are 
very abundant. Besides the Con- 
I necticut, which washes the west- 



160 



LYME. 



era border of the town, it is wa- 
tered by the following streams ; 
Whalebone, Eight Mile, Falls, 
Beaver, Lieutenant's, Four Mile?, 
Bridge, Mamacock and Niantic. 
There is a ferry, accommodated 
with sail boats, upon the Connec- 
ticut, maintaining a communica- 
tion between this town and Say- 
brook, three miles from the sound. 
This ferry is established and re- 
gulated by law, and is constantly 
attended. Besides this, th^re are 
within this town, Ely^s, Brock- 
way's and Comstock^s ferries, all 
of which are established and main- 
tained by law. The town is ac- 
commodated with several good 
harbours, of which those at the 
mouth of the Connecticut, Lieu- 
tenant's and Eight mile rivers are 
most important. The Connecti- 
cut, throughout the whole extent 
of the town, has sufficient depth 
of water, for large vessels, 
and in general affords safe and 
good landing places. A part of 
Niantic bay, upon Long Island 
sound, is situated within this town. 
There are a number of ponds 
in the town. In the first society or 
parish are Rodgers' and Black- 
hall's ponds ; in the second socie- 
ty, is Smith's, situated upon the 
line, and Bride and Pattagawonset 
ponds; in the third society are 
Hog, Norwich and Cedar Ponds. 
The fishing business is carried 
on extensively, is an important in- 
terest, and employs, in some sea- 
sons of the year, considerable in- 
dustry. The shad fisheries in the 
Connecticut river, which are nu- 
merous, are very valuable, and a 
source of great wealth to the town. 
Large quantities of shad are annu- 
ally taken, and always have a rea- 



dy market; and for some years 
past at a very advanced price, 
Connecticut river shad being es- 
teemed better than any other in 
the United States. In Long Isl- 
and sound, shell and black fish 
are taken considerably plentifully. 
The town has important advanta- 
ges for maritime and navigation 
business ; and there are a number 
of vessels owned therein, which 
are employed in the coasting 
trade. 

It is accommodated with the 
New-London and Lyme turnpike, 
which passes through it from east 
to west; and with the Hartford and 
New-London turnpike,which leads 
through its northeast corner. 

The business of agriculture, fish- 
ing and navigation, comprise the 
principal interests of the town ; 
and those of manufactures can 
claim only a very subordinate 
rank. There are 2 Woolen Fac- 
tories, 1 Paper Mill, 2 Hat Facto- 
ries, having bowing machines, B 
Grain Mills, 1 1 Saw Mills, 1 Car- 
ding Machine for customers, and 
3 Tanneries. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 4321, and is estimated 
at this time at 4500. There are 
about 500 Electors or Freemen ; 
3 Companies of Infantry, 1 of 
Light Infantry and 1 of Artillery, 
containing in all about 400 men ; 
and 567 Dwelling houses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was g71,888, and the va- 
luation or assessment of the lands 
and buildings, in 1815, under the 
laws of the United States, was 
^1,307,826. 

The civil divisions of the town 
consist of 3 located Congregation- 
al Societies or Parishes, and 24 



BIOGRAPHY. 



161 



24 School Districts. Besides the 
located, there are 2 Societies of 
Baptists, 1 of Methodists, and 1 of 
Separatists ; all of which, except 
the Methodists, are accommoda- 
ted with houses for public wor- 
ship. 

There are, in the town, 24 pri- 
mary or common Schools, 3 Social 
Libraries, 12 Mercantile Stores, 
7 Physicians, 2 Attornies and 6 
Clergymen, 3 Congregationalists, 
3 Baptists and 1 Methodist. 

Lyme is a very ancient town^ 
having been settled about the year 
1636 ; it was soon after incorpo- 
rated as a part of the town of Say- 
brook, and as a distinct town, in 
1 665 ; and it retains at the present 
time its original limits, excepting 
about 2600 acres, which were an- 
nexed to Montville at the incorpo- 
ration of that town. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Mat- 
thew Griswoldj distinguished for his 
many public employments, was a 
native of this town. Among the 
important and responsible offices 
which he was called to fill, were 
those of chief Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court, Lieut. Governor of the 
State, which station he held for 
a number of years, and Governor, 
hating been elected to that office 
in 1784. He continued in this si- 
tuation but one year, being suc- 
ceeded by Samuel Huntington. 

The Hon. Roger Griswold^ of this 
town, was the son of Matthew Gris- 
wold, and born 21st May, 1762. 
He was educated at Yale College, 
and graduated in 178Q. Having 
been admitted to the practice 
of law in 1783, he soon became 
extensively engaged in profes- 
sional business, and acquired a 



high reputation, as a profound law- 
yer and advocate. In 1 789, when 
he was but 32 years of age, he 
was removed from a lucrative and 
extensive practice to the councils 
of the nation ; being elected a re- 
presentative from this State in the 
Congress of the United States. 
In 1801, at the close of President 
Adams^ administration, he was no- 
minated to be Secretary of War, 
but declined to accept the office. 
In 1807, he was appointed a Judge 
of the Superior Court ; and, in 
1809, he was elected by the Gen- 
ral Assembly Lieut. GoVemor, 
which office he held until the 
spring of 1811, when the freemen 
elected him Governor. In this 
office he continued until his death, 
in Oct. 1812. This period, em- 
bracing the first five months after 
the declaration of war, was one 
of peculiar excitement and diffi- 
culty, and during most of which, 
Gov. Griswold was subject to an 
occasionally severe indisposi- 
tion. 

Roger Griswold was a member of 
Congress for ten years ; embracing 
a part of the administration of 
Washington, the whole of that of 
Adams, and a part of that of Jef- 
ferson. This was a very import- 
ant and interesting period, not only 
from the political events of this 
country, but from the great con- 
vulsions which agitated all Eu- 
rope ; and it was during this pe- 
riod, while in the councils of the 
nation, that Roger Griswold was 
most distinguished. During a con- 
siderable part of this time, he rank- 
ed among the first of his party, 
and was equally distinguished for 
his powerful talents in debate, and 



21 



160 



LYME. 



crn border of the town, it is wa- 
tered by the following streams ; 
Whalebone, Eight Mile, Falls, 
Beaver, Lieutenant's, Four Miles, 
Bridge, Mamacock and Ni antic. 
There is a ferry, accommodated 
with sari boats, upon the Connec- 
ticut, maintaining a communica- 
tion between this town and Say- 
brook, three miles from the sound. 
This ferry is established and re- 
gulated by law, and is constantly 
attended. Besides this, th^re are 
within this town, Ely's, Brock- 
way's and Comstock^s ferries, all 
of which are established and main- 
tained by law. The town is ac- 
commodated with several good 
harbours, of which those at the 
mouth of the Connecticut, Lieu- 
tenant's and Eight mile rivers are 
most important. The Connecti- 
cut, throughout the whole extent 
of the town, has sufficient depth 
of water, for large vessels, 
and in general affords safe and 
good landing places. A part of 
Niantic bay, upon Long Island 
sound, is situated within this town. 

There are a number of ponds 
in the town. In the first society or 
parish are Rodgers' and Black- 
hall's ponds ; in the second socie- 
ty, is Smith's, situated upon the 
line, and Bride and Pattagawonset 
ponds ; in the third society are 
Hog, Norwich and Cedar Ponds. 

The fishing business is carried 
on extensively, is an important in- 
terest, and employs, in some sea- 
sons of the year, considerable in- 
dustry. The shad fisheries in the 
Comiecticut river, which are nu- 
merous, are very valuable, and a 
source of great wealth to the town. 
Large quantities of shad are annu- 
ally taken, and always have a rea- 



dy market; and for some years 
past at a very advanced price, 
Connecticut river shad being es- 
teemed better than any other in 
the United States. In Long Isl- 
and sound, shell and black fish 
are taken considerably plentifully. 
ITie town has important advanta- 
ges for maritime and navigation 
business ; and there are a number 
of vessels owned therein, which 
are employed in the coasting 
trade. 

It is accommodated with the 
New-London and Lyme turnpike, 
which passes through it from east 
to west; and with the Hartford and 
New-London turnpike,which leads 
through its northeast corner. 

The business of agriculture, fish- 
ing and navigation, comprise the 
principal interests of the town ; 
and those of manufactures can 
claim only a very subordinate 
rank. There are 2 Woolen Fac- 
tories, 1 Paper Mill, 2 Hat Facto- 
ries, having bowing machines, B 
Grain Mills, 1 1 Saw Mills, 1 Car- 
ding Machine for customers, and 
3 Tanneries. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 4321, and is estimated 
at this time at 4500. There are 
about 500 Electors or Freemen ; 
3 Companies of Infantry, 1 of 
Light Infantry and 1 of Artillery, 
containing in all about 400 men ; 
and 567 Dwelling houses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was g71,888, and the va- 
luation or assessment of the lands 
and buildings, in 1815, under the 
laws of the United States, was 
^1,307,826. 

The civil divisions of the town 
consist of 3 located Congregation- 
al Societies or Parishes, and 24 



BIOGRAPHY. 



161 



24 School Districts* Besides the 
located, there are 2 Societies of 
Baptists, 1 of Methodists, and 1 of 
Separatists ; all of which, except 
the Methodists, are accommoda- 
ted with houses for public wor- 
ship. 

There are, in the town, 24 pri- 
mary or common Schools, 3 Social 
Libraries, 1 2 Mercantile Stores, 
7 Physicians, 2 Attornies and 6 
Clei^men, 3 Congregationalists, 
2 Baptists and 1 Methodist. 

Lyme is a very ancient town^ 
having been settled about the year 
1636 ; it was soon after incorpo- 
rated as a part of the town of Say- 
brook, and as a distinct town, in 
1665 ; find it retains at the present 
time its original limits, excepting 
about 2600 acres, which were an- 
nexed to Montville at the incorpo- 
ration of that town. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Mat- 
thew Griswoldj distinguished for his 
many public employments, was a 
native of this town. Among the 
important and responsible offices 
which lie was called to fill, were 
those of chief Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court, Lieut. Governor of the 
State, which station he held for 
a number of years, and Governor, 
having been elected to that office 
in 1784. He continued in this si- 
tuation but one year, being suc- 
ceeded by Samuel Huntington. 
^ The Hon. iJo^€rGmwoW, of this 
town, was the son of Matthew Gris- 
wold, and born 21st May, 1762. 
He was educated at Yale College, 
and graduated in 1780. Having 
been admitted to the practice 
of law in 1783, he soon became 
extensively engaged in profes- 
sional business, and acquired a 



high reputation, as a profound law- 
yer and advocate. In 1 789, when 
he was but 32 years of age, he 
was removed from a lucrative and 
extensive practice to the councils 
of the nation ; being elected a re- 
presentative from this State in the 
Congress of the United States. 
In 1 801 , at the close of President 
Adams' administration, be was no- 
minated to be Secretary of War, 
but declined to accept the office. 
In 1 807, he was appointed a Judge 
of the Superior Court ; and, in 
1809, he was elected by the Gen- 
ral Assembly Lieut. GoVemor, 
which office he held until the 
spring of 1811, when the freemen 
elected him Governor. In this 
office he continued until his death, 
in Oct. 1812. This period, em- 
bracing the first five months after 
the declaration of war, w;as one 
of peculiar excitement and diffi- 
culty, and during most of which, 
Gov. Griswold was subject to an 
occasionally severe indisposi- 
tion. 

Roger Griswold was a member of 
Congress for ten years ; embracing 
a part of the administration of 
Washington, the whole of that of 
Adams, and a part of that of Jef- 
ferson. This was a very import- 
ant and interesting period, not only 
from the political events of this 
country, but from the great con- 
vulsions which agitated all Eu- 
rope ; and it was during this pe- 
riod, while in the councils of the 
nation, that Roger Griswold was 
most distinguished. During a con- 
siderable part of this time, he rank- 
ed among the first of his party, 
and was equally distinguished for 
his powerful talents in debate, and 



21 



160 



LYME. 



ern border of the town, it is wa- 
tered by the following streams ; 
Whalebone, Eight Mile, Falls, 
Beaver, Lieutenant's, Four Milep, 
Bridge, Mamacock and Niantic. 
There is a ferry, accommodated 
with sail boats, upon the Connec- 
ticut, maintaining a communica- 
tion between this town and Say- 
brook, three miles from the sound. 
This ferry is established and re- 
gulated by law, and is constantly 
attended. Besides this, there are 
within this town, Ely^s, Brock- 
way's and Comstock's ferries, all 
of which are established and main- 
tained by law. The town is ac- 
commodated with several good 
harbours, of which those at the 
mouth of the Connecticut, Lieu- 
tenant's and Eight mile rivers are 
most important. The Connecti- 
cut, throughout the whole extent 
of the town, has sufficient depth 
of water, for large vessels, 
and in general affords safe and 
good landing places. A part of 
Niantic bay, upon Long Island 
sound, is situated within this town. 

There are a number of ponds 
in the town. In the first society or 
parish are Rodgers' and Black- 
hall's ponds ; in the second socie- 
ty, is Smith's, situated upoh the 
line, and Bride and Pattagawonset 
ponds ; in the third society are 
Hog, Norwich and Cedar Ponds. 

The fishing business is carried 
on extensively, is an important in- 
terest, and employs, in some sea- 
sons of the year, considerable in- 
dustry. The shad fisheries in the 
Connecticut river, which are nu- 
merous, are very valuable, and a 
iource of great wealth to the town. 
Large quantities of shad are annu- 
ally taken, and always have a rea- 



msm 



iMM 



dy market; and for some years 
past at a very advanced price, 
Connecticut river shad being es- 
teemed better than any other in 
the United States. In Long Isl- 
and sound, shell and black fish 
are taken considerably plentifully. 
The town has important advanta- 
ges for maritime and navigation 
business ; and there are a number 
of vessels owned therein, which 
are employed in the coasting 
trade. 

It is accommodated with the 
New-London and Lyme turnpike, 
which passes through it from east 
to west; and with the Hartford and 
New-London turnpike,which leads 
through its northeast corner. 

The business of agriculture, fish- 
ing and navigation, comprise the 
principal interests of the town ; 
and those of manufactures can 
claim only a very subordinate 
rank. There are 2 Woolen Fac- 
tories, 1 Paper Mill, 2 Hat Facto- 
ries, having bowing machines, 8 
Grain Mills, 1 1 Saw Mills, 1 Car- 
ding Machine for customers, and 
3 Tanneries. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 4321, and is estimated 
at this time at 4500. There are 
about 500 Electors or Freemen ; 
3 Companies of Infantry, 1 of 
Light Infantry and 1 of Artillery, 
containing in all about 400 men ; 
and 567 Dwelling houses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was g71,888, and the va- 
luation or assessment of the lands 
and buildings, in 1815, under the 
laws of the United States, was 
}J 1,307,826. 

The civil divisions of the town 
consist of 3 located Congregation- 
al Societies or Parishes, and 24 



BIOGRAPHY. 



161 



24 School Districts* Besides the 
located, there are 2 Societies of 
Baptists, 1 of Methodists, and 1 of 
Separatists ; all of which, except 
the Methodists, are accommoda- 
ted with houses for public wor- 
ship. 

There are, in the town, 24 pri- 
mary or common Schools, 3 Social 
Libraries, 12 Mercantile Stores, 
7 Physicians, 2 Attornies and 6 
Clei^men, 3 Congregationalists, 
2 Baptists and 1 Methodist* 

Lyme is a very ancient town, 
haying been settled about the year 
1636 ; it was soon after incorpo- 
rated as a part of the town of Say- 
brook, and as a distinct town, in 
1665 ; and it retains at the present 
time its original limits, excepting 
about 2600 acres, which were an- 
nexed to Montville at the incorpo- 
ration of that town. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Mat- 
thew Griswoldj distinguished for his 
many pubUc employments, was a 
native of this town. Among the 
important and responsible offices 
which he was called to fill, were 
those of chief Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court, Lieut. Governor of the 
State, which station he held for 
a number of years, and Governor, 
having been elected to that office 
in 1784. He continued in this si- 
tuation but one year, being suc- 
ceeded by Samuel Huntington. 

The Hon. Roger Griswoldj of this 
town, was the son of Matthew Gris- 
wold, and born 21st May, 1762. 
He was educated at Yale College, 
and graduated in 1780. Having 
been admitted to the practise 
of law in 1783, he soon became 
extensively engaged in profes- 
sional business, and acquired a 



high reputation, as a profound law- 
yer and advocate. In 1 789, when 
he was but 32 years of age, he 
was removed from a lucrative and 
extensive practice to the councils 
of the nation ; being elected a re- 
presentative from this State in the 
Congress of the United States. 
In 1801, at the close of President 
Adams' administration, be was no- 
minated to be Secretary of War, 
but declined to accept the office. 
In 1 807, he was appointed a Judge 
of the Superior Court ; and, in 
1809, he was elected by the Gen- 
ral Assembly Lieut. GoVemor, 
which office he held until the 
spring of 1811, when the freemen 
elected him Governor. In this 
office he continued until his death, 
in Oct. 1812. This period, em- 
bracing the first five months after 
the declaration of war, was one 
of peculiar excitement and diffi- 
culty, and during most of which, 
Gov. Griswold was subject to an 
occasionally severe indisposi- 
tion. 

Roger Griswold' was a member of 
Congress for ten years ; embracing 
a part of the administration of 
Washington, the whole of that of 
Adams, and a part of that of Jef- 
ferson. This was a very import- 
ant and interesting period, not only 
from the political events of this 
country, but from the great con- 
vulsions which agitated all Eu- 
rope ; and it was during this pe- 
riod, while in the councils of the 
nation, that Roger Griswold was 
most distinguished. During a con- 
siderable part of this time, he rank- 
ed among the first of his party, 
and was equally distinguished for 
his powerful talents in debate, and 



21 



160 



LYME. 



em border of the town, it is wa- 
tered by the following streams ; 
Whalebone, Eight Mile, Falls, 
Beaver, Lieutenant's, Four Milep, 
Bridge, Mamacock and Niantic. 
There is a ferry, accommodated 
with sari boats, upon the Connec- 
ticut, maintaining a communica- 
tion between this town and Say- 
brook, three miles from the sound. 
This ferry is established and re- 
gulated by law, and is constantly 
attended. Besides this, there are 
within this town, Ely's, Brock- 
way's and Comstock's ferries, all 
of which are established and main- 
tained by law. The town is ac- 
commodated with several good 
harbours, of which those at the 
mouth of the Connecticut, Lieu- 
tenant's and Eight mile rivers are 
most important. The Connecti- 
cut, throughout the whole extent 
of the town, has sufficient depth 
of water, for large vessels, 
and in general affords safe and 
good landing places. A part of 
Niantic bay, upon Long Island 
sound, is situated within this town. 

There are a number of ponds 
in the town. In the first society or 
parish are Rodgers' and Black- 
faall's ponds ; in the second socie- 
ty, is Smith's, situated upon the 
line, and Bride and Pattagawonset 
ponds ; in the third society are 
Hog, Norwich and Cedar Ponds. 

The fishing business is carried 
on extensively, is an important in- 
terest, and employs, in some sea- 
sons of the year, considerable in- 
flustry. The shad fisheries in the 
Connecticut river, which are nu- 
merous, are very valuable, and a 
iource of great wealth to the town. 
Large quantities of shad are annu- 
ally taken, and always have a rea- 



dy market; and for some years 
past at a very advanced price, 
Connecticut river shad being es- 
teemed better than any other in 
the United States. In Long Isl- 
and sound, shell and black fish 
are taken considerably plentifully. 
The town has important advanta- 
ges for maritime and navigation 
business ; and there are a number 
of vessels owned therein, which 
are employed in the coasting 
trade. 

It is accommodated with the 
New-London and Lyme turnpike, 
which passes through it from east 
to west; and with the Hartford and 
New-London turnpike,which leads 
through its northeast comer. 

The business of agriculture, fish- 
ing and navigation, comprise the 
principal interests of the town ; 
and those of manufactures can 
claim only a very subordinate 
rank. There are 2 Woolen Fislc- 
tories, 1 Paper Mill, 2 Hat Facto- 
ries, having bowing machines, 8 
Grain Mills, 1 1 Saw Mills, 1 Car- 
ding Machine for customers, and 
3 Tanneries. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 4321, and is estimated 
at this time at 4500. There are 
about 500 Electors or Freemen ; 
3 Companies of Infantry, 1 of 
Light Infantry and 1 of Artillery, 
containing in all about 400 men; 
and 567 Dwelling houses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was g71,888, and the va- 
luation or assessment of the lands 
and buildings, in 1815, under the 
laws of the United States, was 
Jj 1,307,826. 

The civil divisions of the town 
consist of 3 located Congregation- 
al Societies or Parishes, and 24 



r 



BIOGRAPHY. 



161 



24 School Districts* Besides the 
located, there are 2 Societies of 
Baptists, 1 of Methodists, and 1 of 
Separatists ; all of which, except 
the Methodists, are accommoda- 
ted with houses for public wor- 
ship. 

There are, in the town, 24 pri- 
mary or common Schools, 3 Social 
Labraries, 12 Mercantile Stores, 
7 Physicians, 2 Attornies and 6 
Clei^men, 3 Congregationalists, 
2 Baptists and 1 Methodist* 

Lyme is a very ancient town, 
having been settled about the year 
1636 ; it was soon after incorpo- 
rated as a part of the town of Say- 
brook, and as a distinct town, in 
1665 ; find it retains at the present 
time its original limits, excepting 
about 2600 acres, which were an- 
nexed to Montville at the incorpo- 
ration of that town. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Mat- 
thew Griswoldj distinguished for his 
many public employments, was a 
native of this town. Among the 
important and responsible offices 
which he was called to fill, were 
those of chief Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court, Lieut. Governor of the 
iState, which station he held for 
a number of years, and Governor, 
hating been elected to that office 
in 1784* He continued in this si- 
tuation but one year, being suc- 
ceeded by Samuel Huntington* 

TheHon* Roger Oriswold J o( this 
town, was the son of Matthew Gris- 
wold, and born 21st May, 1762* 
He was educated at Yale College, 
and graduated in 1780. Having 
been admitted to the practice 
of law in 1 783, he soon became 
extensively engaged in profes- 



sional business, and acquired a 



high reputation, as a profound law- 
yer and advocate* In 1 789, when 
he was but 32 years of age, he 
was removed from a lucrative and 
extensive practice to the councils 
of the nation ; being elected a re- 
presentative from this State in the 
Congress of the United States* 
In 1801, at the close of President 
Adams' administration, be was no- 
minated to be Secretary of War, 
but declined to accept the office* 
In 1 807, he was appointed a Judge 
of the Superior Court ; and, in 
1809, he was elected by the Gen- 
ral Assembly Lieut* GoVemor, 
which office he held until the 
spring of 1811, when the freemen 
elected him Governor. In this 
office he continued until his death, 
in Oct. 1812. This period, em- 
bracing the first five months after 
the declaration of war, was one 
of peculiar excitement and diffi- 
culty, and during most of which, 
Gov* Griswold was subject to an 
occasionally severe indisposi- 
tion* 

Roger Griswold'was a member of 
Congress for ten years ; embracing 
a part of the admioistratioa of 
Washington, the whole of that of 
Adams, and a part of that of Jef- 
ferson* This was a very import- 
ant and interesting period, not only 
from the political events of this 
country^ but from the great con- 
vulsions which agitated all Eu- 
rope ; and it was during this pe- 
riod, while in the councils of the 
nation, that Roger Griswold was 
most distinguished. During a con- 
siderable part of this time, he rank- 
ed among the first of his party, 
and was equally distinguished for 
his powerful talents in debate, and 



21 



160 



LYME. 



i "111 '•■'""■II M II ■ I ^' -' • 

em border of the town, it is wa- 
tered by the following streams ; 
Whalebone, Eight Mile, Falls, 
Beaver, Lieutenant's, Four Miles?, 
Bridge, Mamacock and Niantic. 
There is a ferry, accommodated 
with sail boats, upon the Connec- 
ticut, maintaining a communica- 
tion between this town and Say- 
brook, three miles from the sound. 
This ferry is established and re- 
gulated by law, and is constantly 
attended. Besides this, there are 
within this town, Ely's, Brock- 
way's and Comstock's ferries, all 
of which are established and main- 
tained by law. The town is ac- 
commodated with several good 
harbours, of which those at the 
mouth of the Connecticut, Lieu- 
tenant's and Eight mile rivers are 
most important. The Connecti- 
cut, throughout the whole extent 
of the town, has sufficient depth 
of water, for large vessels, 
and in general affords safe and 
good landing places. A part of 
Niantic bay, upon Long Island 
sound, is situated within this town. 

There are a number of ponds 
in the town. In the first society or 
parish are Rodgers' and Black- 
hall's ponds ; in the second socie- 
ty, is Smith's, situated upon the 
line, and Bride and Pattagawonset 
ponds ; in the third society are 
Hog, Norwich and Cedar Ponds. 

The fishing business is carried 
on extensively, is an important in- 
terest, and employs, in some sea- 
sons of the year, considerable in- 
flustry. The shad fisheries in the 
Connecticut river, which are nu- 
merous, are very valuable, and a 
iource of great wealth to the town. 
Large quantities of shad are annu- 
ally taken, and always have a rea- 



dy market; and for some years 
past at a very advanced price, 
Connecticut river shad being es- 
teemed better than any other in 
the United States. In Long Isl- 
and sound, shell and black fish 
are taken considerably plentifully. 
The town has important advanta- 
ges for maritime and navigation 
business ; and there are a number 
of vessels owned therein, which 
are employed in the coasting 
trade. 

It is accommodated with the 
New-London and Lyme turnpike, 
which passes through it from east 
to west; and with the Hartford and 
New-London turnpike,which leads 
through its northeast corner. 

The business of agriculture, fish- 
ing and navigation, comprise the 
principal interests of the town ; 
and those of manufactures can 
claim only a very subordinate 
rank. There are 2 Woolen Fac- 
tories, 1 Paper Mill, 2 Hat Facto- 
ries, having bowing machines, B 
Grain Mills, 1 1 Saw Mills, 1 Car- 
ding Machine for customers, and 
3 Tanneries. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 4321, and is estimated 
at this time at 4500. There are 
about 500 Electors or Freemen ; 
3 Companies of Infantry, 1 of 
Light Infantry and 1 of Artillery, 
containing in all about 400 men ; 
and 567 Dwelling houses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was ^71, 888, and the va- 
luation or assessment of the lands 
and buildings, in 1815, under the 
laws of the United States, was 
Jj 1,307,826. 

The civil divisions of the town 
consist of 3 located Congregation- 
al Societies or Parishes, and 24 



BIOGRAPHY. 



161 



24 School Districts* Besides the 
located, there are 2 Societies of 
Baptists, 1 of Methodists, and 1 of 
Separatists ; all of which, except 
the Methodists, are accommoda- 
ted with houses for public wor- 
ship. 

There are, in the town, 24 pri- 
mary or common Schools, 3 Social 
Libraries, 12 Mercantile Stores, 
7 Physicians, 2 Attornies and 6 
Clergymen, 3 Congregationalists, 
2 Baptists and 1 Methodist. 

Lyme is a very ancient town, 
having been settled about the year 
1636 ; it was soon after incorpo- 
rated as a part of the town of Say- 
brook, and as a distinct town, in 
1665 ; ^nd it retains at the present 
time its original limits, excepting 
about 2600 acres, which were an- 
nexed to Montville at the incorpo- 
ration of that town. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Mat- 
thew Griswoldj distinguished for his 
many public employments, was a 
native of this town. Among the 
important and responsible offices 
which he was called to fill, were 
those of chief Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court, Lieut. Governor of the 
State, which station he held for 
a number of years, and Governor, 
hating been elected to that office 
in 1784. He continued in this si- 
tuation but one year, being suc- 
ceeded by Samuel Huntington. 
^ The Hon. iJo^€rGmwoW, of this 
town, was the son of Matthew Gris- 
wold, and born 21st May, 1762. 
He was educated at Yale College, 
and graduated in 1780. Having 
been admitted to the practiae 
of law in 1783, he soon became 
extensively engaged in profes- 
sional business, and acquired a 



high reputation, as a profound law- 
yer and advocate. In 1 789, when 
he was but 32 years of age, he 
was removed from a lucrative and 
extensive practice to the councils 
of the nation ; being elected a re- 
presentative from this State in the 
Congress of the United States. 
In 1801, at the close of President 
Adams' administration, he was no- 
minated to be Secretary of War, 
but declined to accept the office. 
In 1 807, he was appointed a Judge 
of the Superior Court ; and, in 
1809, he was elected by the Gen- 
ral Assembly Lieut. GoVemor, 
which office he held until the 
spring of 1811, when the freemen 
elected him Governor. In this 
office he continued until his death, 
in Oct. 1812. This period, em- 
bracing the first five months after 
the declaration of war, was one 
of peculiar excitement and diffi- 
culty, and during most of which, 
Gov. Griswold was subject to an 
occasionally severe indisposi- 
tion. 

Roger Griswold'was a member of 
Congress for ten years ; embracing 
a part of the administration of 
Washington, the whole of that of 
Adams, and a part of that of Jef- 
ferson. This was a very import- 
ant and interesting period, not only 
from the political events of this 
country, but from the great con- 
vulsions which agitated all Eu- 
rope ; and it was during this pe- 
riod, while in the councils of the 
nation, that Roger Griswold was 
most distinguished. During a con- 
siderable part of this time, he rank- 
ed among the first of his party, 
and was equally distinguished for 
his powerful talents in debate, and 



21 



I«0 



LYME. 



m 



m 



ern border of the town, it is wa- 
tered by the following streams ; 
Whalebone, Eight Mile, Falls, 
Beaver, Lieutenant's, Four Miles:, 
Bridge, Mamacock and Niantic. 
There is a ferry, accommodated 
with sari boats, upon the Connec- 
ticut, maintaining a communica- 
tion between this town and Say- 
brook, three miles from the sound. 
This ferry is established and re- 
gulated by law, and is constantly 
attended; Besides this, there are 
within this town, Ely'^s, Brock- 
way's and Comstock's ferries, all 
of which are established and main- 
tained by law. The town is ac- 
commodated with several good 
harbours, of which those at the 
mouth of the Connecticut, Lieu- 
tenant's and Eight mile rivers are 
most important. The Connecti- 
cut, throughout the whole extent 
of the town, has sufficient depth 
of water, for large vessels, 
and in general affords safe and 
good landing places. A part of 
Niantic bay, upon Long Island 
sound, is situated within this town. 

There are a number of ponds 
fai the town. In the first society or 
parish are Rodgers' and Black- 
hall's ponds ; in the second socie- 
ty, is Smith's, situated upoh the 
line, and Bride and Pattagawonset 
ponds ; in the third society are 
Hog, Norwich and Cedar Ponds. 

The fishing business is carried 
on extensively, is an important in- 
terest, and employs, in some sea- 
sons of the year, considerable in- 
dustry. The shad fisheries in the 
<!?onnecticut river, which are nu- 
merous, are very valuable, and a 
source of great wealth to the town. 
Large quantities of shad are annu- 
ally taken, and always have a rea- 



dy market; and for some years 
past at a very advanced price, 
Connecticut river shad being es- 
teemed better than any other in 
the United States. In Long Isl- 
and sound, shell and black fish 
are taken considerably plentifully. 
The town has important advanta- 
ges for maritime and navigation 
business ; and there are a number 
of vessels owned therein, which 
are employed in the coasting 
trade. 

It is accommodated with the 
New-London and Lyme turnpike, 
which passes through it from east 
to west; and with the Hartford and 
New-London ttirnpike,which leads 
through its northeast corner. 

The business of agriculture, fish- 
ing and navigation, comprise the 
principal interests of the town ; 
and those of manufactures can 
claim only a very subordinate 
rank. There are 2 Woolen Fac- 
tories, 1 Paper Mill, 2 Hat Facto- 
ries, having bowing machines, 8 
Grain Mills, 1 1 Saw Mills, 1 Car- 
ding Machine for customers, and 
3 Tanneries. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 4321, and is estimated 
at this time at 4500. There are 
about 500 Electors or Freemen ; 
3 Companies of Infantry, 1 of 
Light Infantry and 1 of Artillery, 
containing in all about 400 men ; 
and 567 Dwelling houses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was g71, 888, and the va- 
luation or assessment of the lands 
and buildings, in 1815, under the 
laws of the United States, was 
Jj 1,307,826. 

The civil divisions of the town 
consist of 3 located Congregation- 
al Societies or Parishes, and 24 



BIOGRAPHY. 



161 



SOBBBB 



24 School Districts* Besides the 
located, there are 2 Societies of 
Baptists, 1 of Methodists, and 1 of 
Separatists ; all of which, except 
the Methodists, are accommoda- 
ted with houses for public wor- 
ship. 

There are, in the town, 24 pri- 
mary or common Schools, 3 Social 
Libraries, 12 Mercantile Stores, 
7 Physicians, 2 Attornies and 6 
Clei^men, 3 Congregationalists, 
2 Baptists and 1 Methodist. 

Lyme is a very ancient town, 
having been settled about the year 
1636; it was soon after incorpo- 
rated as a part of the town of Say- 
brook, and as a distinct town, in 
1665 ; ^nd it retains at the present 
time its original limits, excepting 
about 2600 acres, which were an- 
nexed to Montville at the incorpo- 
ration of that town. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Mat- 
thew Griswold, distinguished for his 
many public employments, was a 
native of this town. Among the 
important and responsible offices 
which lie was called to fill, were 
those of chief Judge of the Supe- 
rior Court, Lieut. Governor of the 
l^tate, which station he held for 
a number of years, and Governor, 
having been elected to that office 
in 1784. He continued in this si- 
tuation but one year, being suc- 
ceeded by Samuel Huntington. 

The Hon. Roger Griswold, of this 
town, was the son of Matthew Gris- 
wold, and born 21st May, 1762. 
He was educated at Yale College, 
and graduated in 1780. Having 
been admitted to the practise 
of law in 1783, he soon became 
extensively engaged in profes- 
sional business, and acquired a 



high reputation, as a profound law- 
yer and advocate. In 1 789, when 
he was but 32 years of age, he 
was removed from a lucrative and 
extensive practice to the councils 
of the nation ; being elected a re- 
presentative from this State in the 
Congress of the United States. 
In 1801, at the close of President 
Adams' administration, be was no- 
minated to be Secretary of War, 
but declined to accept the office. 
In 1 807, he was appointed a Judge 
of the Superior Court ; and, in 
1809, he was elected by the Gen- 
ral Assembly Lieut. GoVemor, 
which office he held until the 
spring of 1811, when the freemen 
elected him Governor. In this 
office he continued until his death, 
in Oct. 1812. This period, em- 
bracing the first five months after 
the declaration of war, was one 
of peculiar excitement and diffi- 
culty, and during most of which, 
Gov. Griswold was subject to an 
occasionally severe indisposi- 
tion. 

Rog^r Griswold was a member of 
Congress for ten years ; embracing 
a part of the administration of 
Washington, the whole of that of 
Adams, and a part of that of Jef- 
ferson. This was a very import- 
ant and interesting period, not only 
from the political events of this 
country, but from the great con- 
vulsions which agitated all Eu- 
rope ; and it was during this pe- 
riod, while in the councils of the 
nation, that Roger Griswold was 
most distinguished. During a con- 
siderable part of this time, he rank- 
ed among the first of his party, 
and was equally distinguished for 
his powerful talents in debate, and 



21 



16S 



MONTVILLE. 



the independence and decision of 
his conduct. He remained but a 
short time in his judicial station, 



and still shorter in that of chief 
magistrate. 



MONTVILLE. 



MONTVILLE, aposttownship, 
is situated on the west bank of 
the Thames, 7 miles from its 
mouth, the same distance from 
New-London, and 35 miles from 
Hartford ; liounded on the north 
bj Bozrah and Norwich, on the 
cast by the riv^r Thames, which 
separates it from Preston a^nd Gro- 
ton, on the south by Waterford, 
on the west by Lyme, and 
northwest by Colchester. Its av- 
erage length, from east to west, 
is about 8 miles, and its average 
breadth about 5 miles, comprising 
about 40 square miles. 

This township is embraced with- 
in the granitic district, bordering 
upon the sea coast, is uneven and 
rough, being hilly, rocky and sto- 
ny. The soil is k coarse, dry, gra- 
velly loam, considerably strong and 
fertile, affording good grazing. 
The waters of the township are 
abundant and good, its eastern bor- 
der being washed by the Thames 
and its numerous inlets ; and there 
are several small streams dischar- 
ging their waters into the Thames, 
that run through its interior, and 
accommodate its various sections. 
Many of the inlets upon the 
Thames afford good and safe an- 
choring places ; but there is no 
harbour which is much used. 
There are two vessels only be- 
longing to the town ; and its ma- 
ritime interests are proportionally 



inconsiderable. Some attention 
is paid to the fishing business ; 
shad are taken in the Thames, in 
which, and in its various inlets^ 
are also taken some shell and black 
fish. 

There are five ponds or lakes 
in the town ; the most considera- 
ble of which is Gardiner's lake, 
situated in its north westeVn 
section ; and a part of it is in Col- 
chester and Bozrah. 

The lands in this town being 
most favourable for grazing, and 
generally too rough and stony for 
a grain culture, the principal ag- 
ricultural productions are cheese, 
butter, neat cattle and beef; some 
Indian com, rye and flax are rais-* 
ed. 

The forests consist of oak, wal- 
nut, chesnut, and some other de- 
ciduous trees. The Norwich and 
Hartford turnpike road leads thro' 
this town. 

In this, like most other towns in 
the county, domestic manufac- 
tures are general and important. 
There are also some manufactur- 
ing establishments, the most con- 
siderable of which are of Woolen, 
there being 3 Woolen Factories. 
There are also 2 Oil Mills, 1 Dis- 
tillery, 5 Grain Mills, 2 Clothiers' 
Works and FuUing Mills, 2 Card- 
ing Machines and 4 Tanneries. 

In this town there was a reserva- 
I tion of a tract of land of 4,000 



KORTH-STONINOTON. 



163 



aeres, for the Mohegan Indians ; 
the remains of which still reside 
upon it. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2187; and there are 
about 300 Electors, 3 Companies 
of Militia, and 320Dwellinghouses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, as rated in ma- 
king up lists in 1816, was ^48,338. 

There are, in the town, 2 loca- 1 



ted Congregational Societies, 1 
Society of Baptists, and 1 Society 
of Independents or Separatists. 
It contains also 13 School Districts 
and common Schools. There are 
3 Houses for public worship, 5 
Merca];ktile Stores, 3 Physicians 
and 3 Clergymen in the town. 

Montville originally belonged to 
New-London, and was incorpora- 
ted in 1786. 



NORTH-STONINGTON. 



NORTH-STONINGTON is 
A post township, situated in the 
southeastern section of the county 
add State, 50 miles southeast from 
Hartford; bounded on the north 
by Preston, Griswold and Volun- 
town, (the latter in Windham coun- 
ty,) east by Hopkinton, in Rhode 
Island, southeast by the Paucatuck 
river, which separates it from the 
State of Rhode Island, south by Sto- 
liington, and west by Groton and 
Preston* Its average length, from 
cast .to west is 8 miles, and its av- 
erage breadth nearly 6 miles, com- 
prising an area of about 44 square 
miles. This township is of a gran- 
itic character, rough, hilly and sto- 
ny ; the soil is a gravelly loam, 
considerably strong and fertile, af- 
fording good grazing. The natu- 
ral growth of timber consists of 
oak, chesnut, walnut, &c. The ag- 
ricultural productions comprise 
butter, cheese, beef, pork, lard, 
flax, wool, and some others. 

The township is well watered 
by the Paucatuck, its branches, 
and other small streams, which af- 
ford numerous sites for mills and 
other water works. 

A turnpike has been authorized, 
leading from New-London into the 



State of Rhode Island, which will 
pass through this town. 

Agriculture is the principal busi- 
ness of the inhabitants, who are re- 
markable for their habits of indus- 
try and economy ; and for the com- 
mendable simplicity and plainness 
of their manners and style of living. 
In the various calamities and em- 
barrassments which our country 
has experienced, calculated to 
weaken the force of patriotism, 
and awaken a spirit of disaffection, 
the inhabitants of this town have 
been characterized by a firm and 
steady adherence to the interests 
of their country ; unappalled by 
difficulties, and unshaken by dis- 
couragements, arising from the 
novel and peculiar state of the po- 
litical world. Although generally 
agriculturalists, they have paid 
some attention to manufactures. 
There is 1 Cotton Factory, 1 Wool- 
en Factory, 2 Fulling Mills &Clo. 
thiers' works, 2 Carding Machines, 
5 Grain Mills and 3 Tanneries. 
There is z.lzz considerable mercan- 
tile busines done in the town, there 
being 16 Dry gpods and Grocery 
Stores. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2524 ; and there are a- 



164 



PRESTON. 



STONINGTON. 



of which are accommodated with 
houses for public worship. 

There are 1 7 primary or com- 
mon Schools, one iu each district, 
which are maintained a suitable 
proportion of the year; 1 Social 
Library, 4 Public Inns, 3 Clergy- 
men, 1 Physician and 1 Attorney. 

This town originally belonged to 
Stonington, & was made a distinct 
&independentcorporation,inl808. 



bout 350 Freemen or Electors, 3 
entire companies of militia, and a 
part of another company, and about 
360 Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, as rated in making up lists, in- 
cluding polls, is ^46,350. 

The town contains one located 
Congregational Society, two So- 
cieties of Baptists, and one Society 
of Separates or Independents ; all 



PRESTON. 



PRESTON, a considerable post j 
township, 44 miles from Hartford;^ 
bounded on the north by Griswold, j 
on the east by Griswold and North-] 
Stonington, on the south by' 
Groton, oi^ the west by the Thames 
and Quinibaug rivers, which sepa- 
rate it from Norwich, Montville 
and Lisbon. Its average length is ; 
about 7 miles, audits breadth a« 
bout 4 and a half miles, comprising 
an area of about 30 square miles. 
The township is uneven, consist- 
ing of hill and dale ; it is stony and 
rocky, and the soil a gravelly loam, 
considerably fertile & productive. 
It is better adapted to grazing than 
to grain, but considerable Indian 
corn is raised, and some rye and 
oats. Butter, cheese, beef, pork 
and lard are among the agricultu- 
ral productions, of which there are 
more than a supply for the inhabi- 
tants. 

The western border of the town 



is washed by the Quinibaug and 
Thames. There are several small 
streams passing through itsinterior. 
Ames' lake or pond, an incon- 
siderable body pf water, is situated 
in this town. 

The population of the town^ 
amounts to 1764 persons; and 
there are about 250 Dwelling hou- 
ses, 250 Electors, and about 150 
militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $40,428. 

There are 3 Grain Mills, 5 Mer- 
cantile Stores &L 3 Tanneries. The 
town contains 2 located Congre- 
gational Societies, 1 Society of 
Baptists, 1 Society of Episcopa- 
lians, and 1 of Sepjirates or Inde- 
pendents; 14 School districts and 
Schools, and 2 small social Libra- 
ries. There are 3 Physicians, 1 
Attorney and 2 Clergymen. 

This town was settled in 1686. 



STONINGTON. 



STONINGTON, a flourishing 
post town, is situated in the south- 
east corner of the State, being 55 



miles southeast from Hartford, and 
62 east from New-Haven. It is 
bounded north by North-Stoning- 



\ 



J^C" 



STONINGTON. 



166 



ton, east bj Paucatuck river, which 
separates it from Rhode-Island, 
south by Fisher's Island sound and 
Paucatuck bay, and west by Mys- 
tic river, which separates it from 
Groton. 

The area of the town is equal to 
about6square fnile6,or 23000 acres* 

The town is uneven, being hilly 
and rocky, but the soil, which is 
a gravelly loam, is rich and fertile, 
and admirably adapted to grazing ; 
the dairy business, or making of 
cheese and butter, being the lead- 
ing agricultural interest. Barley, 
com and oats are cultivated* 

There are no rivers within the 
town deserving notice; the Pau- 
catuck, which runs upon its east- 
ern border, and separates it from 
Rhode-Island, and the Mystic, that 
forms its western boundary, and 
separates it from Groton, are short 
but considerable streams. 

There is an arm of the sea ex- 
tending from Stonington harbour 
northeasterly, over which is Qua- 
naduck stone bridge. A turnpike 
runs from New-London through 
Groton and Stonington, and inter- 
sects the turnpike road from Pro- 
vidence to Westerly, in the State 
of Rhode-Island. 

There are 1 100 tons of shipping 
owned in this town, which are em- 
ployed either in the business of 
fishing, or in the coasting and West 
India trade, and which furnish em- 
ployment to aportion of the inhabit- 
ants* The maritime situation and 
interests of the town havd given a 
direction to the pursuits and habits 
of its citizens ; and Stonington has 
become conspicuous, as a nursery 
of seamen, distinguished for their 
enterprise, perseverance and cou- 
rage. 



But although principally enga- 
ged in the pursuits of agriculture, 
fishing and navigation, other im- 
portant interests have not been 
neglected. There are few towns 
in the State that have done more 
in certain branches of manufac- 
tures ; there being two Woolen 
Factories and one Cotton Factory 
upon an extensive scale in the 
town. 

The civil divisions of Stoning- 
ton are 1 Ecclesiastical Society, 
8 School Districts, and an incorpo- 
rated borough. 

Stonington Borough, incorpo- 
rated by the Legislature in 1 801 , is 
situated on a narrow point of land 
of about half a mile in length, at 
the eastern extremity of Long Isl- 
and sound. On its east side lies 
Paucatuck bay, and on its west the 
harbour, terminating in Lambert's 
Cove* It has four streets running 
north and south, intersected at 
right angles by nine cross streets, 
and contains about 120 Dwelling 
houses and Stores. It also has 2 
Houses for public worship, an Aca- 
demy, where the languages are 
taught, and 2 common schools, S 
Rope walks, commodious wharves 
and ware-houses for storage. 

The fisheries have for a long 
time been prosecuted with indus- 
try and success by the inhabitants, 
who employ from 10 to 15 vessels 
in this busmess; which annually 
bring in about 7000 quintals of 
codfish, & 1000 bbls. of mackerel, 
besides most other species of fish 
which are taken by smaller vessels 
and boats. There is also a brig 
engaged in the sealing business, in 
the Pacific ocean; three packets 
which ply regularly between this 
port and New- York; a pilcftboat 



164 



PRESTON. 



STONINGTON. 



9 



H 



bout 350 Freemen or Electors, 3 
entire companies of militia, and a 
part of another company, and about 
360 Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, as rated in making up lists, in- 
cluding polls, is ^46,350. 

The town contains one located 
Congregational Society, two So- 
cieties of Baptists, and one Society 
of Separates or Independents ; all 



of which are accommodated wii 
houses for public worship. 

There are 1 7 primary or com- 
mon Schools, one in each district, 
which are maintained a suitable 
proportion of the year; 1 Social 
Library, 4 Public Inns, 3 Clergy- 
men, 1 Physician and 1 Attorney. 

This town originally belonged to 
Stonington, & was made a distinct 
& independent corporation,in 1 808. 



PRESTON. 



PRESTON, a considerable post! 
township, 44 miles from Hartford;^ 
bounded on the north by Griswold, 
on the east by Griswold and North- 
Stonington, on the south by' 
Groton, oi> the west by the Thames ' 
and Quinibaug rivers, which sepa- 1 
rate it from Norwich, Montville 
and Lisbon. Its average length is ; 
about 7 miles, and' its breadth a- 
bout 4 and a half miles, comprising 
an area of about 30 square miles. 
The township is uneven, consist- 
ing of hill and dale ; it is stony and 
rocky, and the soil a gravelly loam, 
considerably fertile &l productive. 
It is better adapted to grazing than 
to grain, but considerable Indian 
corn is raised, and some rye and 
oats. Butter, cheese, beef, pork 
and lard are among the agricultu- 
ral productions, of which there are 
more than a supply for the inhabi- 
tants. 

The western border of the town 



is washed by the Quinibaug and 
Thames. There are several small 
streams passing through itsinterior. 
Ames' lake or pond, an incon- 
siderable body pf water, is situated 
in this town. 

The population of the town^ 
amounts to 1764 persons; and 
there are about 250 Dwelling hou- 
ses, 250 Electors, and about 150 
militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $40,428. 

There are 3 Grain Mills, 5 Mer- 
cantile Stores &L 3 Tanneries. The 
town contains 2 located Congre- 
gational Societies, 1 Society of 
Baptists, 1 Society of Episcopa- 
lians, and 1 of Sepjirates or Inde- 
pendents; 14 School districts and 
Schools, and 2 small social Libra- 
ries. There are 3 Physicians, 1 
Attorney and 2 Clergymen. 

This town was settled in 1686. 



STONINGTON. 



STONINGTON, a flourishing 
post town, is situated in the south- 
ieasl corner of the State, being 55 



miles southeast from Hartford, and 
62 east from New-Haven. It is 
bounded north by North-Stoning- 



\ 



STONINGTON. 



166 



ton, east bj Paucatuck river, which 
separates it from Rhode-Island, 
south by Fisher's Island sound and 
Paucatuck bay, and west by Mys- 
tic river, which separates it from 
Groton. 

The area of the town is equal to 
about6square rai]e6,or 23000 acres* 

The town is uneven, being hilly 
and rocky, but the soil, which is 
a gravelly loam, is rich and fertile, 
and admirably adapted to grazing ; 
the dairy business, or making of 
cheese and butter, being the lead- 
ing agricultural interest. Barley, 
com smd oats are cultivated. 

There are no rivers within the 
town deserving notice; the Pau- 
catuck, which runs upon its east- 
ern border, and separates it from 
Rhode-Island, and the Mystic, that 
forms its western boundary, and 
separates it from Groton, are short 
but considerable streams. 

There is an arm of the sea ex« 
tending from Stonington harbour 
northeasterly, over which is Qua- 
naduck stone bridge. A turnpike 
runs from New-London through 
Groton and Stonington, and inter- 
sects the turnpike road from Pro- 
vidence to Westerly, in the State 
of Rhode-IUand. 

There are 11 00 tons of shipping 
owned in this tQwn,which are em- 
ployed either in the business of 
fishing, or in the coasting and West 
India trade, and which furnish em- 
ployment to a portion of the inhabit- 
ants. The maritime situation and 
interests of the town havd given a 
direction to the pursuits and habits 
of its citizens ; and Stonington has 
become conspicuous, as a nursery 
of seamen, distinguished for their 
enterprise, perseverance and cou- 
rage. 



But although principally enga- 
ged in the pursuits of agriculture, 
fishing and navigation, other im- 
portant interests have not been 
neglected. There are few towns 
in the State that have done more 
in certain branches of manufac- 
tures ; there being two Woolen 
Factories and one Cotton Factory 
upon an extensive scale in the 
town. 

The civil divisions of Stoning- 
ton are 1 Ecclesiastical Society, 
8 School Districts, and an incorpo- 
rated borough. 

Stonington Borough, incorpo- 
rated by the Legislature in 1 801 , is 
situated on a narrow point of land 
of about half a mile in length, at 
the eastern extremity of Long Isl- 
and sound. On its east side lies 
Paucatuck bay, and on its west the 
harbour, terminating in Lambert's 
Cove. It has four streets running 
north and south, intersected at 
right angles by nine cross streets, 
and contains about 120 Dwelling 
houses and Stores. It also has 2 
Houses for public worship, an Aca- 
demy, where the languages are 
taught, and 2 common schools, 2 
Rope walks, commodious wharves 
and ware-houses for storage. 

The fisheries have for a long 
time been prosecuted with indus- 
try and success by the inhabitants, 
who employ from 10 to 15 vessels 
in this busmess; which annually 
bring in about 7000 quintals of 
codfish, &: 1000 bbls. of mackerel, 
besides most other species of fish 
which are taken by smaller vessels 
and boats. There is also a brig 
engaged in the sealing business, in 
the Pacific ocean; three packets 
which ply regularly between this 
port and New- York ; a pilot boat 



164 



PRESTON. 



STONINGTON. 



of which are accommodated wuh 
houses for public worship. 

There are 1 7 primary or com- 
mon Schools, one in each district, 
which are maintained a suitable 
proportion of the year; 1 Social 
Library, 4 Public Inns, 3 Clergy- 
men, 1 Physician and 1 Attorney. 

This town ori^nally belonged to 
Stonington, & was made a distinct 
& independent corporation,in 1808. 



bout 350 Freemen or Electors, 3 
entire companies of militia, and a 
part of another company, and about 
360 Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, as ratjed in making up lists, in- 
cluding polls, is ^46,350. 

The town contains one located 
Congregational Society, two So- 
cieties of Baptists, and one Society 
of Separates or Independents ; all 



PRESTON. 



PRESTON, a considerable post] 
township, 44 miles from Hartford ; ^ 
bounded on the north by Griswold, 
on the east by Griswold and North- 
Stonington, on the south by 
Groton, oi^ the west by the Thames j 
and Quinibaug rivers, which sepa- 1 
rate it from Norwich, Montville 
and Lisbon. Its average length is : 
about 7 miles, and' its breadth a- 
bout 4 and a half miles, comprising 
an area of about 30 square miles. 
The township is uneven, consist- 
ing of hill and dale ; it is stony and 
rocky, and the soil a gravelly loam, 
considerably fertile & productive. 
It is better adapted to grazing than 
to grain, but considerable Indian 
corn is raised, and some rye and 
oats. Butter, cheese, beef, pork 
and lard are among the agricultu- 
ral productions, of which there are 
more than a supply for the inhabi- 
tants. 

The western border of the town 



is washed by the Quinibaug and 
Thames. There are several small 
streams passing through itsinterior. 
Ames' lake or pond, an incon- 
siderable body pf water, is situated 
in this town. 

The population of the town,^ 
amounts to 1764 persons; and 
there are about 250 Dwelling hou- 
ses, 250 Electors, and about 150 
militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $40,428. 

There are 3 Grain Mills, 5 Mer- 
cantile Stores & 3 Tanneries. The 
town contains 2 located Congre- 
gational Societies, 1 Society of 
Baptists, 1 Society of Episcopa- 
lians, and I of Sepjtrates or Inde- 
pendents; 14 School districts and 
Schools, and 2 small social Libra- 
ries. There are 3 Physicians, 1 
Attorney and 2 Clergymen. 

This town was settled in 1686. 



STONINGTON. 



STONINGTON, a flourishing 
post town, is situated in the south- 
east corner of the State, being 55 



miles southeast from Hartford, and 
62 east from New-Haven. It is 
bounded north by North-Stoning- 



\ 



STONINGTON. 



166 



ton,eastbyPaucatuck river, which 
separates it from Rhode-Island, 
south by Fisher's Island sound and 
Pancatuck bay, and west by Mys- 
tic river, which separates it from 
Groton. 

The area of the town is equal to 
about6square miles,or 23000 acre8« 

The town is uneven, being hilly 
and rocky, but the soil, which is 
a gravelly loam, is rich and fertile, 
and admirably adapted to grazing; 
the dairy business, or making of 
cheese and butter, being the lead- 
ing agricultural interest. Barley, 
com smd oats are cultivated. 

There are no rivers within the 
town deserving notice ; the Pau- 
catuck^ which runs upon its east- 
ern border, and separates it from 
Rhode-Island, and the Mystic, that 
forms its western boundary, and 
separates it from Groton, are short 
but considerable streams. 

There is an arni of the sea ex- 
tending from Stonington harbour 
northeasterly, over which is Qua- 
naduck stone bridge. A turnpike 
runs from New-London through 
Groton and Stonington, and inter- 
sects the turnpike road from Pro- 
vidence to Westerly, in the State 
of Rhode-Island. 

There are 1 100 tons of shipping 
owned in this town, which are em- 
ployed either in the business of 
fishing, or in the coasting and West 
India trade, and which furnish em- 
ployment to a portion of the inhabit- 
ants. The maritime situation and 
interests of the town have^ given a 
direction to the pursuits and habits 
of its citizens ; and Stonington has 
become conspicuous, as a nursery 
of seamen, distinguished for their 
enterprise, perseverance and cou- 
rage. 



But although principally enga- 
ged in the pursuits of agriculture, 
fishing and navigation, other im- 
portant interests have not been 
neglected. There are few towns 
in the State that have done more 
in certain branches of manufac- 
tures ; there being two Woolen 
Factories and one Cotton Factory 
upon an extensive scale in the 
town. 

The civil divisions of Stoning- 
ton are 1 Ecclesiastical Society, 
8 School Districts, and an incorpo- 
rated borough. 

Stonington Borough, incorpo- 
rated by the Legislature in 1 801, is 
situated on a narrow point of land 
of about half a mile in length, at 
the eastern extremity of Long Isl- 
and sound. On its east side Ue» 
Paucatuck bay, and on its west the 
harbour, terminating in Lambert's 
Cove. It has four streets running 
north and south, intersected at 
right angles by nine cross streets, 
and contains about 120 Dwelling 
houses and Stores. It also has 2 
Houses for public worship, an Aca- 
demy, where the languages are 
taught, and 2 common schools, 2 
Rope walks, commodious wharves 
and ware-houses for storage. 

The fisheries have for a long 
time been prosecuted with indus- 
try and success by the inhabitants, 
who employ from 10 to 15 vessels 
in this busmess; which annually 
bring in about 7000 quintals of 
codfish, & 1000 bbls. of mackerel, 
besides most other species of fish 
which are taken by smaller vessels 
and boats. There is also a brig 
engaged in the sealing business, in 
the Pacific ocean ; three packets 
which ply regularly between this 
port and New- York ; a piloft boat 



lU 



PRESTON. 



STONINGTON. 



bout 350 Freemen or Electors, 3 
entire companies of militia, and a 
part of another company, and about 
360 Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, as rated in making up lists, in- 
cluding polls, is $46,350. 

The town contains one located 
Congregational Society, two So- 
cieties of Baptists, and one Society 
of Separates or Independents ; all 



SBS 




of which are accommodated wil 
houses for public worship. 

There are 1 7 primary or com- 
mon Schools, one in each district, 
which are maintained a suitable 
proportion of the year; 1 Social 
Library, 4 Public Inns, 3 Clergy- 
men, 1 Physician and 1 Attorney. 

This town originally belonged to 
Stonington, & was made a distinct 
& independent corporation,inI808. 



PRESTON. 



PRESTON, a considerable post] 
township, 44 miles from Hartford; 
bounded on the north by Griswold, 
on the east by Griswold and North- 
Stonington, on the south by 
Groton, oi^ the west by the Thames 
and Quinibaug rivers, which sepa- 
rate it from Norwich, Montville 
and Lisbon. Its average length is 
about 7 miles, and' its breadth a- 
bout 4 and a half miles, comprising 
an area of about 30 square miles. 
The township is uneven, consist- 
ing of hill and dale ; it is stony and 
rocky, and the soil a gravelly loam, 
considerably fertile & productive. 
It is better adapted to grazing than 
to grain, but considerable Indian 
com is raised, and some rye and 
oats. Butter, cheese, beef, pork 
and lard are among the agricultu- 
ral productions, of which there are 
more than a supply for the inhabi- 
tants. 

The western border of the town 



is washed by the Quinibaug and 
Thames. There are several small 
streams passing throughitsinterior. 
Ames' lake or pond, an incon- 
siderable body pf water, is situated 
in this town. 

The population of the town,^ 
amounts to 1764 persons; and 
there are about 250 Dwelling hou- 
ses, 250 Electors, and about 150 
militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $40,428. 

There are 3 Grain Mills, 5 Mer- 
cantile Stores &: 3 Tanneries. The 
town contains 2 located Congre- 
gational Societies, 1 Society of 
Baptists, 1 Society of Episcopa- 
lians, and I of Sepjirates or Inde- 
pendents; 14 School districts and 
Schools, and 2 small social Libra- 
ries. There are 3 Physicians, 1 
Attorney and 2 Clergymen. 

This town was settled in 1686. 



STONINGTON. 



STONINGTON, a flourishing 
post town, is situated in the south- 
east corner of the State, being 55 



miles southeast from Hartford, and 
62 east from New-Haven. It is 
bounded north by North-Stonipg- 



\ 



STONINGTON. 



166 



S^SSSSSS^S 



ton, east by Paucatuck river, which 
separates it from Rhode-Island, 
south by Fisher's Island sound and 
Paucatuck bay, and west by Mys- 
tic river, which separates it from 
Groton. 

The area of the town is equal to 
about6square miles,or 23000 acres. 

The town is uneven, being hilJy 
and rocky, but the soil, which is 
a gravelly loam, is rich and fertile, 
and admirably adapted to grazii^ ; 
the dairy business, or making of 
cheese and butter, being the lead- 
ing agricultural interest. Barley, 
com smd oats are cultivated. 

There are no rivers within the 
town deserving notice ; the Pau- 
catuck, which runs upon its east- 
ern-border, and separates it from 
Rhode-Island, and the Mystic, that 
forms its western boundary, and 
separates it from Groton, are short 
but considerable streams. 

There is an arm of the sea ex- 
tending from Stonington harbour 
northeasterly, over which is Qua- 
naduck stone bridge. A turnpike 
runs from New-London through 
Groton and Stonington, and inter- 
sects the turnpike road from Pro- 
vidence to Westerly, in the State 
of Rhode-Island. 

There are 1 100 tons of shipping 
owned in this town, which are em- 
ployed either in the business of 
fishing, or in the coasting and West 
India trade, and which furnish em- 
ployment to aportion of the inhabit- 
ants. The maritime situation and 
interests of the town have^ given a 
direction to the pursuits and habits 
of its citizens ; and Stonington has 
become conspicuous, as a nursery 
of seamen, distinguished for their 
enterprise, perseverance and cou- 
rage. ^ 



But although principally efjga- 
ged in the pursuits of agriculture, 
fishing and navigation, other im- 
portant interests have not been 
neglected. There are few towns 
in the State that have done more 
in certain branches of manufac- 
tures ; there being two Woolen 
Factories and one Cotton Factory 
upon an extensive scale in the 
town. 

The civil divisions of Stoning- 
ton are 1 Ecclesiastical Society, 
8 School Districts, and an incorpo- 
rated borough. 

Stonington Borough, incorpo- 
rated by the Legislature in 1 801, is 
situated on a narrow point of land 
of about half a mile in length, at 
the eastern extremity of Long Isl- 
and sound. On its east side lie» 
Paucatuck bay, and on its west the 
harbour, terminating in Lambert's 
Cove. It has four streets running 
north and south, intersected at 
right angles by nine cross streets, 
and contains about 120 Dwelling 
houses and Stores. It also has 2 
Houses for public worship, an Aca- 
demy, where the languages are 
taught, and 2 common schools, 2 
Rope walks, commodious wharves 
and ware-houses for storage. 

The fisheries have for a long 
time been prosecuted with indus- 
try and success by the inhabitants, 
who employ from 10 to 15 vessels 
in this busmess; which annually 
bring in about 7000 quintals of 
codfish, &E 1000 bbls. of mackerel, 
besides most other species of fish 
which are taken by smaller vessels 
and boats. There is also a brig 
engaged in the sealing business, in 
the Pacific ocean ; three packets 
which ply regularly between this 
port and New- York ; a pildt boat 



."V 



166 



BIOGRAPHY. 



to cruise for vessels on the coast 
bound in ; and a number of vessels 
employed in the coasting trade, 
which carry to the southern mar- 
ket their fish, with the cheese, bar- 
ley &c. of the adjacent country. 
Many fine ships and brigs are built 
here for the New- York market. 

In the census of 1810, the town 
contained 3043 inhabitants ; and 
there are now 335 qualified Elec- 
tors. There are 20. Mercantile 
Stores, 4 Grain Mills, 3 Carding 
Machines, 1 Pottery Sz 1 Tannery. 
There is a Public Arsenal belong- 
ing to the United States, which is 
a substantial brick building; 2Chur- 
ches, one for Congregationalists 
and one for Baptists ; 1 Academy 
or Grammar School ; 8 district or 
common Schools ; 3 Attornies, and 
3 practising Physicians. 

The general list of the town, in 
1817, was ^45,991. 

Stonington was first settled in 
1658, by emigrants from Reho- 
both, in Massachusetts. The set- 
tlement was commenced upon the 
Paucatuck, being then called the 
plantation of Southerton. 

This town has become celebra- 
ted for the spirited and successful 
resistance which it made to the at- 
tack and bombardment of Sir Tho- 
mas Hardy, during the late war. 
The enemy's squadron, which con- 
sisted of the Romulus 74, the Pac- 
tolus frigate of 38 guns, brig Des- 
patch, of 18, and a bomb ship had 
lain off the harbour for some time ; 
the British commodore having re- 
peatedly threatened that he would 
destroy the borough, which he 
considered as entirely defenceless. 
On the 9th of August, 1814, the 
brig came up the harbour, within 



convenient cannon shot of the 
town, and commenced firing upon 
it, which occasioned the utmost 
alarm and confusion ; it being sup- 
posed by many of the inhabitants, 
that the threats of the magnani- 
mous commodore were now to be 
put in execution, and that the 
beautiful borough of Stonington 
would soon be no more. 

At this critical moment, when 
all was confusion and dismay, a 
'' gallant Spartan band'' of volun- 
teers were enabled to procure two 
18 pounders, with which they 
commenced firing upon the brig, 
and with such effect, that, altho' 
they were exposed in the most 
imminent degree to her fire, she 
was compelled to cut her cables, 
after having sustained much dam- 
age in her hull, and suffered se- 
verely in killed and wounded. 

The defence of Stonington has 
few examples in the annals of na- 
val warfare, and reflects much cre- 
dit on the town, and the ' heroic 
band' of volunteers. 

BIOGRAPHY. Among the ci- 
tizens of this town, who have been 
distinguished for their abilities, 
public services, virtues and patri- 
otism, our correspondent notices 
the following : 

Mithaniel Miner ^ who wtks a law- 
yer of unimpeachable integrity ; 
much esteemed for his acquire- 
ments, his probity & exemplary life. 

Dr. Charles Phelps^ who died in 
1 808 ; he came to the town in 
early youth, and for many years 
was a Judge of the Court of the 
County, and of the probate Court 
of the District ; possessing, in an 
eminent degree, the confidence of 
his fellow-citizens. 




WATERFORD. 



167 



Capt* Amos Palmer^ who was dis- 
tinguished for his integrity, his re- 
publican principles, and his patri- 



otism. He was repeatedly elect- 
ed to represent the town in the le- 
gislature of the State. 



WATERFORD. 



WATERFORD is a maritime 
township, situated on Long Island 
sound, 4 miles from the city of 
New-London, and 37 from Hart- 
ford; bounded on the north by 
Montville, on the east by New- 
London and the Thames, on the 
south by Long Island soucid, and 
on the west by L}rme. Its a'Herage 
length is 7 miles, and its average 
breadth 5 miles, comprising an 
area of 35 square miles. 

The surface is uneven, being 
diversified with hill and dale ; the 
soil is a gravelly loam. 

The agricultural productions 
consist of grass, Indian corn, but- 
ter and cheese, and beef and pork. 
The lands are better adapted to 
grazing than to grain, of which 
there is little cultivated except 
Indian com. 

The eastern border of the town- 
ship is partly washed by the 
Thames; and the Niantic and 
Jordan rivers, together with seve- 
ral small streams, run through it. 
The Niantic river discharges its 
waters into a bay of the same 
name, which is of three or four 
miles in extent, and is navigable 
for sloops of 20 tons. 

The fishing business receives 
considerable attention by the inha- 



bitants of this town ; oysters,clams5 
black fish and mackerel are taken. 
Although agriculture, fishing and 
other maritime pursuits are the 
leading occupations of the inhabi- 
tants; yet manufactures have re- 
ceived some attention. There 
2 Woolen Factories, 2 Ful- 



are 



ling Mills and Clothiers' works, 3 
Carding Machines, 4 Grain Mills, 
1 Tannery & 4 Mercantile Stores. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2185, and there are 3 
Companies of Militia, 200 Free- 
men or qualified Electors, and 
about 300 Dwelling houses. 

There are several turnpike 
roads that pass through this town ; 
one leading from New-London to 
Hartford, one from thenCe to 
New-Haven, and one to Norwich, 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is ^33,933. 

This town does not contain any 
Congregational Society, but bus 
two Societies of Baptists, both of 
which are accommodated with 
houses for public worship. There 
are 1 1 School Districts & Schools, 

1 Social Library, 2 Clergymen and 

2 Lawyers. 

Waterford was incorporated in 
1801, until which time it belong- 
ed to New- London. ' 



FAIRFIELD 



COUNTY 



FAIRFIELD is an ancient ma- 
ritime county, pleasantly situated 
upon Long Island sound, in the 
gouthwest section of the State ; 
bounded on the north by Litchfield 
county, on the northeast and east 
by the Ousatonick river, which se- 
parates it from the county of New- 
Haven, and, for a short distance, 
from the county of Litchfield, on 
the southeast and south by Long] 



Island sound, and on the southwest 
and west by the State of New- 
York. 

The county lies in a triangular 
form, and has an average length 
from east to west of about 30 miles, 
and a mean breadth from north to 
soufth of about 31 miles; compri- 
sing and area of about 630 square 
miles. 



The following Topographical and Statistical Table exhibits a 
view of the several towns in the county ; their situation, with rela- 
tion to Fairfield ; population, according to the census of 1 810 ; dwel- 
ling-houses ; religious societies ; school districts, and post-offices. 



Towns, 


Post- 


Popu- 


Dwelling Religious 


School Distance from 


offices. 


lation. 


houses. 


societies. 


districts. 


Fairfield.- 


Fairfield, 


2 


4137 


550 


6 


16 




Danbury. 


1 


3606 


550 


7 


17 


20 m. N. W. 


Brookfield. 


1 


1037 


150 


2 


8 


24m.N.W. 


Greenwich. 


1 


3553 


500 


6 


17 


25 m. S. W* 


Huntington. 


2 


2770 


400 


6 


18 


15 m. N. £• 


New-Canaan. 


1 


1599- 


260 


2 


9 


15m.N.W. 


New-Fairfield 


. 


772 


130 


2 


6 


26m.N.W, 


Newtown. 


1 


2834 


400 


7 


15 


19 m. N. 


Norwalk. 


1 


2983 


400 


3 


13 


10 m. W. : 


Reading. 


I 


1717 


260 


3 


11 


14m.N.W. 


Ridgefield. 


1 


2103 


300 


5 


12 


ISm.N.W. 


Sherman. 




949-^ 


130 


2 


6 


30 m. N. W. 


Stamford. 


1 


4440 


600 


8 


11 


20 m. S. W. 


Stratford. 


4V 


2895 


420 


6 


10 


8 m. E. 


Trumbull, 


1 


124K 


200 


2 


6 ' 


8m.N. E. 


Weston. 




2618 


380 


5 


« 


8 m. N. 


Wilton. 


1 


1 728 - 


270 


2 


9 


13m.N.W, 








* See Appendix.^ 








"■ Tffc V >• 



FAIRFIELD COUNTY. 



169 



Fairfield county is pleasantly 
and advantageously situated, hav- 
ing a maritime border upon Long 
Island sound, of nearly forty miles, 
indented with numerous bays and 
inlets, affording extensive advanta- 
ges for commerce. This border, 
through most of its whole extent, 
affords the most charming and in- 
teresting landscapes : some sec- 
tions present extensive tracts ^of 
marine alluvial ; and, with the ex- 
ception of the western extremity, 
it is in general level, and a highly 
pleasant and interesting country, 
affording many beautiful views of 
the sound, and being diversified 
with its numerous bays and inlets. 
Proceeding from the sound into 
the interior, there is a very gradu- 
al rise to the most elevated sec- 
tions of the county, which overlook 
the intervening tract, and afford 
an interesting view of Long Island 
sound. The face of the country is, 
in general, agreeably diversified 
with hills and dales. No section of 
it can be considered as mountain- 
ous, although, in the northwestern 
part, there are ridges of consider- 
able 'extent; and many of the hills 
are very elevated and continuous, 
and the vallies deep and extensive. 
The soil, which in general is a 
primitive, gravelly loam, is, with 
few exceptions, strong and fertile. 
It is, in general, well adapted to 
arable purposes, and a considera- 
ble proportion of the lands are 
assigned to a grain culture. The 
county of Fairfield is a rich farm- 
ing district, and contains abundant 
natural resources of agricultural 
opulence. The various objects of 
husbandry, common to the State, 
are attended to here ; and of the 
productions cultivated, more par- 

22 



ticularly or extensively than in 
ottier sections, are potatoes, and 
some other articles for the New- 
York naarket. , 

The waters of the county are 
abundant, and afford important ad- 
vantages. In addition to the waters 
of Long Island sound, which wash« 
es its southeastern border, and the 
numerous bays, streams and inlets 
connected with it, the Ousatonick, 
(the second river in the State,) 
washes the eastern and northeast- 
ern border, for nearly its whole 
extent. 

Of the small streams, which in- 
tersect and fertilize the different 
parts of the county, are the Still 
river, a tributary stream of the 
Ousatonick; the Pequonack, which 
discharges its waters into the sound 
at Stratford ; the Saugatuck, the 
Ash, Noraton and Miannus riv- 
ers ; Mill river, Stamford and By- 
ram river, all of which discharge 
their waters into the sound ; and 
the latter, for some distance, forms 
the boundary between this State 
and New- York. 

The principal harbours in the 
county are Bridgeport, Black 
Rock, (which is one of the best in 
the State,) Mill river, Saugatuck, 
Norwalk, Stamford & Greenwich 
harbours. 

The commercial business of the 
county is considerable, and consists 
principally of a coasting trade with 
New- York. There are between 
20 and 30 packets, which ply regu- 
larly between the various harbours 
within this county and the city of 
New- York. In addition to this 
trade, there are some coasters em- 
ployed in a trade with the south- 
ern states ; and at Bridgeport, there 
is some foreign trade maintained* 



iPiVi 



170 



FAIRFIELD. 



This county is not distinguished 
for its manumctuFes, although, in 
some sec tionSj a conspicuous manu- 
facturing spirit exists, and has pro- 
duced very in^portant results. Of 
the manufactures which have re- 
ceived the most attention, are 
those of hats and flour. In some 
parts of the county, particularly 
in. Danbury, the manufacture of 
hats is carried on very extensively, 
and large quantities are annually 
sent abroad for a market. In seve- 
ral towns upon the sound, particu- 
larly in Stamford, the manufacture 
of flour, or milHng business, is car- 
ried on to great extent. There are 
al80,several manufactures of leath- 
er, particularly of shoes, harness 
work and saddlery, which, in some 



towns, receive considerable atten- 
tion as articles of exportation. 

There are in this county, 1 Forge, 
1 Slitting and Rolling Mill, 2 Fa- 
per Mills, 6 Cotton Factories, 9 
Woolen Factories, 29 Fulhng Mills 
and Clothiers' works, 40 Carding 
Machines,'80 Grain Mills, and 170 
Mercantile Stores. 

The county contains 74 Religi- 
ous Societies, 28 School Societies, 
each of which is divided into acon- 
venient number of School districts, 
the limits of a single School, of 
which there are inall 184,exclusive 
of Weston, &; 23 Social Libraries. 

The population of the county^ 
in 1800, was 38,208 ; and in 1810, 
it was 40,950 ; and the aggregate, 
list in 1817, was ^903,805^ 



FAIRFIELD. 



FAIRFIELD, an ancient ma- 
ritime post town, and the se- 
mi-seat of justice of the county, 
is pleasantly situated . upon Long 
Island sound, 21 miles west from 
New-Haven, and 58 northeast from 
New- York ; bounded northwester- 
ly by Norwalk and Weston, north- 
easterly by Stratford, southeast- 
erly by Long Island sound, and 
southwesterly by the Saugatuck 
river, which separates it from 
Norwalk. The township com- 
prises an area of about 54 square 
miles ; having a mean length of 
about 9 miles, from northeast to 
southwest, and a mean breadth of 
about 6 miles. 

This township, having an inter- 
esting situation upon the sound, is 
very pleasant, and affords some 
beautiful landscapes, which are 
scarcely surpassed. The surface 



is undulating, or moderately une* 
ven, presenting an agreeable suc- 
cession of moderate eminences 
and gentle declivities. 

Upon the sound are considera- 
ble tracts of salt marsh ; and, pro- 
ceeding back, the surface has a 
gradual elevation 5 but no portion 
of the township is mountainous 
or broken, and it is in general 
free from stone. 

The prevailing soil is a gravelly 
loam, corresponding with the pri- 
mitive granitic geological charac- 
ter of the township. There are 
some sections of primitive argilla- 
ceous loam, and some tracts of al- 
luvial. We know of no minerals 
in the town ; but in the Society of 
Greenfield there are several quar- 
ries of freestone, valuable for 
building and other purposes. The 
most important is at Blue stone 



FAIRFIELD. 



171 



wamM 



hill, about one mile from Green- 
field Hill village. 
. About two miles distance from 
this village is a precipice of about 
30 feet in height, being the termi- 
nation of a granitic ridge, which 
runs northerly for some distance. 
This precipice is called Samp mor- 
tar rock, from the circumstance of 
there being upon its summit an 
excavation, in the form of a mor- 
tar, and 01 sufficient dimensions 
to contain a bushel of corn or 
other grain^ It is evidently the 
work of art ; and, according to 
the authority of tradition, was us- 
ed by the native Indians, for the 
purpose of pounding or grinding 
their corn. Although with us it 
may seem difficult to' conceive, 
how this mortar, consisting of so 
considerable an excavation, in a sol- 
id granitic stratum,could have been 
made without the use of iron tools ; 
yet it can scarcely be doubted that 
it was the work of the natives, and 
for the purposes here noticed. 
And this opinion is strengthened 
from the facts, that, in the rich 
valley south of the rock, was a 
large Indian town ; and at the ve- 
ry foot of the precipice there an* 
pears to have been a buryil§ 
ground. It is probable that this 
mortar was the only and common 
mill of this town or settlement 
Here the primitive inhabitants of 
our country, in this simple inven- 
tion, and by a process equally sim* 
pie yet laborious, pulverized their 
corn, and supplied themselves with 
bread stuffi. This mortar, which 
may be considered as a primitive 
grain mill, is not more important, 
as a monument of the abori<jinal 
inhabitants, than as an illustration 
of the origjin and progress of the 



arts. This mortar was a great 
improvement upon the more sim- 
ple and rude method of pulveri- 
zing corn, which preceded it, — 
that of pounding it between two 
stones. To such rude and simple 
discoveries as this, can the most 
noble and useful inventions in the 
arts be traced. 

The natural and agricultural 
productions of this town are such 
as are common to the county. The 
original growth of timber was, at 
an early period, from a common 
but lamentable improvidence,prin- 
cipally destroyed ; so that the fo- 
rests now existing are of a recent 
oTOwth, and comprise little timber 
tit for building. Wood and timber 
are valuable in this town, and com« 
mand a high price. It is obser- 
ved that the texture of the pres- 
ent growth of timber is firmer 
than that which was found at the 
first settlement ; and that the tim- 
ber growing upon the sound is less 
porous and tougher than that 
which grows in the interior. For- 
merly, wheat was successfully cul- 
tivated here ; but it cannot now 
be raised without a liberal use of 
manure* Indian corn is extensive^ 
ly and successfully cultivated, and 
may be reg?irded as the staple 
production of the town. Fo^ 
some years past, potatoes have 
been raised in great quantitieB, 
and are found a very profitable 
crop, from the facility which ex- 
ists of sending them to New- York 
market. Rye, oats, grass, &c. 
are cultivated ; and fruits of va- 
rious kinds receive attention. 

This is a rich, agricultural town- 
ship, and in general in a flourish- 
ing state of cultivation. The 
soil is naturally strong and fertile ; 



C 



172 



FAIRFIELD. 



and the town affords seyeral unu- 
sual and important sources of ma- 
nure, of which the inhabitants 
have recently availed themselves. 
Sea-weed, which washes from the 
bottom of Long Island sound, and 
lodges upon the shore, and sedge, 
or salt grass, which grows in the 
salt marshes near the sound, afford 
a valuable and almost inexhausti- 
ble manure. Large quantities of 
peat are also found in several of 
the swamps, which supply a valu- 
able manure* It is collected and 
thrown into heaps upon the land, 
where it soon decomposes, giving 
it a suitable consistence, so that 
it will readily amalgamate with 
the soil. It is principally adapted 
to a dry soil, 6ut is valuable upon 
almost any kind of land. This 
peat is also used for the purposes 
of fu«l. 

The township is well watered, 
being washed by Long Island 
sound, upon its southeastern bor- 
der, and by the Saugatuck river & 
harbour, which form a part of its 
western boundary, and is naviga- 
ble for vessels of considerable size 
kyv nee^rly three miles, by Mill and 
Sasco rivers, and Ash creek. 

There are three harbours in the 
town ; Black Rock, Mill river, and 
Saugatuck harbours. With the 
exception of New-London, Black 
Rock is one of the best harbours 
in the sound ; being safe and com- 
modious, and having 19 feet of 
water at the summer tides, below 
what is called the middle ground. 

At the entrance of the harbour, 
on Fairweather's Island, belong- 
ing to the United States, and which 
forms the easterly chop of this har- 
bour, a light-house has been erect- 
ed ; a spindle also has been placed 



at the " cows," a point of rocks 
extending a mile into the sound. 
Vessels can enter and depart from 
this harbour at any time of the 
tide. At the head of the bay form- 
ing this harbour, there is a small 
settlement, where considerable 
coasting business is carried on. 
During the late war, a small fort 
was erected on a hill, commanding 
the entrance of this harbour, by 
the exertions of individuals, in 
which the State of Connecticut a 
short time maintained a small body 
of militia, as a garrison. This 
fort was found very useful in pro- 
tecting the coasting trade in the 
sound from the cruisers of the en- 
emy. The cannon in this fort 
were furnished by the U. States. 

Mill river harbour is very com- 
modious for the coasting trade^ 
but has not sufficient depth of wa- 
ter to admit large vessels. It is 
formed by the river of the same 
name ; on which, within the dis- 
tance of two miles,, stand 3 large 
Grain Mills, 2 Fulling Mills and 
2 Carding Machines. This har- 
bour is seldom frozen with suf- 
ficient firmness to obstruct vessels 
ixom passing out into the sound. 
Saugatuck harbour is formed by 
»the rivfer bearing the same name ; 
it has not sufficient depth of wa- 
ter for large vessels, but is a con- 
venient harbour for the smaller or 
ordinary coasters employed in the 
sound. 

The commercial business of this 
town is very respectable ; there 
being about 2500 tons of shipping 
owned here, which is employed 
in the coasting trade. Oysters, 
clams, and some other shell fish 
are taken in the sound, but not to 
any considerable extent. Former- 




w 



FAIRFIELD. 



173 



ly, they were taken in abundance ; 
but they have greatly declined, 
owing, it is thought, to their being 
taken before they have attained 
'their full growth ; which has pre- 
vented their jncrease. This evil 
might be avoided by suitable regu- 
lations, controlling the fishery. 
The various kinds of fin fish found 
in the sound are taken here ; and, 
in the season, shad are taken in 
the rivers, and various other fish. 
Shad are not taken extensively, 
nor is the fishing business of any 
description of importance, farther 
than to supply the demands of the 
inhabitants of the town. 

The town is well accommodated 
with roads ; the great turnpike 
leading to New- York passes thro' 
it. This road leads directly through 
the celebrated Pequot swamp, 
which is about two miles west of 
the Court-house. 

The manufactures of this town 
are not extensive or important ; 
the milling business, however, is 
carried on to a considerable ex- 
tent. There are 9 Grain Mills, 
4 of which are upon tide water, 
have several sets of stones each, 
and are employed principally in 
flouring wheat, which is brought 
from other States. Some of these 
ihills have kilns for drying Indian 
com, which is afterwards manufac- 
tured into meal for the foreign 
markets. The other mills are 
erected upon the streams of wa- 
ter, and are employed in custom- 
ers' business. There are 2 man- 
ufacturing establishments of wool 
and cotton, which flourished du- 
ring the war, but have since de- 
clined, 2 Fulling Mills and Clo- 
thiers' works, and 5 Tanneries. 
There are, in the different parts 



of the town, 25 retailing Mercan- 
tile Stores. 

The population of Fairfield, in 
1810, was 4135, and there are 
about 500 Electors, S Companies 
of Infantry, part of a Company of 
Cavalry, and the principal part of 
a Company of Artillery, of militia, 
and about 550 Dwelling houses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1817, was|86,872. 

The civil divisions of Fairfield 
consist of 3 located Congregation- 
al Societies or Parishes, Fairfield^ 
Greenfield and Greensfarms ; and 
16 School Districts. A part of 
the Society of Stratfield is within 
the limits of this town. Besides 
the located Societies, there is a 
Society of Episcopalians, a Socie- 
ty of Baptists and a Society of Me- 
thodists. Each of these religious 
Societies is provided with a house 
for public worship. There are 4 
Clergymen, 7 Attomies, and 5 
Physicians. There are 16 prima- 
ry Schools, one in each District,, 
and 3 Academies, which are well 
established and respectable. There 
are 2 Social Libraries, one in the 
Society of Fairfield, and one in 
Greenfield, which contain a re- 
spectable collection of well selec- 
ted books, and are flourishing. 
There are four villages within the 
town; Fairfield, Greenfield HHI, 
Saugatuck and Mill river. The 
ancient village of Fairfield is situa- 
ated upon the great stage road. Itr 
has a very pleasant ' site, and is 
considerable of a settlement, al- 
though it has never entirely reco- 
vered from the devastation which 
it experienced during the revolu- 
tion. It is built principally up- 
on one street ; in the centre of 
which is an interesting green. 



174 



HISTORY. 



upon which the Court House is 
Situated. Here there is a Post 
office, a Congregatiotial Church, 
a flourishing Academy, the Coun- 
ty Gaol, and a number of hand- 
some DwelHng houses. 

Greenfield Hill is justly celebra- 
ted for its elevated, prospective 
and beautiful situation. It stands 
on a comm^inding eminence, near- 
ly in the centre of the township ; 
being about three miles north- 
wardly from Long Island sound, of 
which it aflfords a view as far as 
the eye can reach. On this emi- 
nence, in the centre of a flourish- 
ing village, is a spacious court- 
yard or green, upon which stand 
a Congregational Church and an 
Academy. From the belfry of 
the church, in thi« village, may be 
seen ten other churches. It is 
presumed that no ether spot in 
Connecticut affords a prospect so 
extensive and delightful ; the coun- 
try upon the Ousatonick may be 
distinctly seen at the distance of 
ten miles ; and, in every direction, 
the view is extensive, diversified 
and interesting ; the surrounding 
country being thickly settled, in a 
high state of cultivation, and in 
the summer months clothed with 
the richest verdure. In this vil- 
lage, vessels are daily seen passing 
up and down the sound, being in 
full view ; and, at times, nearly 
one hundred sail of diiferent des- 
criptions, consisting of ships, brigs, 
schooners and sloops, including the 
steam-boat, may be seen. Here 
there are a number of neat and 
handsome Dwelling houses, and a 
flourishing Academy, which was 
^established and maintained for 
twelve years by the laie President 
Dwiffht. Whilst under his direc- 






tion, it acquired a high reputation, 
which has since been maintained^ 
and it is now a flourishing semina- 
ry; and a more eligible situaftion for 
youth cannot well be selected* 
The Custom-house for Fsiirfield 
district is kept at thil place. 

Mill River is a flourishing nna- 
ritime village. Its trade is great- 
er than that of any other settle- 
ment in the town, and consists of 
a coasting trade with New- York 
and the southern ports, which is 
Carried on extensively, and gene- 
rally to advantage. It also has the 
advantages of a considerably ex- 
tensive and fertile back country. 
It is the most wealthy village in 
the town, and is not probably ex- 
ceeded by any of its size in the 
county. 

The village of Saugatuck, situ- 
ated about two miles from the 
mouth of the river of the same 
name, has considerable trade, and 
is a flourishing and prosperous set- 
tlement 5 but during the winter, 
the harbour is obstructed by the 
ice. Here there is an Academy 
and a Post office. 

HISTORY. The tract of coun- 
try which now forms the town of 
Fairfield was discovered by the 
pursuit of the Pequots, in the year 
1637, along the shore of Long Isl- 
and sound, over the territory which 
now comprises the towns of Kii- 
lingworth,Guilford,Branford,N.ew- 
Haven, Milford and Stratford, to 
the great swamp, which to this 
day bears the name of that tribe, 
by Capt. Mason, who corvimanded 
the troops of Counecticut and 
Massachusetts. This is the swamp 
where the great fight, took place, 
between the troops of Connecticut 
and Massachusetts, and the Pe- 




w 



HISTORY. 



175 



as 



quots, in 1637 ; which terminated 
in the almost entire annihilation of 
that once powerful and warlike 
nation of savages. 

Having been greatly pleased 
with the appearance of this coun- 
try, Mr. Ludlow, who was a ma- 
gistrate in the colony of Connec- 
ticut, and had accompanied Capt. 
Mason, in order to assist him with 
his counsel, in. the year 1639, 
with eight or ten famihes, re- 
moved from Windsor, and com- 
menced the settlement of the pre- 
sent town of Fairfield. They were 
shortly afterwards joined by seve- 
ral persons from Watertown, and 
others from Concord ; and the in- 
habitants soon became numerous, 
and formed themselves into a dis- 
tinct township, under the juris- 
diction of Connecticut. They 
came from these several towns 
about the same tiixie ; and soon 
afterwards purchased of the In- 
dians that large tract of country 
which comprises the parishes of 
Fairfield,Greenfield, Greensfarms, 
and that part of Stratfield lying 
within the town of Fairfield, all 
the town of Weston, and a consi- 
derable part of the town of Read- 
ing. After Connecticut obtan- 
ed a charter, the General As- 
sembly granted these people a pa- 
tent. 

Having obtained this patent, the 
proprietors soon after divided the 
territory purchased into lots, which 
run from near the shore of the 
sound, back about ten miles, reser- 
ving suitable highways, running 
parallel to and at right angles 
with these lots, the course of 
which was north, 28 degrees west. 
These highways were laid entirely 
straight for ten miles ; but havQ 



since been altered in many places. 
As but a small part of this ex- 
tensive tract of land had been oc^ 
cupied, previously to the time 
when Sir Edmund Andross made 
his appearance in Connecticut, the 
inhabitants of this town adopted 
this plan of dividiiig their purchase, 
to prevent their wild lands back 
from being taken from them ; sup- 
posing that, as they were actually in 
the occupation of the front of their 
lots, they might be considered as 
possessing the whole ; so far as to 
render it private property, and not 
subject to the disposal of the Brit- 
ish government. The lots were of 
different width ; some being about 
ten rods wide, while others were 
fifty rods in width. Each propri- 
etor had set to him a lot, the 
width of which was probably re- 
gulated by the amount of the mo- 
ney paid by such proprietor ; as 
in measuring off these lots, regard 
was had to inches, which shows 
a precise arithmetical calculation* 
Each of these lots has to this day 
been called by the name of the 
first proprietor, although a very 
considerable proportion of them 
are owned by persons of different 
names. Nearly in the centre of 
this town was. reserved a tracts 
one mile in extent, which was not 
divided, and was called the mile 
of common. Greenfield Hill is 
within the Umits of this tract. 

This town, at an early period, 
became wealthy and populous, and • 
sent deputies to the General As- 
sembly in Connecticut, at Hart- 
ford ; while Stamford, w^st'of it^ 
was under the government of New- 
Haven. 

Although the towns of Reading 
and Weston were formed from the 



J 76 



DANBURY. 



^ 



S! 



town of Fairfield, yet this town, 
owing to the fertility of its soil, 
and the numerous advantages with 
which it is favoured for commerce, 
has ever stood among the first 
towns in Connecticut, in point of 
wealth and population. 

This town suffered very severe- 
ly during the revolutionary war. 
Perhaps a more aggravated in- 
stance of wanton barbarity cannot 
be found in the annals of civilized 
nations, than the burning of this 
plaee by the direction of Tryon, 

" Tryon achieved the deed malign,^ 
" TVyon, the name for every sin ; 
*' Hells blackest fiends the flame 

surveyed J 
" ^nd smiPd to see destruction 

spread y 
'* While Satan, blushing deep^ looked 

on, 
'* And infamy disowned her son P^ 

The part of the town which suf- 
fered by the plundering and burn- 
ing of the British was the village 
in the centre of the parish of Fair- 
field. Eighty-five dwelling houses 
were consumed; two churches, 
one elegant court house, several 
school houses, together with out 
houses, barns, &c. shared the same 
fate. These wretches plundered 
the church of a service of plate ! 

The distress occasioned by this 
event was extreme ; many of the 
inhabitants having been compelled 
to flee for their lives to the parish 



of Greenfield, were reduced to 
absolute want; but were there 
generously and humanely enter- 
tained for a considerable time. 

The event took place on the 9th 
of July, 1779; a day which every 
honourable and feeling mind, nay, 
every mind not benumbed with 
brutal apathy, will recollect with 
unutterable horror! 

The General Assembly, soon af- 
ter the burning of this village, 
granted to the Presbyterian Socie- 
ty of Fairfield, 600 pounds out of 
the avails of the confiscated estates 
of the tories, to assist that Society 
in re-building their meetinghouse. 

In the year 1792, a grant of 
lands was made to the individuals 
of this, and of other towns, 
who sustained losses during the 
war by the British troops; and- 
those who have not disposed of 
their lands will, by the rise of 
them, undoubtedly realize the full 
amount of their respective losses. 

The Episcopal Church, (which 
was an elegant building,) and the 
parsonage house, were burnt at the 
same time; but the Society to 
which they belonged, have never 
received any thing from the trea- 
sury of this State, on that account. 

At the session of the General 
Assembly, in May 1818, a lottery 
was granted to the Episcopal So- 
ciety in this town, as a remunera- 
tion for their loss. 



DANBURY. 



DANBURY, the semi-seat oi 
justice of the county, and a flour- 
ishing agricultural and manufactur- 
ing post township, is situated in 



the northwestern section of the 
county, 58 miles southwest from 
Hartford, 35 northwest from New- 
Haven, and about 65 miles nort}i- 



<..■■ 



dan^ury. 



177 



east from New- York : bounded on 
the north by New-Fairfield, on the 
east by Brookfield and Newtown, 
OB the south by Readings and on 
the west by RidgefieW. Its mean 
length is 8 and a half miles, and its 
mean breadth more than 6 mi]e&; 
comprising an area of about 53 
square miles* 

This is a rich agricultural town- 
ship ; its geological character be* 
ing primitive f the rocks consistr 
iilgof granite,gneiss,with some pri« 
mitive limestone* The soil, or su- 
per Stratum,is in general a- gravelly 
loam^ interspersed with some sec- 
tions of sandy l6am, and some of 
calcareous, and is warm, feasible 
and fertile. 

The face of the country is un- 
dulating, and pleasantly diversifi* 
ed ; being characterized by gentle 
hills and dales, with some mode* | 
rate, ridges, running in a northerly 
and southerly direction* In the 
calcareous * strata there are some 
appearances of marble, some quar- 
ries of which have been opened. 

Of the waters of the town, Still 
river is the only considerable 
stream ; it discharges itself into 
the Ousatonick. Upon this stream, 
which passes through the centre 
of the town, there are several ma- 
nufacturing e3tablishments* 

The natural growth of timber 
consists of oak, walnut, chesnut 
and other species of hard wood. 
. The agricultural interests em- 
brace most of the staple produc- 
tions, both of a. system of grazing 
and of a grain culture. Of: the 
latter, wheat, rye, Indiaa- corn and 
oats ; of the former, cattle, sheep, 
beef, ct^ase and butter are the 
pr 



Of the manufactures of the 
town, that of hats is the most im- 
portant, and the business most ex- 
tensively carried on. This is an 
importaint manufacturing interest, 
and employs a lai^e portion of in- 
dustry, and considerable capital* 
There are 28 Hat Factories in the 
town, some of which are upon an 
extensive scale. The products of 
these establishments form a respec- 
table item of exportation ; they 
being sent principally to the south- 
ern States for a market* Some 
are sent to New- York and else- 
where* Besides the manufactured 
of hats, there are 2 Woolen Facto- 
tories upon alai^e scale,.3 Fulling 
jyilHs and Cloth Dressing establish- 
ments, 4 Carding Machines for cus- 
tomers^ 3 Grain Mills, 1 Paper 
Mill and 4 Tanneries. There are 
also several lime kilns, from which 
considerable quantities of Ume are 
produce^* 

Danbury comprises two located 
Congregational Societies or Pa- 
rishes, and 17 School Districts* 
Besides the located, there are 2 
Societies of Baptists, 1 of Episco- 
palians, 1 of Methodists, and 1 of 
Sismdemanians* In the first locat- 
ted Society, there is a large, flou- 
rishing and interesting village* It 
isbuiltprincipally upon one street, 
which for more than a mile e^fchi- 
bits an almost continiied range of 
buildings, consisting of P weeing 
houises, ^ Mercantile Stores^ Hat 
Factories,: Mechanics' Shops; &c. 
Within rone mile apd a quarter, 
therfe ^J:e mote tiiian 1 00 Ihvellihg 
houses, with a great.proportio^i of 
other Ifuildings. ;Tbere are also a 
Court house, 2 Churches and a 
Post office in th€5f village. The 



4\f 



ira. 



BROOKFIELD. 



fi$i 



ttmmmmmmim - 



buildings are not elegant, but ex- 
hibit an appearance of plainness, 
neatness and convenience. There 
are few interior villages in the 
State more compact, or that afford 
an equal aggregate of industry, 
and of mechanical and manufactu- 
ring enterprise ; few more deserv- 
ing of notice, for the becoming 
plainness and simplicity of the 
style of living of the inhabitants ; 
and their persevering, industrious 
& economical habits* The town is 
well accommodated with good 
roads ; one, which is a turnpike, 
leads from thence to FarrfieM, one 
to Norwalk^ communicating with 
the great Atlantic road to New- 
York, one to Ridgeiield, and 
thence into the State of New- 
York, and one to Hartford, pass- 
ingtbrough Newtown. " 

The population of the town^ in 
1810, was 3606, and there are 
about 600 Electors or Freemen, 



4 Companies of miKtia, and 550 
Dwelling houses. 

I'he aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was |^74,556. 

There are 1 1 Mercantile Stores, 
6 Taverns, 7 Houses for public 
worship, 17 primary or common 
Schools, besides which, there are 
several schools for young ladies 
and gentlemen, of a higher o^der ; 
2 Social Libraries, 4 Clergymen, 

5 Physicians and 3 At^rnies in the 
town. The first settlement in 
Danbury was made in l&ft?, and 
it was incorporated in W^. This 
town was anM>ng those which suf*^ 
fered from the barbarous and re* 
volting mode of warfare, which, 
in many instances, was adopted hy 
the British ckiring the revolution- 
ary contest ; a considerable pro* 
portion of it having been burned 
by the British troops, 36tb April, 
1 777, together with a laigc quan- 
tity of military stores. 



BROOKFIELD. 



BROOKFIELD, a post town, 
situated in thie horth part of the 
eountyy is boanded north by a part 
oi New-MiIford,inLitch(ieldcoun- 
fy, northeast by the Ousatonick ; 
^iver, which separates it from 
New-Milford, east by Newtown, 
south by Danbury, and west by 
Danbury and New-Fairfield. 

The township is equivalent to 
about 1 7 square miles, containing 
10,880 acres. 

The northeastern border^of the 
town is washed by the Ousatonick; 
a&d Still river, a considerable mill 
stream, runi^ through the town. 
There is a ti>l^ l;>ridg€ across the 
Ousatonick; co^jiecting the town 



with New-Milford. Upon this ri- 
ver there are two considerable 
shad fisheries. 

' The surface is diversified with 
hill and dale, but is considerably- 
free from stone. The soil is gen- 
erally a dry, hard, gravelly loam, 
particularly upon the hills ; in 
some sections a light calcareous 
loam prevails. The lands in gen- 
eral are well adapted to a grain 
culture, and carry good crops of 
wheat and rye, particularly the lat- 
ter, which is cultivated verv sue- 
cessfully, and in great abundance. 

l^e natural growlh pf the land 
is oak, hickory, chestiut, inaple 
and other deciduous trees. 




GREENWICH. 



179 



The geological sti*uctare of the 
town, in some sections, cdnsists of 
limestone; and within these caU 
careous ranges there are several 
beds of marble* Several quarries 
have been opened, and large quan« 
ttiies of the stone got out and fit- 
ted for various uses. Two i^aw 
miUa h^ve been erected, to s^w 
the stone, to fit it for use, or to fa- 
cilitate its manulacture. Lai^ 
quantities ef marble monuments, 
tomb stones^ hearth stones, &c. 
are yearly manufactured. There 
id also A manufactory of marble 
pots, mortars, vases, &c« These 
various manufactures of marble 
s^rd a stimulus to industry, and 
ace sources of considerable wealth. 
Some indications of lead have been 
discovered ; b^t the subject has 
t»ceived little attention. 

In addition to the puUic roads, 



the town is accommodated with a 
turnpike to Bridgeport, called the 
Newtownand Bridgeport turnpike. 

In 1810, the town contained 
1037 inhabitants ; and there are 
180 Electors^ 1 Company of mi* 
litia, and IdO Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty^ including polls, is ^[37,089. 

There are 2 Qrain Mills, 1 Ful- 
ling Mill and Clothier's works, 1 
Carding Machine, 2 Mercantile 
Stores and 4 Taverns. 

The town contains 1 located 
Congregational Society & Churchi 
1 Episcopal Society; 8 School 
Districts and common Schools ; 1 
Soclkl Library, 1 Physician, 2 
Clei^mea ahd 2 Attornies. 

Brookfield was formed from 
parts of Nfew-Milford, it^ewtown 
and Danbury ; and was incorpe- 
ratedin 1788. 



GREENWICH* 



GREENWICH, a matritimepost 
township, is situated in the south- 
western comer of the county and 
State, 48 miles West from New-Ha- 
ven, 84 from Hartford, and 38 esist 
from New- York ; bouisded dn the 
north and west by West-Chester 
county, in the State of New- York, 
on the east by Stamford, and on 
the south by Long Island sound. 
Its average length is 8 and a half 
miles, and its average breadth 
nearly 6 miles, comprising abo^t 
50 square miles. 

The township is billy and bro- 
ken, being rocky and ledgy : the 
rocks are of a primitive granitic 
formation^ exhibited, in some in- 
stances, in lai^e and naked mass- 
es. The soil is a gravelly loam, 



and considerably fertile; itprodu* 
ces grass^ wheat, rye, Indian com, 
oats and fl^x. In addition to thes^ 
more staple prbdoctions^ there 
are various kinds of roots and vege- 
tables raised for the New- York 
market,, particularly potatoes, of 
^ich very lai^ quantities are kn- 
nually exported to that city. 

The southern border of the town, 
washed by Long Island sound, is 
of considerable extent, and is in- 
tersected by several inlets and 
creeks, off which there are several 
small Islands. There are also seve- 
ral landing places ; Co^cob land- 
ings, of wMeb there are two, upper 
and lower, and Bushes landing. At 
these landings, the ipiritime busi- 
ness of the towa is concentrated, 



180 



HUNTINGTON. 



msm 



and consists principally of a trade 
carried on with New- York by 
sloops^ of which there are 1 2 or 1 5 
belonging to the town. This trade 
is a great convenience to the farm- 
erSy as it affords them a great fa- 
cility for conveying their produce 
to New- York. 

Byram river is the most con- 
siderable stream; it runs within 
the town for some distance, and 
thence forms the boundary be- 
tween the two States. 

There are a number of fisheries 
upon the bays, creeks and inlets 
upon the sound, at which both shell 
and fin fish are taken ; of the for- 
mer, oysters and clams, and of the 
latter, black fish are the most plen^ 
iy and valuable. 

The principal mail and 'stage 
road, from Nfe^w-Haven to New-^ 
York, passes through the ceatre of 
this town. 

The manufactures, mechani- 
cal establishments and employ^ 
roents of the town consist of 2 
Cotton Factories, 1 Woolen Fac- 
tory, 1 Paper Mill, 6 Grain Mills, 
three of which are tide Mills,2Fuil^ 
ing Mills aad Clothiers' work8v2 
Carding Machines and 4 Tanne- 
ries. Tliere are 9 Mercantile 
Stores. 

The populatipQ Qf the town, at 



the census of L810, was 3533^ and 
there are, 500 Dwelling houses, 
400 Freemen or Electors, and 3 
companies of militia. .... 

The amount of taxable property, 
(estimated according ^ to the iaws 
for making up lists*,) including polls, 
is j586,41G. 

The town is- divided into three 
parishes, or locatc^d Congregation- 
al Societies ; besides these, there 
are one Society of Episcopalians, 
one of Baptists, and pne of Method- 
ists. There are 1 7 School districts, 
in each of which there Js a JSchool 
house, and a p^mary or comnion. 
School maintained, 1 Social Libra^ 
ry, 3 Clergymen, 4: Physicians and 
1 resident Lawyer. 

This township was comprised 
within a tract, purchased of the 
natives in 1640, and settled under 
the government of New-Nether- 
lands, (now New- York,) and was 
incorporated in. 1665, by Peter 
Stuyvesant, then governor of New- 
Netherlands. But upon obtaining 
the charter of Charles 2d, Green- 
wich being included within the. 
limits of Connecticut, as defined 
by the charter, it .was aftenvards. 
granted by the colony, or the Gene- 
ral Court, to eight pers^ons or pro- 
prietorst 



HUNTINGTON. 



HUNTINGTON, a post town, 
is situated on the west side of the 
Ousatonick river, being 17 miles 
from New-Haven, and 45 from 
Hartford. It is bounded north on 
Newtown, south on Stratford and 
Trumbull, west on Reading and 
Weston, and ^ast pn tb^ Ou- 



satonick river, which separates the 
town from Oxford and Derby. 

The township is about 10 miles 
long, from northwest to southeast, 
and averaging nearly 6 miles broad, 
from east to west, containing an 
area of about 56 square miles. 

The surface is uneven, being 




^NEW-CANAAN. 



181 



B 



diversified with bill and dale ; but 
the soil, which is a gravelly loam, 
h geQcrallji fertile and productive^ 
It is adapted to a grain culture, and 
pFodttces rye and other grains. 

Agriculture is the principal bu- 
siness of the town, and furnishes 
employment to most of the inha- 
bitants. Rye, corn, oats and flax 
are the principal agricultural in- 
terests. 

The Ousatonick river washes 
the town on its eastern border. 
There aie several shad fisheries 
upon this river, and two bridges 
across it, one.called Zoar, and the 
other (jeavenworth's bridge. . 

Bridgeport and Newtown turn- 



pike. road runs through th^ west 
part of the (own. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2770; and there are 
now 400 qualified Electors, 3 
Companies of Militia, and 400 
Dwelling houses. 

Hie taxable polls and estate of 
^etown, in 1817, was ^60,000. 

There are o Mercantile Stores, 
4 Gi^in Mills, 2 Carding Machines, 
1 8 District Schools, 6 Churches, 
two for Congregationalists, two for 
Episcopalians, one for Baptists,' 
and one for Methodists ; 1 Law^c 
yer, 3 Clergymen and 2 Physicians* 

The town was incorporated in 
1789. 



•NEW-CANAAN* 



NEW-CANAAN,, a small post 
township, is situated 8 miles noftth 
of Long Island sound, and 77 
miles south west from Hartfpid. 

It is bounded north by the State 
of New- York, west by the town 
of Stamford, south by Stamford 
and Norwalk, and east, partly by 
Korwalk and partly by Wilton. Its 
extent is 6 miles in length and 4 
in breadth, containing 24 square 
mile$, or 15,360 a,cres. 

Thesurface is mountainous, con- 
taining spines or ridges composed 
of rock and stone, which extend j 
from north to south through the ^ 
town. 

The soil is a bard gravelly loam, 
being stony, but tolerably well 
timbered, and generally good for 
cultivation; producing wheat, rye, 
corn, oats, flax and buck-wheat, 
andaflbrding, generally, good pas- 
turage and grass. 



There are several small streams 
in the town, the most considerable 
of which are the Five mile river, 
which rises in the State of New* 
York, and runs tlirough the town ; 
Nosoten, which rises within the 
town; one branch of Stamford Mill 
river, which runs through its north- 
west section { and a branch of Nor- 
walk river, that runs through the 
east part of the town. 

Although agriculture is the lead- 
ing pursuit of the inhabitants, yet 
considerable attention is paid to 
manufactures, particularly to the 
manufacture of shoes, of which 
there arj& annually about 60,000 
pair sent abroad for a market. 

At the census of 1810, the po- 
pulation of the town was 1599. 
There are now 220 Freemen, 2 
Companies of militia, 260 Dwel- 
ling houses, 2 Churches, one for 
Congregationalists and one for 



y 



n 



les 



NEW-FAIRPIBLO. 



EpiticopaIiftn&, 6 Grain Mills, 5 
Saw Milk, 3 Diitilleries, 3 Tan- 
neries, 2 Ckrding Machines and 7 
Mercantile Stores. There are 9 
School Districts aad common 
Schools, 1 Academy, 1 located 
and 1 £pi6C<^al Society, 3 Social 



Libraries, 1 Clergyman and 2 Phy- 
sicians.' 

The general list of the ioiim^ 
in 1817,wasj36,946. 

New-Canaan was incorpomteil 
as ia town in 1801. 



NEW^PAIRFIELD. 



l^EW-FAIRFIELD isanincon^ 
siderable town, situated in the 
northwestern section of the county, 
C4 miles distant from Hartford; and 
is bounded on the north by Sher- 
man, on the east by New-Milford, 
in Litchfield county, and Brook- 
field, on the south by Danbury and 
Ridgefield, and on the west by the 
State of New- York. Its average 
length is 5 miles, and its average 
breadth 4 and a half miles, compri'^ 
sing 22 and a half square miles. 

The township is broken^ having 
several granite ridges extending 
trough it ; the soil is hard and 
gravelly. There are some indica* 
tions of iron ore in some parts of 
these ridges ; but, as yet, there is 
no mine or bed of ore opened or 
worked « The timber and forests 
consist of oak of the different kinds^ 
and other trees common to this 
region. The lands, when cultiva- 
ted, produce wheat, rye, oats, 
grass, &€., and are considerably 
fertile and productive. 

The town is watered by Rocky 
river, a considerable mill stream, 
which run^ in a northeasterly di- 



rection, ahd discharges itself inim 
theOudatonick. Iteotitains 3 snriedl 
ponds^ the most considerable of 
which is called BulPs pond. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 772 ; and there are now, 
130 (qualified Electors, 1 company 
of militia, and 1 30 Dwelling hou- 
ses. 

The amount of taxable proper* 
ty, including polk, is ^ 19, 1 ^8. 

There are 1 Grain Mill^ 1 Full- 
ing Mill and Clothiers' works, 2 
Carding Machines, 1 Tamiery, 3 
Mercantile Stores and 3 public 
Inns4 

The town contains one located 
Congregational Society & Church, 
one Society of MeUiodists, six 
School districts ^commonSchools, 
one small Social Library, oiie Phy« 
sician and two Clergymen. 

New-Fairfield was granted by 
the General Assembly, in October 
1707, to sundry inhabitattis of the 
town of Fairfield, whence it receiv- 
ed itd name ; but the war, which 
at that time existed with the na- 
tives, prevented its being settled 
for some time afterwards. 



1 



■^ 



KEWTOWN. 



\M 



HM* 



NEWTOWN, a flourishing post 
town, is pleasantly situated in the 
northern section of the county, on 
the southwestern border of the 
Ousatohick river, 48 miles south- 
west from Hartford, and about 26 
miles northwest from New-Ha- 
Ten ; bounded on the northwest 
by Brookfield, on the northeast and 
east by the Oosatonick riyer,which 
separates it from Southbury, in 
Niew-Haven county, on the south- 
east by Huntington and Weston, 
and on the southwest by Reading 
and Danbury. 

^ The township li^s in a triangu- 
lar form, and comprises an area of 
about dO square ndleti, having an 
aTerage length from northwest to 
southeast of about 8 mites^ and a 
mean bf isatii of more thaa 6 miles. 
Hu$ township has an elevated lo- 
cation* Its surface is hilly, and 
many of the eminences are exten- 
sive and continuous ; but no part 
4>f it iis mountainous. The soil, 
which principally is a gravetly 
loam, with some sections of san- 
dy loam, is, in general, fertile 
and productive. It is welladapt- 
ed to a grain culture ; and rye, 
which is extensively and success- 
fully cultivated, forms the staple 
production* It is favourably for 
fruit, and abounds with many va- 
luable orchards. The agricultur- 
al interests are respectable ; and, 
being an interior township, and 
having paid but little attention to 
manufactures, they afiford employ- 
ment to the principal part of the 
industry of the place. 

The township is well watered, 
its northeastern boundary through- 
out its whole course being washed 
by the Ousatonick, and its area in- 
tersected by the Powtatuck and 



several small streams. In the north- 
western section of the township, 
is a pond of considerable extent. 
Upon the Ousatonick, connecting 
this town with Southbury, there h 
a toll bridge, called JBennett'g 
bridge. This town h well accom- 
modated with roads ; there being,, 
in addition to the public roads, se- 
veral tumpikear leading throu^ it, 
one from Hartford to Danbury^ 
and one leading to Bridgeport. 

The manufactures of the town 
are inconsiderable. There are, 
however, 1 Woolen Factoir, tQ 
small Distilleries, 4 Tannenes, S 
Grain Mills, 5 Carding Machined 
and 4 Pulling Milk and Clotiliien' 
woilcs. 

The population of the town, in 
1816, was 9834; and there are 
about 400 Dw^ling houses,, 300 
Electors, and 3 Companies of mi- 
litia. The town contains^ 7 reli- 
gious Societies ; one locatedCon- 
gregattonal, one Episcopal, which 
id the laigest in ttte State, ono 
Baptist, one small Society of San- 
demanians, one of Universalists, 
and two others. There are 15^ 
School Districts &primary Schools 
and 2 Social Libraries. 

In the central section of the 
the township th^e is a considera- 
ble village. It is pleasantly situ* 
ated on a height of land, rising gra- 
dually from the south, and more 
abruptly on die east and west, be- 
ing the subsidence or gradual ter- 
mination of a considerable ridge, 
extending from the mountainous 
district to the north and ivest. ^JThe 
village consists principally of one 
street, which is very broad, and, 
for nearly a mile, is well built ; it 
contains 50 or 60 Dwelling houses, 
2 houses for publit worship, 2 



^ 



184 



NORWALK. 



School houses, 3 Mercantile Stores, 
and numerous Mechanics^ shop$ 
and other buildif .gs. 

The two turnpike, roads, alrea- 
dy noticed, lead through the vil- 
lage. 

From Jhc elevated site of this 
vi]lage,,it affords an extensiv<B and 
interesting, prospect to the east, 
south and west, a distance of 8 or 
9 mile3, comprising a fertile poun- 
try^ in a high state of cultivation, 
and exhibiting, in every direction, 



the grateful resultsofruralindustry. 

There are, in Newtown, 2 Cler- 
gymen, 4 Physicians and 4 AttQi:- 
nies. . The aggregate list of the 
town, in 1 81 7, was $65*085. 

In May 1 708, the General As- 
sembly made a grant of the tract of 
country comprisiig this township, 
which was then called Powtatuck^ 
from the river of that name, by 
which it is intersected. At the 
same session it was incorporated, 
by the name of Ne:nrtowa. 



NORWALK. 



• . . » ,. ■ ■ 

NORWALK, a flourishing ma- 
ritime post towpship, is situated 
upon Long Jsiand sound, 66 mi)es 
^o.ujthwest from Hartford, 32 west 
from New-Haven, and 48 north- 
east from the city ^f New- York ; 
bounded pn thQ.iJprth by New-, 
Canaan and Wilton, on the east 
by the Saugatuck river, which se- 
parates it from Fairfield, on ihe 
south by Long Island sound, and 
on the west. by Stamford. It com- 
prises an area of about 34 square 
miles ; having a mean length from 
east to west of about 7. miles, and 
a inedium breadth fronoi nofth to 
south of nearly 5 miles. The sur- 
face is uneven, being pleasantly 
diversified with hill and dale. Up- 
on the border of the sound the 
hills are generally moderate ; and 
in the interior more elevated. 
The geological character is pri- 
mitive, the prevailing strata of 
rocks consisting of granite. The 
general character of the soil is a 
dark coloured gravelly mould or 
loam, very feasible and fertile. It 
has a suitable adaptation both for 
grain and grazing, aud is very fa-i 



i*-. ... • " ■- ■• .... 

vpurable for fruit. This town i» 
rich in agricultural bpulepcis — . 
abounds in the means of sustaining 
a dense population — from its CQn«r 
tiguityto the sound, has a mode*- 
rate, .qnifprm and salubriogjs cli- 
niate— a ready . aqd convenient 
naarket, being possessed of xiavi- 
gabje waters, rendering it always^ 
aqce$sible from the sea, and af-^ 
fordiag, at all times, a facility of 
communication with New- York, 
whereby it unites ample advanta* 
ges, and. a powerful stimulus to 
agricultural industry and improve- 
ment. And these, advantages, if 
they have not been improved to 
the greatest, extent, have not been 
neglected. 

The staple agricultural pro- 
ducts consist, of Indian corn, rye, 
oatSt wheat) flour, flax, flax-seed, 
beef, pork and potatoes ; most of 
which are articles of exportation. 

The forests, which consist of. 
oak of the diflferei.t kinds, walnut, 
chesnut, &;c. are very valuable, 
from the facility with which wood 
and timber are conveyed to the 
New- York market, 




NORWALK. 



18a 



The waters of the town are 
priDcipaliy embodied in the Sau- 
gatuck, which washes its eastern 
border, forming the boundary be- 
tween this town and Fairfield; 
and Norwalk river, a considerable 
stream which runs through the 
^ centre of the town, and dischar- 
ges its waters into Long Island 
sound, fonning the harbour, which 
is at the mouth of this stream, and 
has sufficient depth of water for 
vessels of 100 tons, and is safe and 
convenient. There is also anoth- 
er harbour at what is called Five 
mile river, which admits of ves- 
sels of about the same size. There 
are several small islands in Long 
Island sound, off this town, and 
numerous small inlets upon its bor- 
ders. 

Of the fishing business, black 
fish and shell fish are takefi in the 
sound. 

Tliis town possesses considera- 
ble advantages for navigation, and 
the interests thereof are contin- 
ually increasing. There are 
16 vessels of every description 
belonging to the town, of which 
there are six regular packets that 
constantly ply between this place 
and New- York. On^ of them is 
employed exclusively in the con- 
veyance of passengers. The re- 
maining ten vessels consist of 
sloops and schooners, and are em- 
ployed in the coasting trade to 
New- York and elsewhere. 

In addition to the pursuits of 
agriculture, navigation and com- 
merce, some attention has been 
. bestowed on manufactures. There 
^ are 1 Woolen Factory, 2 Cotton 
Factories, one upon an extensive 
scale, 1 Slitting and 1 Rolling Mill, 
5 Grain Mills, two of which are 

24 



merchants' or flouring Mills, 3 
Fulling Mills and Cloth Dressing 
establishments, 4 Carding Ma- 
chines and 2 Tanneries. 

The population of tlte town, in 
1810, was 2983; and there are 
about 400 Electors or Freemen, 
about the same number of Dwel- 
ling houses, and 5 Companies of 
militia. 

The town ^contains 1 located 
Congregational Society, 1 Society 
of Episcopalians, and 1 of Me- 
thodists, which are respectively 
accommodated with houses for 
public worship. It contains one 
considerable and flourishing vil- 
lage, situated upon the great stage 
road leading to New- York, at the 
head of the harbour. It is a place 
of considerable activity and busi- 
ness, being the seat of most of the 
commercial and navigation busi- 
ness of the town. It is the com- 
mercial depot and market for the 
northern section of the county ; 
most of the staple products being, 
brought here for sale, or to be 
freighted to New- York. 

There are, in the village, near- 
ly 100 houses, a number of tra- 
ding houses. Dry goods and Gro- 
cery stores, 1 Bookstore, several 
private offices, a Post-office, a 
Newspaper and Printing establish- 
ment, 2 Churches, and several 
Mechanics' shops. 

There are in Norwalk*! 3 pri- 
mary Schools and 1 Academy, 16 
Mercantile Stores, 7 Public Inns, 
3 Physicians, 3 Clergymen and 2 
Attornies. 

The aggregate list of the <own, 
in 1816, was|l53,231. 

Norwalk was settled in 165 J, 
and incorporated in 1655, four 
years from the first settlement. 



^^B 
^^^ 



186 



READING. 



This town is memorable in the 
annals of the revolutionary war ; 
having been burned by the British 
and Tories in 1779. The loss 
sustained by the inhabitants, from 
the destruction of buildings and 



other property, was estimated by 
a committee, appointed by the 
General Assembly for the pur- 
pose, at gll6,238 : 36. A great 
proportion of the dwelling houses 
and stores were burnt. 



READING. 



READING, an interior, central 
post township, is situated 60 miles 
southwest from Hartford ; bound- 
ed on the north by Danbury, on 
the east by Newtown and Weston, 
on the south by Weston, and on 
the west by Ridgefield. Its ave- 
verage length from east to west is 
nearly 6 and a half miles, and its 
mean breadth from north to south 
about 5 miles ; comprising an area 
of about 32 square miles. The 
face of the country is characteris- 
tically diversified with hill and 
dale. The prevailing strata of 
rocks consist of granite and pri- 
* mitive limestone ; and the soil, 
corresponding with the geological 
features of different sections of 
the township, is a gravelly and 
calcareous loam. From the cal- 
careous strata limestone is ob- 
tained for making lime, of which 
considerable quantities are annu- 
ally produced. 

This town is rich in resources 
for agricultural improvements and 
wealth. It contains very little 
waste land, and the soil is gene- 
rally good. The calcareous sec- 
tions arc fertile and productive, 
affordinc: wheat, rve. oats and In- 
dian corn in abundance ; and the 
sections which are not so favoura- 
ble for the growth of grain, are 
well adapted to grazing. Consi- 
derable quantities of beef and pork 



are marketed, and large quanti- 
ties of flax are annually raised^ 

This being an interior township, 
and not having engaged to any 
extent in any manufacturing inte- 
rest, agriculture is almost exclu- 
sively the business of the inhabit- 
ants. 

There is a considerable propor- 
tion of forest lands in the town ; 
the natural growth of timber con- 
sists of oak, walnut, chesnut, and 
other deciduous trees. 

The waters of the township are 
principally embodied in the Sau- 
gatuck and Norwalk rivers ; the 
former of which intersects it, run- 
ning through its centre, and the 
latter washes its western section. 

In addition to the public or 
county roads, the town is accom- 
modated with several turnpikes ; 
one from Danbury to Norwalk 
leads through it, and also .one 
from Danbury to Greenfield, in 
the town of Fairfield. 

Of the manufacturing and me- 
chanical establishments of the 
town, there are 1 Woolen Fac- 
tory, 5 Grain Mills, 2 Cloth Dres- 
sing establishments, 3 Carding 
Machines, 3 Tanneries and 1 
Lime kiln. 

The population of this town, in 
1810, was 1717; and there are 
about 260 Dwelling houses, about 
300 Electors, 2 Companies of In- 



1^ 



BIOGRAPHY. 



187 



fantry and a part ©f a Company 
of Cavalry, of Militia. 

Its civil divisions are 1 located 
Congregational Society ' and 1 1 
School Districts ; besides the lo- 
cated, there is 1 Society of Epis- 
copalians, and 1 of Methodists, all 
of which are accoi^modated with 
houses for public worship. 

There are, in the town, 5 Mer- 
cantile Stores, 5 Taverns or Pub- 
lic Inns, 1 Social Library, 2 Physi- 
cians and 3 Clergymen. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was ^48,707. 

Reading was incorporated in 
May, 1767. 

BIOGRAPHY. Joel Barlow, 
L. L. D. distinguished as a poet, 
politician, statesman and philoso- 
pher, was a native of this town. 
As the design of this work does 
not contemplate giving lengthy bi- 
ographical accounts, we must, in 
this instance, confine ourselves 
to a notice of a few facts, exhi- 
biting a compressed view of the 
life and writings of Mr. Barlow. 
He w§LS born in or about the year 
1 755. His father, who was an in- 
dependent farmer, but in mode- 
rate circumstances, died whilst he 
was a youth, leaving him a small 
patrimony, scarcely sufficient to 
defray the expenses of a liberal 
education, which he had contem- 
plated. Having been placed in 
Dartmouth College in 1774, he 
was soon after removed from 
thence to Yale College, at New- 
Haven, where he graduated in 
1778. The class into which he 
entered was remarkable for the 
great promise of talent which ma- 
ny of its members disclosed ; 
among whom Barlow always rank- 
ed conspicuous. The late Asa 



Spalding and Uriah Tracey, hia 
Excellency Oliver Wolcott, Alex- 
ander Wolcott, Abraham Bishop 
and Josiah Meigs were mem- 
bers of this class. He passed 
through the usual course of aca- 
demic studies with great reputa^ 
tion, and at the public commence- 
ment in 1 778, delivered or recited 
an original poem, which was the 
first time he had appeared before 
the public in his poetical charac- 
ter. This effusion of his muse 
was soon after printed, and has 
been preserved in a collection 
entitled " American Poems." Pre- 
viously to this period, and whilst 
Barlow was in College, the revo- 
lutionary war commenced, and 
the natural ardour and enthusi- 
asm of his mind, stimulated by the 
pervading spirit of liberty which 
characterized the times, led him 
to take a deep interest in a con- 
test in which both the cause of 
civil liberty and the dearest inter- 
ests of his country were so inti-^ 
mately concerned. During the 
early period of the war, the mi- 
litia of Connecticut constituted 
an important part of the army. 
Barlow had four brothers in the 
service ; and more than once, du- 
ing vacations, he armed himself 
with a musket, and joined them 
in the " bloody strife," as a vo- 
lunteer. It is said he was in the 
battle at White Plains. 

Upon his leaving. College, he 
commenced the study of law ; but, 
at the urgent solicitation and re- 
commendation of some of his 
friends, he was induced to aban- 
don this situation, and to qualify 
himself for, and accept the ap- 
pointment of chaplain to the ar- 
my. Whilst in this situation, he 




188 



BIOGRAPHY. 



wrote several poetical effusions, 
strongly marked with patriotic and 
liberal sentiments, and calculated 
to encourage and animate the ar- 
my, in the various hardships, pri- 
vations and difficulties with which 
they had to contend. And whilst 
in the army, he conceived, plan- 
ned, and in part composed, the ce- 
lebrated poem which he after- 
wards published^ entitled the " Vi- 
sion of Columbus," and which 
was subsequently enlarged into 
his great national poem, the Co- 
lumbiad* In 1781, he took the 
degree of A. M. at New-Haven, 
on which occasion he delivered a 
poem, entitled the " Prospect of 
Peace," which was principally 
embodied in the Vision of Colum- 
bus* About the same time, he 
married Miss Baldwin of New- 
Haven, a sister of Ahr&ham Bald- 
win, for many years a distinguished 
membelr of Congress from Geor- 
gia, of whose life and character 
^here is a brief notice following 
• the account of the town of Guil- 
ford. After the peace in 1783, 
Barlow being out of employment, 
resolved to resume the study 
of law, for which purpose he re- 
moved to Hartford, with the ex- 
. pectation, probably, of making it 
his residence for life. Whilst in 
this situation, to aid him in his 
finances, he, in connection with 
Elisha Babcock, established a 
weekly newspaper, called the 
" American Mercury," which has 
ever since been published by Mr. 
Babcock. 

In 1787, whilst engaged in this 
business, he published his " Vision 
of Columbus," a patriotic and po- 
pular poem. It was dedicated to 
Louis XVI., and met with very 



flattering success, being re-print- 
ed in London within a few months ; 
it has since gone through a se- 
cond edition in America, and one 
in Paris. About this periwi, in 
pursuance of the request of the 
General Association of the clergy 
of this State, he undertook the 
revision of Dr. Watts' version 
of the Psalms. His edition was 
published in 1786, and comprised 
several devotional pieces of his 
own composing. 

About the time of these publi- 
cations, he disposed of his interest 
in the paper to Mr. Babcock, and 
opened a bOok-store, the princi- 
pal object of which was to effect 
the sale of his poem and edition 
of the Psalms*' About this time, 
the Anarchiad was published at 
this place, in which Mr. Barlow 
is said to have taken a conspicu- 
ous part. On the 4th of July, 
1787, and whilst the Convention 
which framed the Constitution of 
the United States ovas in session 
at Philadelphia, he delivered an 
oration to the. Connecticut Cin- 
cinnati. Not being satisfied with 
his prospects in his profession, the 
next year he embarked for Eng- 
land, as the agent of a Land Com- 
pany, called the Ohio Company, 
from whence he soon proceeded 
to France. Whilst in France, the 
Revolution commenced, which led 
Barlow to an intimate acquaint- 
ance with most of the leaders of 
the republican party, and parti- 
cularly with those which were af- 
terwards denominated Girondists* 
His philanthropy afid enthusiasm 
in the cause of liberty led. him 
to enter warmly into their plans, 
which recfiived the support of his 
genius and political intelligence 



BIOGRAPHY. 



189 



and experience. In 1791, he re- 
turned to England, and near the 
close of that year, published his 
" Advice to Privileged Orders," 
a work of solid merit, exposing, 
in a forcible noanner, the abuses 
and evils of the feudal govern- 
ments of Europe. In 1792, he 
published a small poem, entitled 
the "Conspiracy offings." From 
these publications, being of a po- 
litical nature, and from his intima- 
cy with the leaders of opposition, 
or friends of reform in England, 
he had become very obnoxious to 
the ministerial party. Near the 
close of the year 1792, he re- 
turned to France, as one of a 
committee of the London Consti- 
tutional Society, with an Address 
from the Society to the National 
Convention. He was received in 
Prance with great respect ; and, 
soon after his arrival, had confer- 
red up6n him the rights of a 
French citizen. The year follow- 
ing, he was employed, in connec- 
tion with a deputation of the Na- 
tional Convention, to assist in or- 
ganizing the territory of Savoy, 
as a department of the Republic. 
Whilst at Chamberry, in this ter- 
ritory, he wrote a political ad- 
dress to the people of Piedmont. 
In this place he amused himself 
in writing a mock didactic poem, 
called " Hasty Pudding." From 
Savoy he returned to Paris, where 
he resided for about three years. 
During this period, he translated 
Volney's Ruins ; being shocked at 
theatrocities of the Revolution, he 
withdrew from political affairs. 

In 1795, he was appointed by 
President Washington consul at 
Algiers, with powers to negotiate 
a treaty, with the Dey, and to 



redeem all American prisoners 
held in slavery by any of the Bar- 
bary powers. He immediately set 
out upon his mission, and, crossing 
through Spain, arrived at Algiers, 
where he soon succeeded in ne- 
gotiating a treaty with the Dey, 
although surrounded with nume- 
rous difficulties. Early the suc- 
ceeding year, he negotiated a sim- 
ilar treaty with Tripoli, and libe- 
rated all the American prisoners 
held in captivity. In 1797, he re- 
signed his consulship and returned 
to Paris ; and having engaged in 
some commercial pursuits or spe- 
culations, was very successful, and 
accumulated a handsome fortune. 
In the rupture which took place 
between France and the United 
States, Barlow exerted his influ- 
ence and talents, to promote an 
amicable adjustment ; for which 
end he addressed a letter to the 
people of the United States, up- 
on the measures of the party then 
in power. This was soon follo|§ 
ed by another, which was more 
abstract and examined, in that 
clear and forcible manner pecu- 
liar to its author, various political 
topics, and particularly certain es- 
tablished principles of maritime 
law and the rights of neutrals. 
His views were novel and bcJd, 
and founded upon the principles 
of abstract right, which he regard- 
ed as the only true policy. In 
1 805, after an absence of seven- 
teen years from his native coun- 
try. Barlow resolved upon re-visi- 
ting the scenes of his youth. He 
accordingly sold his real estate in 
France, which he had regarded as 
his adopted country, as long as it 
continued the country of liberty. 
After visiting different parts of the 



190 



BIOGRAPHY. 



T 



aasB 



country, he purchased him a de- 
lightful situation in the vicinity 
of Georgetown, within tlie hmits 
of the district of Columbia. Whilst 
in this situation, he enjoyed the so- 
ciety, friendship and esteem of 
Mr. Jefferson, then President of 
the United States ; &l of the other 
important functionaries and char- 
acters of distinction, who were 
residents, or engaged in public 
employments at the seat of gov- 
ernment. In 1 806, he published a 
prospectus of a national institution, 
or university ; to establish which, 
a bill was introduced into the Sen- 
ate ; it met with considerable op- 
position 5 was referred to a select 
committee, who never reported, 
and thus this great national object 
ended. He now devoted his at- 
tention to the revision and im- 
provement of his favourite poem ; 
and in 1 808, the Columbiad made 
its appearance in the most magnifi- 
cent volume, which ever issued 
from an American press. The high 
^ce of this edition prevented its 
circulation ; and the subsequent 
year, it was re-printed in two vol- 
umes. The same year, it was re- 
published in London, in an elegant 
royal 8 vo. The Columbiad has 
been attacked in the severest man- 
ner, by critics of every rank; 
but Barlow, relying upon the solid 
merits of the poem, and the im- 
partial award of posterity, either 
treated them with neglect or con- 
tempt. The Columbiad is an epic 
poem, aboundi.gin philosophical 
discussion, and in enlarged, politi- 
cal and national views. It was ex- 
panded from the vision of Colum- 
bus which it comprises, and is the 
offspring of the labour of half a 
life. It is a great national work, 



and cannot fail of going down to 
posterity, to the latest generation. 
The name of Barlow will long be 
known and revered, when all those 
who have attempted to asperse it, 
will be forgotten. After the pub- 
lication of hisColumbiad, he was 
employed in collecting materials 
for a general history of the United 
States, a work which he had long 
meditated; but whilst thus occu- 
pied, in 1811, he was appblnted 
minister plenipotentiary to the 
French government ; whereupon 
he soon embarked again for France, 
clothed with authority and distin- 
guished honours. He applied him- 
self with great diligence to the 
duties of his new station, and made 
every exertion to effect the nego- 
tiation of a treaty of commerce, 
and indemnity for spoliation. In 
October 1812, he was invited to a 
conference with the Emperor at 
Wilna. He immediately set off up- 
on this mission, and travelled day 
and night, exposed to the severe 
weather of a northern climate ; 
subject to great fatigue, and ac- 
commodations at the public Inns 
being the most wretched, scarcely 
being able to obtain a wholesome 

i meal, his constitution was unable 
to withstand these severe trials ; 

I he sunk into a state of debility, 
from which he never recovered. 
He died, December 22d, 1812, at 
Zarnawica, an obscure village of 
Poland, in the neighbourhood of 
Cracow. America has produced 
few men more justly deserving of 
immortality than Barlow; and 
none, it is believed, who have made 
their title to it more sure. He liv- 
ed in an eventful period, and acted 
a conspicuous part in both hemis- 
pheres ; and as a poet, a man of 



RIDGEFIELD. 



191 



science, a politician, a philosopher 
and a philanthropist, his name will 
long be revered by the friends of 



civil liberty & of science, through- 
out the civilized world. 



RIDGEFIELD. 



RIDGEFIELD is an elevated 
post township, situated in the west- 
ern section of the County and State, 
bordering upon the State of New- 
York, 10 miles southwest of Dan- 
bury, 70 miles southwest of Hart- 
ford, and 55 northeast of the city 
of New- York ; bounded on the 
north by New-Fairfield, on the 
east by Danbury and Reading, 
on the south by Wilton, and on the 
west by th6 State of New- York. 
The township is of an oHong 
jfigure, being about 13 miles in 
length, and not more than 3 miles 
in breadth upon an average estima- 
tion, and comprises an area of a- 
bout 37 square miles. The face 
of the county is characterized by 
a succession of ridges and vallies, 
ranging northerly and southerly, 
in a direction towards Long Island 
sound* Some of these ridges are 
considerably elevated, and afford 
an interesting view of the sound, 
although situated at a distance of 
14 miles. The geological charac- 
ter of the township is primitive ; 
the rocks consisting mostly of 
granite and primitive limestone. 
The prevailing soil is a gravelly 
loam, interspersed with some sec- 
tions of calcareous loam, — ^is ricb 
in resources for agricultural pro 
ductionsand improvements, well 
adapted both to a cultivation oi 
grain and grazing, and also verj 
favourable for fruit. The agricul- 
tural productions consist of wheat, 
rye, corn, oats, flax ; and cheese, 
butter, beef, wool, &c. 



The waters of the town con- 
sist of numerous small streams, of 
which the most considerable are 
several branches of Norwalk and 
Saugatuck rivers. Upon sdme of 
these streams, there are advanta- 
geous sites for mills or manufac- 
turing establishments. The town 
is accommodated with the Ridge- 
field and Danbury turnpike. -Agri- 
culture is the principal business, 
and the manufactures of the town, 
exclusive of those of a domestic cha- 
racter, are inconsiderable. There 
are 1 Woolen Factory, 3 Fulling 
MTlls and cloth dressing establish- 
ments, 1 large Tannery, 3 Grain 
Mills & 2 Carding Machines. There 
are several limekilns in the town. 

Of the civil divisions of thte town, 
there are 2 located Congregationsyi 
Societies, and 12 School districts ; 
besides the located, there is 1 So- 
ciety of Episcopalians, 1 of Bap- 
tists and 1 of Methodists. 

In the first located Society, there 
is a small but pleasant village, 
comprising, within the limits of a- 
bout one mile, 50 or 60 Dwelling 
houses, 2 Churches, a Post-office, 
3 Mercantile Stores, and several 
Mechanics' Shops. 
i The population of the town, in 
I18IO, was 2103 ; and there are a- 
bout 300 Electors or Freemen, a- 
bout the same number of Dwelling 
houses, and 2 companies of Militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $55,357. 

In the town, are 12 primary 
Schools and 1 Academy, 1 Social 



m 



192 



SHERMAN. 



Library, 5 Mercantile Stores, 4 
Taverns, 4 Houses for public wcrr- 
ship, 4 Physicians and 1 Clergy- 



man. 



The tract of land, comprising 
the township of Ridgefield, was 
called by the Indians Caudatowa 
high land, from its elevated situa- 
tion, affording a prospect of Long 
Island for forty miles; and 



of the sound, and vessels navigating 
it. The Indian title was purchas- 
ed in 1708, by several persons of 
Norwalk, to the number of twenty- 
five. The deed bears date the 
30th of September 1 708, and at 
the ensuing session of the General 
Court, it was incorporated into a 
distinct township, by the name of 
Ridgefield. 



SHERMAN. 



SHERMAN is a township, situa- 
ted in the northwest corner of the 
county, 60 miles from Hartford; 
bounded on the north by Kent, in 
Litchfield county, on the east by 
New-Milford, on the south by New- 
Fairfield, and on the west by the 
State of New- York ; having an av- 
erage length of 9 and a half miles, 
and an average breadth of only 2 
and a half miles, containing 23 
^nd three-fourths square miles. 
Its surface is uneven, being char- 
acterized by elevated and lofty 
hills, and deep and extensive vales. 
The soil is various, according to 
the local situation of the lands, 
but is generally a gravelly loam. 
The hills, which are not suffered 
to remain for the growth of timber, 
afford grazing; and the vales, (most 
of which are warm and fertile,) 
are well adapted to the cultivation 
of wheat, rye and Indian corn, 
large quantities of which are an- 
nually raised. 

Of the mineralogy of the town 
are some beds of iron ere, which, 
however, have received but little 
attention. 

The town is watered by nume- 
rous small streams, which discharge 



their waters into the Ougaton^ 
ick. 

A turnpike road lately granted, 
extending from New-Milford to 
the State of New- York, runs thro' 
this town. Sherman contains one 
located Congregational Society, a 
Society of Episcopalians, and part 
of a Society of Baptists, and some 
Quakers. It contains 6 School 
districts and Schools, and 3 small 
villages, of 10 or 15 houses each. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 949 ; and there are 1 50 
Freemen, 2 companies of militia, 
and 130 Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is |^22,168* 
There are 1 Woolen Factory, 3 
Distilleries, 2 Tanneries,- 1 Grain 
Mill, 1 Fulling Mill, 1 Carding Ma- 
chine, 1 Mercantile Store, 1 Pub- 
lic Inn, 2 Physicians and 1 Clergy- 
man. 

This town was incorpor^tted in 
1802, 

BIOGRAPHY. Dr. Jamts PoU 
ter, late President of the Medical 
Society, was a resident in this town. 
He was distinguished in his profes- 
sion as a scholar, and a man of 
general science. 




STAMFORD* 



1^3 



■mum 



mmg^ 



mmui 



STAMFORD, an extensive and; 
)}Opuloi]l maritime post township, 
is situated on Long Island sound, 
in the southwestern part of the 
GOuRty and State, 1 iniies south- 
west of Norwalk, 42 southwest of 
New-Haven, 76 southwest from 
Hartford, and 43 northeast fpom 
New- York ; Abounded on the north 
by the State of New- York, on the 
east by New-Canaan and Norwalk, 
on the south by Long Island sound, 
and on the west by Greenwich, 

The township comprises an area 
of about 55 square miles ; having 
a mean length from north to south 
of about 9 and a half miles, and 
a mean breadth from east to west 
of nearly 6 miles. 

This is a pleasant and fertile 
township, rich in the resourceis of 
agricultural opulence, abounding 
in the means of subsistence, and 
of sustaining the primary interests 
of civilization, agriculture, com- 
merce and the arts ; it possesses a 
moderate and uniform climate, 
and the advantages of a ready and 
convenient market. The surface 
is undulating, exhibiting a pleasant 
and interesting diversity of mode- 
rate bills and gentle declivities 
and dales. The soil is a rich gra- 
velly loam, feasible and fertile; 
being adapted both to tillage and 
grazing. * 

The staple agricultural products 
are Indian corn, rye and potatoes : 
the latter of which are extensive- 
ly cultivated. From the facilities 
of communication with Now- York, 
the value of potatoes is much in- 
creased, and a sure and ready 
market afforded ; and hence their 
caltiTation,which, under other cir- 
cumstances must always be a mi- 
nor object with the farmer, .has 

25 



become in this town an important 
interest. It is estimated that there 
are about 100,000 bushels sent to 
the New- York market annually 
from this town. 

The town is well Watered by 
several good mill streams, of whicu 
the principal are Mill river, which 
intersects the township, and dis- 
charges its waters into the sound, 
forming at its mouth a good har- 
bour ; the Noraton and the Mi- 
aunus, the latter of which washes 
the northwestern section of the 
town, running thence into Green- 
wich. The harbour at the mouth 
of Mill river has, at ordinary tides, 
about eight and a half feet of wa- 
ter; besides this, there are two 
other harbours in the town, but 
the former is the principal one, 
and the seat of most of the mari- 
time business. The shipping con- 
sists of six vessels, three of which 
are employed principally as pack- 
ets between this place aii6 New- 
York, and the others in the coast- 
ing trade. Black And shell fish 
are taken in Long Island sound, 
and in the bays and inlets thereof. 

Connected with the navigation 
business of this town is the manu- 
facture of flour, for exportation, 
which is carried on very exten- 
sively. There are two mills ex- 
clusively employed in this busi* 
ness ; one of which is the lar^^est 
in the State, containing 16 run of 
stones ; the other contains 10 run. 
Besides these, there are 7 other 
Grain Mills in the town. Exclu- 
sive of the manufacture of flour, 
there are no consideiiable manu- 
facturing interests in tJ^ town ; not 
taking into view those of a domes- 
tic character* There are 2 Fulling 
Mills and Clothiers' works, 4 Car- 



C 



194 



STRATFORD. 



itiiiliiiliiMM 



ding Machines and 2 Tanneries. 
The mercantile business of the 
place is considerable, there being 
1 4 Dry Goods and Grocery Stores. 

The civil divisions of the town 
consist of 3 located Ecclesiastical 
Societies or Parishes, and 11 
School Districts. Besides the lo- 
cated, there are 1 Episcopal Soci- 
ety ; 2 Baptist Societies ; 1 of 
Methodists, and 1 Society of 
Friends. 

In the first located Society there 
is a delightful and interesting vil- 
lage, pleasantly situated upon Mill 
river, and the great mail road 
leading to New- York. It is a neat 
and handsome place, and compris- 
es about 50 or 60 Dwelling hous- 
es, some of which are large and 
elegant, a Post office, several pro- 



fessional offices, 2 Churches, an4 
several Mercantile Stores. The 
Post office at this place is a distri- 
buting office. 

The population of Stamford, in 
1810, was 4440; and there are 
about 450 Electors, 4 Companies 
of Militia, and about 600 Dwelling 
houses. • 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was $91,Q6B. 

iThere are in the town 8 Public 
Inns or Taverns, 7 Houses for 
religious worship, 11 primary 
Schools, 2 Social Libraries, 4 Phy- 
sicians, 7 Clergymen and 4 Attor- 
nies. 

This is an ancient town, the set- 
tlement having commenced in 
1641. It was called by the na- 
tives Rippowams. 



STRATFORD. 



STIfe4TF0RD, a pleasant and 
flourishing post township, is situ- 
ated on the west side of the Ousa- 
tonick river, about 3 miles from 
its mouth, and 1 3 from New-Ha- 
ven ; bounded on the north by 
Trumbull and Huntington, on the 
east by the Ousatonick river, on 
the south by Long Island sound, 
and on the west by Fairfield. Its 
average length is about 6 miles, 
and its average breadth 4 miles, 
comprising an area of about 24 
"square miles. 

The township is generally level, 
and free fr^m stone ; the more 
prevailing soil is a gravelly loam, 
interspersed with some sections oif 
sandy loada^ The flat, bordering 
upon the harbour and the river, 
appears to be an alluvial farma- 
tioi), presenting, on au examina- 



tion into its interior structure, 
alternate strata of sand and gra- 
vel, with some strata of clay. 
This is a strong and rich soil ; the 
more elevated lands in the interi- 
or are of a good soil, being warm, 
hesilthy and productive. They 
affi>rd wheat, rye, corn, oats, grass 
and flax, the latter of which is cul- 
tivated to great advantage, and is 
of an excellent -quality. There 
are also various other agricultural 
productions, of which cider, cider 
brandy, butter, cheese, beef, pork, 
lard and flax seed are the most 
considerable. 

The southern bordel' of the 
town is washed by Long Island 
sound, and the eastern by the Ou- 
satonick river. There are seve- 
ral valuable shad fisheries in the 
Ousatonick ; and alnK)st all kinds. 



STRATFORD. 



19a 



mm 



aaa 



of shell fish are taken in the har- 
bour, which consists of an arm of 
the sea, or of Long Island sound. 

The population of the town, in 
1810y was 2896; and there are 
3(K) Freemen or Electors, 4 Com- 
panies of Militia, and about 420 
Dwelling houses, including the 
borough of Bridgeport. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is ^54,197. 

The manufacturing and mecha- 
nical employments of the town, 
exclusive of the borough of Bridge- 
port, are 1 Tin- ware Factory, 1 
Tannery, 2 Carding Machines, 3 
Grain Mills, 3 Merchants' Mills, 
for flouring wheat, grinding Indian 
corn and plaster of Paris. 

The^ civil divisions of the town 
coftsist of 2 located Congrega- 
tional Societies, incorporated Bo- 
rough, and 10 School Districts ; 
there is al^o a Society of Episco- 
palians, and one of Methodists, all 
of which are respectively provi- 
ded with Houses for public wor- 
ship. There are 10 common or 
primary Schools^ one in each Dis- 
trict, and an Academy or Gram- 
mar School. 

Bridgeport, an incorporated 
borough, is situated in north lat. 
41® 18' and west Ion. 73° 12', on 
the west side of an arm of the sea, 
called Bridgeport harbour, distant 
southwest from New- Haven 17 
miles, and from Hartford 51, and 
northeast from New- York 62 
miles ; bounded south on Long 
Island sound ; it is about two miles 
in length from north to south, and 
half a mile in breadth from east 
to west. The harbour extends 
about three miles within land to 
the head of tide water, where it 
meets Pcquanock river, a consi- 



derable mill stream, on which are 
several mills within a dozen miles, 
and two with six run of stones on 
tide water. The average width 
of the harbour, at high water, (it 
being a tide harbour,) is eighty 
rods. At low water, most of it is 
bare, leaving only a channel about 
a dozen rods wide. Common tides 
rise seven feet ; spring tides nine. 
The depth of waiter on the bar at 
high water, in common tides, is 
thirteen feet ; within the bar the 
water is much deeper, and has a 
muddy bottom, so that, at low wa- 
ter, loaded vessels lie at ease on 
the flats, while those in the chan- 
nel, of almost every size, have suf- 
ficient depth of water, as ships 
of 200 tons can conveniently load 
at the wharves, and at high water 
proceed to sea. Vessels, wh#n 
once within the bar, are at all 
times safe from dangers of the 
sea ; and the entrance is also safe 
and easy, by means of a large bea- 
con, just within the chops, 40 feet 
in height,, on the west side of the 
channel, and the light-house on 
Fairweather's Island, both of which 
were procured to be erected by 
citizens of Bridgeport. 

There is a bridge across the har- 
bour, about a mile and a half from 
its mouth, 75 rods long, and 24 
feet broad, built on trestles, and 
accommodated with a draw, for 
vessels to proceed above* This 
bridge, though originally built by 
the State, now belongs to an in- 
corporated company, who are by 
law allowed to collect a toll upon 
it. 

The surface on which the town 
is principally built, is a plain or 
level, about 12 feet above high 
water mark. There is, however, 




t% 



STRATFORD. 



a rise, called golden hill, commen- 
cing about 100 rods northwest 
of the centre of the present build- 
ings, which, after a gradual ascent 
of about 20 rods, in which the 
peipendicular elevation is 50 feet, 
presents a surface of half a mile 
^uare, forming a delightful situa- 
tion for an upper town, from which 
the eye may at a single glance take 
a survey of Long Island and the 
sound for a distance of 30 or 40 
miles, ^ith the numerous vessels 
plying upon the latter ; and more 
nearly of a champaign country 
for several miles to the east and 
west of the town, foriiiiing altoge- 
tlier a landscape highly beautiful. 
The base of this hill appears to be 
silicious rock, much of which may 
be easily split into convenient buil- 
ding stones, while the soil upon it 
is of sufficient depth, and of the 
b^^t fnould, for trees and cultiva- 
tion. Several springs of the be^t 
water i^ue from the southeastern 
side of the hill, from foimtains 
evidently sufficient for the supply 
pf aa extensive town* 

The earth in the lower town 
hnS no where been opened deeper 
than for wells. The lowest stra- 
tun\ discovered is s^ fine alluvial 
sand ^ next incumbent, is a coarse 
gravel, then » fine gravel, in the 
moister parts milled with clay and 
some veins of iron ore, The sur- 
face is a. soil fompied principally of 
clay a,nd saind, and naturally the 
moM fertile, and s^fifprds excellpnt 
gardens. 

Of the various roads running in- 
to the country, one only is a, turn- 
pike, called Bndgeport and J^ev^- 
iovfn ItirnpiAe, beginning at Bridge- 
port and ending at New-Milford. 

Qn the ^^^^ side o( the harbour, 



about a mile-above its mouth, the 
tide waters break out, and take the 
course of a small stream called 
Old Mill creek, about two miles 
upon which stands a large flourii^ 
mill of eight run of stones ; the 
dam forming a bridge, acrdss which 
is the great stage road from New- 
Haven to New- York. The laiid 
between the two branches, called 
the Point, is a beautifiil level 
plain, at the lower end of which 
is a handsome village, called the 
Old Mill village, altliou^ not 
within the limits of the corpora* 
tion. 

There is a natural canal running 
from the Ousatonick river into 
Bridgeport harbour, which is at 
pres(^nt useful, and with a little 
expense might be of vast import-^ 
ance, as it would give an inland 
boat navigation from Bridgeport 
to Derby, Oysters and clams, 
both round and long, together with 
a variety of scale apd fin fish, are 
found, plentifully in the harbour 
and adjoining waters* 

The borough contains a popula- 
tion, by an actual census, of &67 
persons, and the point, 222 ; ma-^ 
king an aggregate population of 
1089. Within the bojough are 
92 dwelling houses, on the point, 
31, in the whole, 123; of which 
many are handsome two story buil- 
dings, generally painted white. 

There are in the borough, 2 
handsome houses for public wor- 
ship, each haying a good bell, one 
for Episcopalians and the other 
for Con^ega,tionalists« 

The principal, occupations of 
the inhabitants are manufactures, 
trade, commerce and navigatimi. 
There are 1 8 sail of vessels, ma- 
king 1414 tons, employed princi"i 



/ 



STRATFORD. 



197 



mm 



m 



pally in the coasting and West^In- 
dia trade. Large quantities of 
wtieat and rye flour, kiln dried 
Indian meal, rye, corn, oats, flax- 
seed, pork, beef, butter, lard, ci- 
der, cider braody, and a vast vari- 
ety of other articles, which con- 
stitute the exports of the place, 
afford them constant employment* 
Tiie principal manufacturers are 
h^itters, saddlers, saddle-tree ma- 
kers, -boot and shoe makers, gold 
and silver smitlis, watch makers, 
watch case makers, plate workers 
aod fan light makers, tinners, 
comb makers, carriage makers, 
cabinet makers, tallow chandlers 
and coopers. The prioducts of the 
labours of many of these furnish 
large items in the exports of the 
place. Of the manufactures here 
noti^^ed, which are exported for 
a market, hats, saddles, saddle- 
treeS) combs, boots, shoes and 
candles are the most important. 
This is the only place in Connec- 
ticut where the plate-working bu- 
siness is carried on ; and the plate 
which is made here is as handsome, 
and of as good a quality as any 
in America. There are also two 
tanneries, at which large quanti- 
ties of leather of all sorts are ma- 
nufactured; three printing oflSces, 
one an extensive establishment, 
exclusively for books; from the 
others are issued two weekly news- 
papers ;. two book-binderies, each 
of which carries on the business 
upon an extensive scale, and large 
quantitiea of books are t^ound an- 
nually ; one pottery, besides a va- 
riety of mechanics' shops upon an 
inferior scale. There are in the 
borough, 15 lai^e warehouses, 28 
mercantile stores, 1 bank, 1 prac- 



tising physician, I surgeon, 1 law- 
yer and 1 clei^yman. 

The most singular and striking 
characteristic of the inhabitants, 
is their carefulness in avoiding li- 
tigation ; and it is perhaps an un- 
precedented fact, that there has 
not been, in the space of 20 years, 
a single trial before the County 
or Superior Court, wherein the 
parties were both residents in this 
borough ; and but few in which 
either of them has lived here. 

The borough of Bridgeport is 
one of the most healthy places in 
the State, no epidemical or con*' 
tagious disease having ever pre- 
vailed here, and cases of fever 
very rarely. 

Though situated within three 
miles of Stratford and four of Fair<- 
field, both among the earliest set- 
tlements of the State, at the close 
of the revolutionary war, there 
w^ere not more than 10 or 12 
small houses upon the site where 
Bridgeport has since been built ; 
so that the place .has grown up. 
to its present size and consequence 
since that period. In 1 793, the 
bridge was built across the har- 
bour; in 1798, afire-engine waa 
provided by the inhabitants, and 
the village incorporated for ita 
management; in 1800, the bo"^ 
rough was incorporated; and in 
1806, the bank established, hav- 
ing received a charter from the 
legislature of the State^ In 1810„ 
the census was taken separately, 
for the first time, by which it ap- 
peared that the borough then con- 
tained 572 inhabitants. 

The growth of this place has 
been altogether natural, having 
never been forced, or received 



198 



BIOGRAPHY. 



any aid or patronage, other than 
what has arisen from its own lo- 
cal advantages and resources ; 
from which considerations, and 
from its present flourishing ap- 
pearances, it is helieved thatitwill 
not prove altogether an illusion, 
to calculate, that at some future 
period it will become a considera- 
ble town. 

In addition to the borough of 
Bridgeport, there are several vil- 
lages in this town ; the one called 
Old Mill village, which is the most 
considerable, has already been no- 
ticed. There is also the village 
of Putney, and the village of Oro- 
fioque. 

There arc in Stratford, exclu- 
sive of Bridgeport, 2 Physicians, 
2 Attornies, 2 Clergymen, and 1 
Social Library. 

Stratford is an ancient town, 
having been settled in 1639. 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen. David 
Wooster was a native of this town, 
and was born in 1711. He was 
educated at Yale College, and 
took his first degree in 1738. He 
commanded the Connecticut sloop 
of war, in the expedition against 
Louisburgin 1745, which convey- 
ed the Connecticut troops. This 
sloop, together with one from 
Rhode-Island, which accompanied 
it in this expedition, engaged the 
Renonnee, a French frigate of 36 
guns, which, although superior in 
force to both of her assailants, was 
compelled to sheer off, to avoid 
being captured. In the French 
war, he was appointed to the com- 
mand of one of the regiments, 
raised by this State for that ser- 
vice, sustained this command du- 
ring most of tlie war, and acquir- 
ed the reputation of a faithful. 



brave and good officer. From his 
military experience and character, 
and the reputation which he had 
acquired, he was appointed id 
1775, at the commencement of 
the revolutionary war, commander 
of the Connecticut troops, and 
was subsequently made a Briga- 
dier General in the continentai ar- 
my. This commission he soon 
resigned, and was afterwards 
appointed the first Maior Ge- 
neral of the militia in Connecti- 
cut. 

In 1777, a party of the British 
having landed at Compo, and 
iparched from thence to Danbu^ 
ry, for the purpose of destroying 
the military stores at that place, 
belonging to the public. General 
Wooster hastened to oppose them 
with such force as he could collect 
on the exigency of the occasion^ 
which consisted of about 300 men. 
With this inconsiderable force he 
fell upon the British, as they were 
retreating, having accomplished 
the object of incursion, and burn- 
ed a considerable part of the 
town. A smart skirniish ensued, 
in which Gen. Wooster, while gal- 
lantly fighting in the van of his 
little party, was mortally wound- 
ed. This event happened on the 
27th April, 1777, and he died on 
the 2d of May following, at Dan- 
bury. A monument was voted to 
be erected to his memory by Con- 
gress, which, however, has never 
been done. 

Gen. Wooster was a brave and 
good officer, an ardent patriot, 
possesed a respectable understan* 
ding, and, in his various public 
and private relations, stistained a 
character distinguished for integ- 
rity, benevolence aiid virtue. 



TRUMBULL. 



WESTON. 



199 



m 



TjJlUMBULL, an interior post 
township, is situated 4 and a half 
miles from Bridgeport, 20 from 
New-Haven, and 55 from Hart- 
fdrd ; bounded on the north and 
east by Huntington, on the south 
by Stratford, and on the west by 
Fairfield and Weston. Its average 
length is about 5i»iles, and its aver- 
age breadth 4 and a half miles, 
comprising about 22 square miles. 

The township is uneven, being 
diversified with hill and date ; and 
the prevailing character of the soil 
is a gravelly loam, and it is con- 
siderably fertile and productive. 
Rye, corn, oats and some wheat 
are cultivated ; and the lands are 
tolerably well adapted to the cul- 
ture of grass, and to grazing. 

The geological structure of the 
township is characterized by gran- 
itic features, and its natural growth 
is the same as is common to this 
region. 

The town is watered by Pequan- 
ock, a small stream which dischar- 



ges its waters into Bridgeport har- 
bour. The Bridgeport and New* 
Milford turnpike road leads thro' 
this town. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1241 ; and there are 
1 75 qualified Electors, 1 company 
of militia, and about 200 Dwelling 
houses. There are 4 Grain Mills, 
3 Fulling Mills and. ClothieiB' 
works, 3 Carding Machines, and 5 
Mercantile Stores. 

The town contains 1 located 
Congregational Society, and 1 So- 
ciety of Episcopalians, both of 
which are accommodated with hou- 
ses for public worship ; 6 School 
districts and Schools, and 1 small 
Social Library. There are 2 Phy- 
sicians, 1 Clergyman and 1 Attor- 
ney. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $25,100. 

Trumbull originally belonged to 
Stratford, and was incorporated as 
a town in 1801. 



WESTON. 



WESTON is situated about 8 
miles north from the sound. It is 
bounded south by the town of Fair- 
field, east by Trumbull and Hunt- 
ington, nortl) by Reading & New- 
town, & west by Wilton and Nor- 
walk. The extent of the township 
is nearly 9 miles from east to west, 
&i 6 miles from north to south, con- 
taining about 50 square miles, or 
32000acres. The surface is uneven 
& hilly, and thesoil a gravelly loam. 
The geological structure of the 
town, (which has probably never 
been examined,) exhibits many ap- 
pearances of iron ore ; its rock is 
a coarse granite, micaceous schis- 



tus, some silicious stones and 
felspar. The forests,, which are 
considerably extensive, comprise 
oak of the various kinds, hickory, 
maple, bass, white-wood, chesnut, 
butternut &c., containing much 
valuable timber. 

The lands, when cultivated, 
produce wheat, rye, oats, maize 
or Indian corn, buckwheat, flax, 
all kinds of culinary vegetables, 
esculent roots, and fruit from 
plants, vines, shrubs and trees, 
common to the climate. But rye, 
oats &nd corn are the staple agri- 
cultural productions. 

There are several small streams 



iV*^ 



200 



WILTON. 



ff-g 



mmmmmmttKH 



Baptists ; 3 Phjsiciaas and ^ At- 
torney. The town was first settled 
in 1738, and incorporated in 
1787. 

In 1808, a meteoric phenome- 
non occurred in this town. A so- 
lid mass, or meteoric stone, was 
precipitated to the earth, accom- 
panied with a ioud explosion. It 
appears to have heen broken in 
the explosion ; and was found in 
pieces or fragments. Soon after 
its descent, it was quite warm; 
and its fall was attended with the 
usual meteoric appearances, a bril- 
liant light, and loud noises. Its 
general appearance was that of 
iron ore, its exterior being cover- 
ed slightly with rust, and small 
portions of pure malleable iron 
were intermixed with the mass. 
This was a very large meteoric 
stone, it being supposed to have 
weighed SOOlbs. ; and in its fall 
it penetrated into the earth three 
feet. There have been few me- 
teoric masses which have fallen, 
of equal size with this, although 
some have exceeded it. Two 
meteoric stones fell in Verona, 
pne of which weighed 200, and 
the other 300 pounds. 



in the town, which afibrd many 
valuable sites for mills, and other 
hydraulic works; the most con- 
siderable of which, arc the Sau- 
gatuckandits branches, Mill river, 
and Creker's brook. Many of the 
privileges which these streams af- 
ford are advantageously occupied. 
Agriculture is the principal busi- 
ness of the inhabitants, who are 
steady and industrious. The turn- 
pike road from Fairfield to Dati- 
bury passes through this town. 

The population, according to 
the last census, is 26 1 8 ; and there 
are about 450 Electors, and 230 
militia. The general list of the 
town, in 1817, was $57,55\. 

There are 9 Grain Mills, 12 
Saw Mills, I Forge for the manu- 
facture of iron, 4 Distilleries, 4 
Tanneries, 3 Carding Machines, 3 
Fulling Mills, 14 Mercantile Stores 
and 380 Dwelling houses. 

There is an Academy, possess- 
ing a considerable fund, which 
renders it a free School ; the num- 
ber of district Schools we have 
not ascertained ; 3 Social Libra- 
ries, 2 Congregational Societies 
and Churches, 1 Episcopal Church, 
I for Mc^thodists, and 1 Society of 



WILTON. 



WILTON is a post township, 
gituated 6 miles north from Nor- 
walk, and 34 miles westerly from 
New-Haven. It is bounded on the 
north by Ridgefield, on the east by 
Reading and Weston, on the south 
byNorwalk, and on the west by 
New-Canaan and Salem, in the 
State of New- York. Its extent 
is about 6 and a half miles in length, 
and 4 miles in breadth, comprising 



about 1 7000 acres. The surface 
is broken, there being two ridges 
which run northerly and southerly, 
intersecting the town. The soil is 
a gravelly loam, considerably pro- 
ductive, and best adapted to a grain 
culture. Wheat, rye, com and oats 
are the principal agricultural pro- 
ductions. The lands are well 
adapted to fruit, and afibrd apples, 
pears, peaches, &c. The natural 



WILTON. 



201 



growth of timber is similar to other 
towns in the county, the forests 
consisting principally of deciduous 
trees. 

The town is watered by two 
small rivers, which unite near its 
centre, forming Norwalk river, 
a:nd numerous small streams. It is 
well provided with public roads, 
but is not accommodated with any 
turnpike, except that the Norwalk 
and Danbury turnpike runs a short 
distance in die noi;th section* of the 
town. 

There are but few mechanics 
in Wilton, and the pursuits of the 
inhabitants are almcMst exclusively 
confined to agriculture, being so- 
ber and industrious farmers. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, amounted to 1728; and there 



are about 250 Freemen or Elec- 
tors, 140 militia, and 270 Dwelling 
houses. There are 7 Mercantile 
Stores, 2 Grain Mills, 4 Saw Mills, 
4 Distilleries, 2 Tanneries, 1 Clo- 
thiers' Works and 1 Carding Ma- 
chine. The list of the town in 1817, 
was 1^38,281. 

There is 1 Congregational So- 
ciety and Cliurch, 1 also of Epis- 
copalians, and 1. of Baptists. 
There are 9 Schools, an Academy, 
somewhat flourishing, 4 Clergy- 
men and 2 Physicians » 

Wilton was incorporated as a 
Society, previous to 1726, the 
year in which their first Clergyman 
was settled, belonging at that time 
to the town of Norwalk. It was 
incorporated as a town in 1802. 



26 



WINDHAM 



COUNTY 



WINDHAM, a consFderable 
and flourishing agricultural and 
manufacturing county, is situated 
in the northea&tern section of the 
S^te ; bounded on the north bj 
the county of Worcester, in Mas- 
sachusetts, on the east by the 
State of Rhode-Island, on the 
south and southwest by the coun- 
ty of NewLondon, and on the 



west by the county of Tolland. 
The south and west lines o§ 
the county are irregular ; but its- 
general form is that of an ob- 
long square, having a mean length, 
from north to south, of about 
29 miles, and a mean breadth, 
from east to west, of more than 
31 miles, comprising an area 
of about 620 square miles. 



The following Topographical and Statistical Table exhibits a 
view of the several towns in the county; their situation, with re^ 
latvon to Windham, the seat of justice; population, according to 
the census of. 1810; dwelling-houses; religious societies ;^ school- 
districts, and post-offices. 



Towns. 


Post 


Popu- 


Dwelling 


Relidous 


School '. 


Distance from 


i 


offices. 


. lation. 


houses. 


societies. 


districts. 


Windham. 


Windham. 


1 


2416 


450 


4 


16 


. 


Ashford. 


1 


2553 


420 


6 


21 


15 m. N. 


Mhooklyn. • 


1 


1200 


160 


2 


8 


12 m. N. E. 


Canterbury. 


1 


1812 


260 


3 


14 


8 m. E. 


Columbia. 


1 


834 


130 


1 


6 


7m. W. 


Hampton, 




1274 


182 


3 


10 


8 m. N. E. 


Killingly: 


2 


2544 


350 


4 


21 


17m. N. E. 


Lebanon. 


1 


2580 


370 


4 


17 


6 m. S. W. 


Mansfield. 


1 


2570 


360 


5 


19 


7 m. N.W. 


Plainfield. 


I 


17^8 


300 


2 


13 


12m. E. 


P^mfret, 


1 


1 905 


300 


4 


9^ 


15m. N. E. 


Sterling. 


I 


1101 


179 


. 2 


16 m. E. 


Thompson. 


1 


2467 


450 


4 


14 


24 m. N. E. 


Voluutowni 




1016 


160 


3 


8 


20m4 S. E. 


Woodstock. 


1 


2658 


400 


5 


^ 


20 m: N. E. 








^ See Appendix. 


■ 





^ 



WINDHAM COUNTY. 



203 



* The county of Windham is in 
general a rich and productive ag- 
ricultural district. Its surface is 
characteristically a succession of 
moderate elevations, with gentle 
declivities ; and its general incli- 
nation is to the south and east, 
and most of its waters run in those 
directions. 

With the exception of some part 
of the borders of Long Island 
sound, and the beautiful vale of 
Connecticut river, this county has 
as mlM and as uniform a climate 
as any section of the State. Ah 
though tys tract is uniformly hil- 
ly, yet no part of it is mountain- 
ous, or very elevated. The pre- 
vailing soil is a primitive, gravelly 
loam, being a suitable mixture of 
gravel and siliceous earths. In 
the greatest portion of the coun- 
ty, the surface is stony, and con- 
siderably rough ; so much so, in 
many sections, as to render it un- 
suitable for arable purposes. The 
landd in general are best adapted 
to grazing ; and many sections af- 
ford some of the richest and most 
productive dairy farms in the 
State. The natural character and 
adaptation of the soil must always, 
in a greater or less degree, control 
its agricultural interests ; and 
hence, in tlli^ county, the dairy 
business coinprises the principal 
objects of husbandry, and affords 
its most important staples. Lai^e 
quantities of cheese, butter and 
pork are annually sent abroad ; 
being marketed ^ Norwich, Pro- 
' videftce, Boston, New- York and 
the southern States. 

Upon the borders of the Quini- 
baug and Shetucket, and their 
branches, there are considerable 
tracts of alluvial, which, with 



some other sections, are well 
adapted to a grain culture, and 
afibrd considerable quantities of 
oats, Indian corn and rye; par- 
ticularly of the two first. In the 
eastern part of the county, there 
are some sections that are light 
and lean. The raising of hea:t 
cattle and sheep also receives con- 
siderable attention in this coun- 
ty ; and in general the agricultural 
interests are as flourishing in this 
as in any part of the State ; its 
inhabitants being remarirable for 
l^eir hardy and persevering habits 
of industry, the salutary results 
of w&ich, in the cultivation of the 
earth, the flourishing state of ag- 
riculture, the numerous manufac- 
turing establishments, and the ge- 
neral condition and appearance 
of social improvements and of 
wealth, are every whereto be seen* 

The waters of the county are 
mostly embodied in the two prin« 
cipal rivers by which it is inter- 
sected, the Quinibaug and She- 
tucket. The first of these rivers 
waters the eastern section ef the 
county, and affords some valuable 
tracts of alluvial. Thi* river re- 
ceives, iir its course, the French, 
the Moosup, Little river, and'4|^ 
ripus other small streams ; whkjh 
abound with numerous site» ifor 
hydraulic works. The Shetucket 
washes the western section of the 
county ; ila^, principal ti^ntaey 
streams are the Willimanti* and 
Hop rivers, the former of which 
forms a part of its jvestern boun< 
dary, and the Nachaug, which has 
numerous branches, and abounds 
witli many valuable water privi- 
leges. 

Shad and salmon are taken in 
the Quinibaug, the Shetucket, and 



WINDHAM 



COUNTY 



WINDHAM, a considerable 
and flourishing agricultural and 
manufacturing county, is situated 
in the northeastern section of the 
State ; bounded on the north by 
the county of Worcester, in Mas- 
sachusetts, on the east by the 
State of Rhode-Island, on the 
south and southwest by the coun- 
ty of NewLondon, and on the 



west by the county of Tolland. 
The south and west lines of 
the county are irregular ; but its- 
general form is that of an ob- 
long square, having a mean length, 
from north to south, of about 
29 miles, and a mean breadth, 
from east to west, of more than 
31 miles, comprising an area 
of about 620 square miles* 



The following Topographical and Statistical Table exhibits a 
view of the several towns in the county; their situation, with re* 
lat^on to Windham, the seat of justice ; population, according to 
the census of 1810; dwelling-houses; religious societies ; school- 
districts, and post-offices. 



Towns. 


Post 


Popu- 


Dwelling Religious 


School \ 


Distance from 


i 


offices. 


> lation. 


houses. 


societies. 


districts. 


Windham. 


Windham. 


1 


2416 


450 


4 


16 




Ashford. 


1 


2553 


420 


6 


21 


15 m. N. 


A'ooklyn. • 


1 


1200 


160 


2 


8 


12 m. N. E. 


Canterbury. 


1 


1812 


260 


3 


14 


8 m. E. 


Columbia. 


1 


834 


130 


1 


6 


7m. W. 


Hampton. 




1274 


182 


3 


10 


8 m. N. E. 


Killingly. 


2 


2544 


350 


4 


21 


17m. N. E. 


Lebanon. 


1 


2580 


370 


4 


17 


6 m. S. W. 


Mansfield. 


1 


2570 


360 


5 


19 


7 m. N. W. 


Plainfield. 


I 


17^8 


300 


2 


13 


12m. E. 


Pom fret. 


1 


1905 


300 


4 


9^ 


15m. N. E. 


Sterling. 


1 


1101 


179 


2 


16 m. E. 


Thompson. 


1 


2467 


450 


4 


14 


24 m. N. E. 


Voluntown; 




1016 


160 


3 


8 


20m4S. E. 


Woodstock. 


1 


2658 


400 


5 


* 


20 mt N. E. 








* See Appmdix* 







- I uv ■ • 1 



WINDHAM COUNTY. 



203 



• The county of Windham is in 
general a rich and productive ag- 
ricultural district. Its surface is 
characteristically a succession of 
moderate elevations, with gentle 
declivities ; and its general incli- 
nation is to the south and east, 
• and most of its waters run in those 
directions. 

With the exception of some part 
of the borders of Long Island 
sound, and the beautiful vale of 
Connecticut river, this county has 
as miM and as uniform a climate 
as any section of the State. Ah 
though this tract is uniformly hil- 
ly, yet no part of it is mountain- 
ous, or very elevated. The pre- 
vailing soil is a primitive, gravelly 
loam, being a suitable mixture of 
gravel and siliceous earths. In 
the greatest portion of the coun- 
ty, the surface is stony, and con- 
siderably rough ; so much so, in 
nmny sections, as to render it un- 
isuitable for arable purposes. The 
lands in general are best adapted 
to grazing ; and many sections af- 
ford some of the richest and most 
productive dairy farms in the 
State. The natural character and 
adaptation of the soil must always, 
in a greater or less degree, control 
its agricultural interests ; and 
hence, in tlli3 county, the dairy 
business comprises the principal 
objects of husbandry, and afibrds 
its most important staples. Lai^e 
quantities of cheese, butter and 
pork are annually sent abroad ; 
being marketed ^Norwich, Pro- 
' videftce, Boston, New- York and 
the southern States. 

Upon the borders of the Quini- 
baug and Shetucket, and their 
branches, there are considerable 
tracts of alluvial, which, with 



some other sections, are well 
adapted to a grain culture, and 
afford considerable quantities of 
oats, Indiaif corn and rye; par- 
ticularly of the two first. In the 
eastern part of the county, there 
are some sections that are light 
and lean. The raising of neat 
cattle and sheep also receives con- 
siderable attention in this coun- 
ty ; and in general the agricultural 
interests are as flourishing in this 
as in any part of the State ; its 
inhabitants being remarirable for 
iheir hardy and persevering habits 
of industiy, the salutary results 
of wfiich, in the cultivation of the 
earth, the flourishing state of ag- 
riculture, the numerous manufac- 
turing establishments^ and the ge* 
nerai condition and appearance 
of social improvements and of 
wealth, are every whereto be seen* 

The waters of the county are 
mostly embodied in the two prin- 
cipal rivers by whieh it is inter- 
sected, the Quinibaug and She- 
tucket. The first of these rivers 
waters the eastern section ef the 
county, and affords some valuable 
tracts of alluvial. Thi& river re- 
ceives, iir its course, the French, 
the Moosup, Little river, and'4||P 
ripus other small streams ; which 
abound with numerous site» ^or 
hydraulic works. The Shetucket 
washes the western section of the 
county; ila^. principal tr^tfutaEy 
streams are me Willimanti* and 
Hop rivers, the former of which 
forms a part of its .western boun- 
dary, and the Nachaug, which has 
numerous branches, and abounds 
with many valuable water privi- 
leges. 

Shad and salmon are taken in 
ihe Quinibaug, the Shetucket, an4 



S04 



WINDHAM. 



their branches; and the latter, 
which have long siDce left the 
Connecticut^ ascend the Quiiii- 
baug as high as Freach river, in 
Thompson* ( 

Within the last ten years, a ma- 
nufacturing spirit has disclosed it- 
self in this county, which, by open- 
ing new fields for enterprise, new 
channels for capital, and develop- 
ing new sources of industry, pro- 
mises the most important and ex- 
tensive results. This spirit has 
been principally directed to the 
cotton manufacture, which is pur- 
sued more extensively here than 
in any other county in this State. 
There are 22 Cotton Factories in 
this county, many of which are 
upon a respectable, and some up- 
on an extensive scale. Most of 
Uiese factories were established 
during the late war ; and at that 
time they were very flourishing 
and prosperous; but from the 
vast and alarming influx of goods, 
which followed the peace, in com- 
mon with other establishments 
throughout the country, they ex- 
perienced great depression, and 
exhibited serious appearances of 
declension, many having stopped 
9pir operations; but for some 
tin\e past the business h^s been 
reviving, and it - is gratifying to 
reflect, that they have survived the 
crisis, and that it is no longer a 
probl^, whether our cotton fac- 
tories will he able to maintain 



themselves and pursue the bu- 
siness ; — ^it is reduced to a certain- 
ty that they will. The most scep- 
tical and the most prejudiced must 
yield to the force of £aLCts, and 
the demonstrations of experience. 
Some attention has been paid to 
the woolen manufacture. There 
are 10 small establishments in the 
county; and the domestic or 
household manufactures of wool 
are extensive, and are fecilitated 
by establishments for carding 
wool and dressing cloth for cus- 
tomers, of which there are of 
the former, 37, and of the latter, 23* 

There are in the county 85 
Grain Mills, 2 Oil Mills, and 2 Pa. 
per Mills* Besides these, there 
are several other manufactures in 
some sections of the county ; raw 
and sewing silk, honi combs, ^ and 
various manufactures of iron, such 
as steel-yards, screw augers, &c« 
receive considerable attention. 

The county of Windham contain^ 
52 Religious Societies, 31 School 
Societies, which are divided into a 
suitable number of School Dis-> 
tricts, of which there are 187, ex-> 
elusive of Woodstock ; 23 Social 
Libraries, &91 Mercantile Stores. 

The population of the county, 
in 1810, was 21,61 1 ; and its ag« 
gregate list, in 1817, $678,629. 

Windham county originally be- 
longed to the counties of Hartford 
and New-London, and was incor- 
porated as a county in May 1726. 



WINDHAM, 



WINDHAM, the seat of justice 
for the county, and a considera- 
ble post township, is situated 14 
miles north of Norwich port, 30 



east of Hartford, and 44 west of 
Providence; boupded on the north 
by Hampton and Mansfield, on the 
west by Columbia and Lebanon, 



z 



WINDHAM- 



205 



on the south by Franklia and Lis- 
bon, in New*London county, and 
on the east by Canterbury. The 
township comprises an area of 
about 46 square miles ; having a 
mean length from east to west of 
about 8 miles, with a medium 
breadth of nearly 6 miles: 

This is a pleasant ^nd fertile in- 
terior township ; the surface is ge- 
nerally hilly, particularly the eas- 
tern section ; but it is not moun- 
tainous or broken. Its geological 
character is primitive, the internal 
strata consisting principally of gra- 
nite and schistus. 

Aboutthree miles northwest from 
the Court-House, there is an in- 
exhaustible quarry of stone, which 
are very excellent and valuable 
for building, and a great conven- 
iience to the t&wn. 

The prevailing soil is a dark co- 
loured gravelly loam ; some sec- 
tions in th^ first society or western 
{)art of the town are a sandy 
oam. 

The forests are not extensive, 
but sufficient for the purposes of 
fuel, and to supply the demands 
for timber, which the interests of 
the town require. They consist 
principally of hickory, oak of the 
various kinds, and chesnut. 

The agricultural productions 
comprise all which are common 
to this region ; beef, pork, butter, 
cheese, Indian corn, rye, oats and 
buckwheat are the principal. Of 
most or all of these productions, 
there is annually^ a considerable 
surplus, which is* sent abroad for 
a market. 

The waters of the town are 
abundant and pujre. The princi- 
pal streams are the Willimatntic 
and Nachaug ; the former enter- 



ing this town from the northwest, 
and the latter from the north* 
They unite about two and a half 
miles northwest from the Court- 
House, in this town, and form the 
Shetucket, a cbnsiderable and 
pleasant river. These and othev 
small streams afibrd numerous 
sites for hydraulic works. They 
are' also supplied with fish, consi- 
derable quantities of shad and 
some salmon being annually ta- 
ken in the Shetucket, Willimantic 
and Nachaug rivers. Across the 
Shetucket, within this town, there 
are three expensive bridges ; one 
considerable bridge upon the Wil- 
limantic, and two upon the Na-^ 
chaug, all of which are maintain-> 
ed at the expense of the town. 

It is accommodated with seve^ 
ral turnpike roads ; two of which 
intersect each other at right 
angles in its centre, one leading 
from the State of Massachusetts 
to Norwich and New-London, the 
other leading from Hartford to 
Providience ; there is also a turn- 
pike leading from this ' place to 
Middle town. 

The manufacturing and mecha- 
nical establishments of the town 
consist o!f 2 Paper Mills, 3 Fulling 
Mills and Clothiers^ works, 2 Car- 
ding Machines, 8 Grain Aiills and 
10 Saw Mills. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2416; and there are 
aboiut 400 Electors, 3 Companies 
of militia, two of Infantry and one 
of Artillery, and 450 Dwelling 
houses^ 

This town contains two Parish- 
es or located Ecclesiai^tical Socie- 
ties, one called the First Society, 
the other Scotland Society ; be- 
sides these there are two Societies 



i 



306 



BIOGRAPHY. 



of JBaptists, all of which are ac- 
commodated with houses for reli- 
gious worship. 

In the first located Society there 
is an ancient and pleasant village. 
It has an interesting site, and is 
surrounded \tith a delightful rural 
scenery. It contains between 60 
and 70 Dwelling houses, the Court 
House and Gaol of the county, 1 
Church, a Post office, several 
professional offices, 1 small News- 
paper and Printing establishment, 
a number of Mercantile Stores, 
Mechanics' shops, &c. TTie mer- 
cantile business of the town is 
considerable, there being 15 Dry 
goods and Grocery Stores, 1 3 in 
the first Society and 2 in the So- 
ciety of Scotland. 

The town contains 16 School 
Districts and common Schools, 
which are n^aintained a suitable 
portion of the year. There are 
8 practising Attornies, 3 Physicians 
and 2 Clergymen. 

The first settlement of this town 
was commenced about the year 
1686. The Indian title to the 
tract of land comprising this town- 
ship was acquired by John Mason 
and thirteen other persons, by de- 
vise from a Mohegan sachem, 
the son of Uncas. In 1676, it 
was surveyed and laid out in lots ; 
but thb settlement Was not at- 
tempted until about ten years af- 
ter. It was incorporated in May 
1692, by the name of Wind- 
ham. 

BIOGRAPHY. Col. Mlhan 
Whiting, distinguished for his mi- 
litary services during the French 
war, was a native of this town. 
He was educated at Yale College, 
and took his first degree in 1743. 
At an early period of the French| 



war, in 1755, he commanded a re- 
giment, under Sir William John- 
son. He belonged to the detach- 
ment commanded Jby Col. Will- 
iams, which was ordered out to 
meet Baron Dieskau ; and being 
the second officer in rank, after 
the fall of Col. Williams, the com- 
mand of the detachment devolved 
upon him ; and he conducted its 
retreat with great judgment, skill 
and intrepidity, whereby he preser- 
ved his men, under circumstances 
of extreme peril. In this affair 
he acquired distinguished honour. 
Col. Whiting was regarded as a 
brave, skilful and good officer, not 
only byliis own countrymen, but 
by the British, who, during the 
war, had an opportunity of wit- 
nessing his conduct. 

Col. Eliphalet J9ycr, L. L. D.. 
distinguished for his civil and mi- 
litary employments, was a native 
of this town. Col. Dyer wais bom 
28th September, 1721, and was 
a descendant of Thomas Dyer, 
who emigrated from England. 
He was educated at Yale Col- 
lege, where he received his first 
degree in 1 740. Soon after this, 
he entered upon the study of law, 
which he pursued as a profession. 
In 1 743, when he was but 22 years 
of age, he was appointed a Justice 
of the peace ; and in 1745 he was 
chosen a representative of the town 
in the General Court, and continu- 
ed to be elected to this office, a 
few sessions excepted, until the 
year 1762. At the commence- 
ment of the French war, in 1755, 
he was appointed to the command 
of one of the regiments raised by 
the colony of Connecticut for that 
service. He continued in the ser- 
vice, having the command of a 



ASHFORD. 



207 



.SSBB 



mmm 



regiment, during most of the war? 
and acquired considerable reputa- 
tion as a faithful and brave officer. 
In 1 762, he was elected a member 
of the Council^ and continued in 
this situation for several years. In 
1763, he went to England, having 
been constituted the Agent of the 
Susquebannah Company, to pro- 
secute their claims in Great-Bri- 
tain. At this period a spirit of 
jealousy and hostility to the rising 
prosperity ahd the rights of the co- 
lonies, began to disclose them- 
selves in the parent country ; of 
which, and of the ultimate policy 
and designs of that country ,Col.Dy- 
er discovered clear indications, and 
communicated his views and ap- 
prehensions on his return. lie 
was appointed a Delegate from 
this State to the Continental Con- 



gress, holden at Philadelphia, in 
1766. He was also appointed a 
Delegate po the Congress of 1774, 
which preceded the c6mmence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war ; 
and during the interesting period 
of this momentous contest, he was, 
a considerable portion of the time^ 
a member of that dignified and 
important body. He was appoint- 
ed a Judge of the Superior Court 
of this State, and subsequently 
Chief Justice, which office he held 
until the year 1 793, which closed 
a very protracted public life. He 
died in 1807, aged 86 years, 
having lived during a very inter- 
esting period of our history, and 
taken a part in many of the im- 
portant events by which it is cha- 
racterized* 



ASHFORD. 



ASHFORD, a post town, is situ- 
ated 31 miles east from Hartford. 
It is bounded west on Willington, 
north on Union ^nd Woodstock, 
east on Pomfret, and south on 
Hampton and Mansfield. The area 
of the town comprises about 59 
square miles, being about 9 miles in 
length, & nearly 7 in breadth. The 
surfaceof the land is hilly and stony, 
the soil being hard and gravelly, yet 
considerably fertile, and well 
adapted to grazing. The dairy 
business and growing of cattle, 
are the leading agricultural inter- 
ests of the inhabitants, although 
rye, corn, oats, flax &c. are culti- 
vated. 

The streams in Ashford, 
scarcely deserve the character 
of rivers, the most considera- 



ble are the Bigelow, Mount Hope 
and Still rivers. Crystal pond is 
situated in the northern part of this 
town, being about half in Ashford 
and half . in Pomfret ; it is one 
mile in length, and half a mile in 
breadth. 

There are a number of roads 
either passing through or centring 
in this town ; the middle turnpike 
from Hartford to Boston passes 
through it ; the Providence turn- 
pike leaves the Boston road one 
mile east of the central meeting 
house; the Tolland county turn- 
pike intersects the Boston road 
two miles west of the aforesaid 
meeting house ; and there is a turn- 
pike road that runs through the 
north section of this town from 
Stafford to Woodstock. 



208 



BROOKLYN. 



There is a small but pleasant 
village in the centre of the town, 
and another in the east Society. 
The inhabitants, who, like those 
of the other towns in the county, 
are principally agriculturalists, 
are hardy, persevering, industri- 
ous and economical. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2538 ; there are, at this 
tfane, more than 400 Freemen or 
qualified Electors, about 420 Dwel- 
ling houses, 7 Churches, 3 forCon- 
gregationalists, 3 for Baptists and 
1 for Methodists; 8 Mercantile 
Stores, 1 Cotton Factory, 1 Wool- 
en Factory, 6 Grain Mills, 9 Saw 
Mills, 4 Carding Machines and 5 
Tanneries. There are 3 local So- 
cieties and 21 School districts in 
Ashford, and 3 small Social Libra- 
ries ; 2 practising Attornies, 3 Phy- 
sicians and 4 Clergymen. 



The list of polls and rateable es- 
tate of the town, in 1817, was ^73*- 
000. 

Ashford was first settled in 
1700, and was incorporated in 
1710. 

BIOGRAPHY. The brave Col. 
Thomas Knozolton, who fell in the 
battle near Hasrlem heights, in 
September 1776, was a native of 
this town. He was an intrepid sol- 
dier, an ardent whig, a true patriot 
and a worthy citizen. He was 
among the first who rallied round 
the standard of Independence, giv- 
ing the country that warlike atti* 
tude, necessary to sustain it ; and 
at an early period, sacrificed his 
life for the cause of liberty and his 
country, in which he had engaged 
with patriotic ardour and chival- 
rous heroism. 



BROOKLYN. 



BROOKLYN, a post town, is 
situated 45 miles east from Hart- 
ford, 80 miles northeast from New- 
Haven, and 30 miles west from 
Providence. It is bounded south 
on Canterbury, west on Hampton, 
north on Popfret, and east on 
Quinibaug river, which divides it 
from KiHingly and Plainfield. 

The area of the town is nearly 
6 miles in length from north to 
south, and 5^ in breadth from east 
to west, containing about 29 square 
miles. It is uneven, consisting 
of hill and dale, and somewhat 
stony ; but is very fertile, and ad- 
mirably adapted to grazing. 

The dairy business, which is the 
leading agricultural interest, is 
carried on in a successful manner, I 



and very extensively. " I can as« 
sert, with confidence," says our 
correspondent, ^^ that there is no 
tDwn in the State, of the same 
magnitude, which makes annually 
an equal quantity of cheese and 
pork." A good dairy farm, pro- 
perly stocked and attended to, af- 
fords great profits, and possesses, 
in many respects, important ad- 
vantages over a grain farm. * The 
lands are less exposed to become 
exhausted, and to require .to be 
restored by manures, or an ameli- 
orating system of cultivation* 

The streams in the town are 
inconsiderable ; the largest is 
BlackwelPs brook, so called, 
which is not more than ten 
yard9( biroad iu common water* 



CANTERBURY. 



309 



QuiDibaug, which runs on the east 
liae of the town, is a considera- 
ble stream, over which is a bridge 
leading to Killingly, and ope also 
Qn the road toPIainfieid. There 
is a sipall shad fishery on the Qui- 
nibaug river. The turnpike road 
from Norwich to Woodstock runs 
tbrou^ the town from 9outb to 
north. 

In the centre of the town there 
is a small yillage consisting of 
about 20 Jewelling houses, a Con- 
gregational Church, and 2 Mer- 
cantile Stores and other buildings. 

There were, at the census of 
1810, 1200 inhabitants; there are 
IdO Freemen and 100 Militia, io 
the town, 160 Dwelling houses, 2 
Bry goods and 1 Grocery Store, 



t^Bssssam 



3 Grain Mills, 3 Saw Mills, 2 Tan- 
neries a^d 1 Carding Machine. 

The town forms but o^e located 
Congregational Society ; wi con- 
tains, besides, a Society of Epis- 
copalians, and some Baptists. It 
contains 8 School Districts, in 
each of which a school is. main- 
tained for several months in the 
year, aud 1 small Social Libiary. 
There are 2 Clei^men, 1 Attw 
n!ey and 1 Physician. 

The general list of polls and 
taxable estate in 1 8 1 7 was $32^7 BZ. 

Brooklyn was formerly a Society, 
composed of the town? of Pom- 
jfret and Canterbmy ; and was in- 
corporated as a town in May 1786> 
by an act of ithe Geojeral Assem- 



CANTERBURY. 



CANTERBURY is a post town- 
ship, 40 miles east from Hartford ; 
bounded on the north by Brooklyn, 
onjihe east by Plainfiield, on the 
south by Lisbon and Griswold, 
and on the west by Windham, 
having an average length of 8 
miles, and an average breadth of 
4 and a half miles, containing 
an area of about 36 square miles. 
Its surface is uneven, though 
it can scarcely be called hilly, 
and some sections are level. The 
soil is a gravelly loam, and gene- 
rally fertile and productive. 

The natural growth of the fo- 
rests is' oak of the various kinds, 
chesnut and other deciduous trees. 
The lands, when cultivated, pro- 
duce rye, corn, oats, wheat, buck- 
wheat and flax in great abundance. 

The town is watered by the Qui- 
nibaug river^ which here is a lai^e 

27 



and beautiful stream. It annually 
overflows its banks, and fertilizes 
the £ne tracts of aUuvial upon its 
borders. These natural meadow* 
are very fertile, and afford the lar* 
gest crops, and at the same time 
are cultivated with the greatest 
facility. 

There are two large bridges 
across this river,one called Bacon's 
bridge, and the other Butler's 
bridge. There are several shad 
fisheries upon this stream ; the bu- 
siness is carried on in the proper 
season successfully, and to consi- 
derable extent. It is a conve- 
nience to the town, and a source 
of profit to the proprietors. Lit- 
tle river also, an admirable mill 
stream, runs throu^ the town, 
and affi>rds a number of sites and 
privUeges for water-works, which 
are unrivalled by any in the conn- 



210 



COLUMBIA. 



tj^ In the south part of the town 
is a pond, called Bates^ pond. 
It is famous on account of its wa- 
ters being stored with pike, or pic- 
kerel, which aie taken very plen- 
tifully with the book. 

The town is accommodated 
with the* Norwich and Woodstock, 
and the Hartford and Platnfield 
turnpike roada ; the former leads 
through the town from north to 
south; the latter from east to 
west; whereby they intersect each 
other in the village in the firat 
society. 

There are 2 located Congrega- 
tional Societies, in each of which 
there is a small and pleasant village, 
consisting of a number of Dwel- 
ling houses, Stores, and a Church, 
or house of public worship. Al- 
though in this, ds well as in the 
other towns in the county, agricul- 
ture is the leading pursuit of the 
inhabitants, yet some attention 
has been paid to manufactures. 
Exclusive of tlK)se of a domestic 
character, the manufactures and 
mechanical employments of the 
town consist of 1 Woolen Facto- 
ry, 2 Cotton Factories, 1 Carding 
Machine, 2 Fulling Mills andClo^ 



thiers' Works, 1 Pottery, 7 Grain 
Mills, 9 Saw Mills and 2 Tanne- 
ries. There are 7 Mercantile 
Stores. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1812; and there are 
260 Dwelling houses, 280 Elec- 
tors, and 1 30 Militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is ^44,259. 

There are 14 School Districts 
and Schools^ and 1 Social Libra- 
ry, recently purchased at an ex- 
pense of 800 dollars, 2 Clergymen^ 
and 3 Attomies. 

The first settlers of this town 
consisted of several families from 
Massachusetts, and several from 
Hartford in this State. The set- 
tlement was commenced on the 
Quinibaug river, in 1690; the town 
was incorporated in 1 706 ; when 
the inhabitants were for the first 
time led to the choice of a repre- 
sentative to the General Assem- 
bly. The year after, the Rev. 
Samuel Estabrooke was settled in 
the ministry, being the fir&t cler- 
gyman in the town. He continu- 
ed in this situation until his death, 
in 1727. 



COLUMBIA. 



X'OLUMBIA, a post town, is 
situated 22 miles east from Hart- 
ford. It is bounded on the north by 
Hop river, which separates it from 
Coventry, on the east by Wind- 
ham and Lebanon, south by Le- 
banon, and w^st by Hebron. It 
has an average length of about 5 
miles, and is 4 miles in breadth ; 
comprising 20 square miles, or 
iiear 1 3,000 acres* 



The township is uneven and hil- 
ly ; and the soil is a coarse gra- 
velly loam, being hard and dry, 
yet well adapted to grazing, and 
considerably productive. The rai- 
sing of cattle, and the making of 
cheese, are the leading agricultur- 
al pursuits^ Kye^ corn, oats and 
flax are cultivated. 

The hills are stony, consisting 
of granite, schistus and other 




HAMPTON. 



211 



tmmm 



primitive formations. The fo- 
rests consist of oak, chesnut and 
other deciduous trees. 

The northern border of this 
town is watered by Hop river, a 
lively Mill stream, which unites 
with the Willimantic. It would 
hardly be supposed, from the ap- 
pearance of^this stream, that it 
was the resort of salmon ; yet such 
is the fact. At a small fishery at 
the mouth of this river, on its 
junction with the Willimantic, 
some salmon are caught annually 
in the sprins of the year. 

This town is accommodated with 
the Norwich and I^artford turn- 
pike, and also with one from Mid- 
dletown to Windham. 



The town constitutes but one 
located Society. 

Its population, in 1810, was 
834 ; and it now contains 122 
Dwelling houses, and 1 company 
of Militia. It contains 3 Distille- 
ries, 2 Tanneries, 4 Grain Mills, 1 
Fulling Mill, 1 Carding Machine;, 
6 Saw Mills, 2 Mercantile Stores, 
6 District Schools, 1 Congregation* 
al Church, 1 Clergyman, 2 Attor- 
nies and 1 Physician. 

The amount of taxable polls 
and estate of the town is ^22,* 
228. 

Columbia was formerly a part of 
the town of Lebanon, and was in- 
corporated in 1 800. 



HAMPTON. 



HAMPTON is a post township, 
situated near the centre of the 
county, 8 miles northeast from 
Windham, and 37 east from Hart- 
ford; bounded on the north by 
Ashford and Pomfret, on the east 
by Pomfret, Brooklyn and Canter- 
bury, on the south and southwest 
by Windham, and on the west by 
Mansfield. Its average length is 6 
miles, and its average breadth 
more than 4 miles, comprising 
about 25 square miles. 

The surface is uneven, being 
considerably hilly. The soil is a 
gravelly loam, the geological cha- 
racter of the township being gra- 
nitic. It is considerably strong 
and fertile, and is well adapted to 
grazing. 

The natural growth of timber 
consists of oak, walnut, chesnut 
and other deciduous trees. 



Of the agricultural interests of 
the town, those depending upon 
the dairy business are the most 
important; butter, cheese, beef 
and pork are sent abroad for a 
market. The farmers in this town 
alsp have paid considerable atten- 
tion to the faisinfg of sheep, and 
considerable quantities of wool 
are annually produced, most or 
all of which is manufactured in a 
domestic way. 

The domestic manufactures of 
the town are very in^portant, and 
supply almost exclusively the sub- 
stantial fabrics of clothing for the 
inliabitants. The domestic manu- 
factures are not confined to wool- 
en cloths, but lai^e quantities of 
tow cloth are annually made, from 
flax raised in the town. 

The township is well watered 
by the Nachaug, a considerable 



, 212 



KILLINGLY- 



branch of the Shetucket, and a 
stream called Little river, which 
ruDs throu^. its centre* These 
streams afford some water privi- 
leges for mills or manafacturing 
establishments, of which there are 
5 Grain Miil^, 3 Fulling Mills and 
Clothiers' works and 2 Carding 
Machines. There are likewise 
in the town, 3 Tanneries, 3 Mer- 
cantile Stores and 1 Tavern. 
The town comprises 1 located 
Congregational Society, 2 Socie- 
ties of Baptists, and 10 School 
Districts. There is a small village 
near the centre of the town, con- 
sisting of about 30 Dwelling hou- 
ses, a Congregational Church, &c. 



There are 10 primarjv or common 
Schools, one in each District, and 
1 Social Library. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was ^1274; and there art 
about 220 Electors, 2 Companies 
of Militia, and 180 Dwelling hou- 
ses. 

The ambunt of taxable proper- 
ty, as rated in making up lists^ in- 
cluding polls, is ^37,740. 

The professional mien are 2 
Clergymen, one Congregatioiialist 
and one Baptist, 3 Physicians and 
1 Attorney* 

Hampton belonged originally to 
Windham and Pomfret, and waH 
incorporated in October, 1786/ 



KILLINGLY. 



KILLINGLY, a flourishing ag- 
ricultural and manufacturing post 
township, is situated in the eastern 
section of the State, 45 miles east 
of Hartford, and 55 west of Pro- 
vidence ; bounded on the north by 
Thompson, on the east by Rhode- 
Island, on the south by Steriing 
and Plainfield, and on the west by 
the Quinibaug river, which sepa- 
rates it from Brooklyn and Pom- 
fret. 

The township comprises an area 
of about 55 square miles, having 
a mean length from north to south 
of more than 9 miles, and a mean 
breadth from east to west of about 
6 miles. 

The face of the country is un- 
even, consisting^ of moderate ele- 
vations and gehile decHvities ; but 
no portion of it is mountainous. 
Upon the rivers there are conside- 
rable tracts of alluvial. There are 
three quarries of freestone, which 



are very valuable for building and 
other purposes. Some indicatiibns 
of lead ore have recently beea 
discovered. 

In the south part of the town- 
ship there is a hill of considera- 
ble elevation^ called half mile 
hill, one side of which has every 
appearance of having been occa- 
sioned by a disruption, from some 
concussion of nature* 

A very extraordinary discovery 
was made in this town, a living 
frog having been dug out of the 
earth, 23 feet beneath the surface. 
It was enclosed or embodied in a 
stratum of clay ; and, on being dis- 
engaged, left a distinct figure of 
the frog, resenibling a mould. The 
frog, when discovered, was in a 
torpid state ; but on coming to the 
air, it became animated, and ac- 
quired strength and power, and 
soon added one to the race of li*- 
ving animals. 







KILLINGLY. 



313 



This town has extensive forests, 
which, are considered of recent 
growth ; the trees are of the de- 
ciduous speci^Sr The agricultural 
production^ are pork, beef, batter, 
cheese, Indian corn and some oih- 
ersi Upon the streams of wa- 
ter and some other sections, the 
lands are well adapted to a grain 
culture, particularly that of Indian 
corn, of which considerable quan- 
tities are annually raided. This 
aiid other branches of agriculture 
are greatly promoted by the use 
of piaster of Paris, as a manure, 
which Sinswers a very valuable pur- 
pose. 

This towriship is watered by 
the Quinibaug, which washes its 
western border, by Five mile riv- 
er, a branch of the former, and 
by several small streams, which 
afford numerous excellent sites for 
hydraulic works. Shad and salm- 
on are taken in the Quinibaug, and 
small fish in the other streams. 

There are three considerable 
ponds in the town, one of which 
is called Quinibaug pond, and one 
KiUingly pond. 

The Connecticut and Rhode* 
Island turnpike, leading from H^rt* 
ford to Providence, passes through , 
the centre of the town. 

The cotton manufacture has 
been carried on in this town very 
extensively, there being four fac- 
tories upon a large scale ; all of 
which contain about 5000 spin- 
dles, and were erected at an ex- 
pense, including buildings, ma- 
chinery, &c, of nearly $800,000. 



One of the factories is called the 
Dahielson Manufacturing Compa- 
ny ; one the Killingly Manufactur- 
ing Company j and one the Chea- 
nut hill Manufacturing Company. 
JThese establishments employ n 
large capital, and have developed 
a new and extensive field for en- 
terprise and industry. We have 
hot ascertained the number of per- 
sons which they employ. At tht 
Danielson Manufactory, water- 
looms have been introduced, and 
in general the business is carried 
on upon the most improved prin- 
ciples, and very advantageously. 
Besides the Cotton Factories there 
are 1 Woolen Factory, 1 Gin Dis^ 
tillery, 1 Paper Hanging Manu^* 
factory, 4 Dying Houses, 3 Clo- 
thiers' works, 3 Carding Machines, 
3 Tanneries, 8 Grain Mills and 
8 Saw Mills. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was ^543; and there are 
about 350 Dwelling houses, about 
375 Electors, and 3 Companies of 
Militia. 

There are in the town 3 loca^ 
ted Congregational Societies, and 
1 Society of Baptists, all of which 
have houses for public worship. 
There are 21 School Districts and 
primary Schools, 4 Social Libra- 
ries, 6 Mercantile Stores, 2 Post 
offices, one called Killingly Post 
officii, the other Centre Post of- 
fice, 5 Clergymen, 6 PhysicianSj 
and 1 Attorney. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1817, was |44,010. 

This town was incor. in 1708. 






f 



214 



LEBANON. 



LEBANON,aposttown,is situa- 
ted 30 miles southeast from Hart- 
ford. It is bounded north on Co- 
ikimbia, east on Windham and 
Franklin^ south on Franklin, Boz- 
rahand a part of Colchester, west 
on Colchester and Hebron. The 
township is of an average length of 
more than 7 miles from northeast 
to southwest, and nearly 7 miles 
in breadth, from nordiwest to 
southeast, containing nearly 49 
square miles. The surface is une- 
Ten, being moderately hilly. The 
soil is generally a rich, deep, unc- 
tuous mould, nearly of a chocolate 
colour ; it is very fertile, and pe- 
culiarly adapted to grass. Rye and 
other grains are cultivated; but 
the dairy business, and the grow- 
ing of neat cattle are the most 
important agricultural interests. 
Like other towns in the county, 
the lands are parcelled out into 
farms, of from 50 to 200 acres, 
and some few of a larger size. The 
lands, being fertile and productive, 
are valued very high for an interi- 
or town, selling frequently at about 
^50 per acre by the farm. The 
timber is principally chesnut, wal- 
nut and oak. 

There are no streams in the 
town deserving the character of 
rivers, but it is well watered by 
brooks and rivulets, some of which 
afford sites for mills and other hy- 
draulic works. 

The civil divisions of the town 
are 3 located Ecclesiastical Socie- 
ties, and 17 School districts. Main- 
street, in the first Society, is spa- 
cious and pleasant, being for near- 
ly two miles in length about 30 
rods broad ; it contains two Church- 
jj^^n Academy, a Post-office, 
ij MM Nl Stores and a number of 



substantial and convenient Dwell- 
ing houses. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 3580; there are now 
about 400 Freemen, 2 companies 
of Infantry, a part of a company 
of Cavalry, and a part of a company 
of Artillery, and 370 Dwelling 
bouses. Thfere are 1 Woolen Fac- 
tory, 4 Grain Mills, 4 Distilleries, 
3 Tanneries, 2 Carding Machines, 
7 Mercantile Stores and 6 Taverns 
inf the town. There are 3 Church- 
es for Congregationalists and 1 for 
Baptists, 1 7 School districts, 4 Cler- 
gymen, 4 Physicians and 2 Attor- 
nies. 

The general list of taxable polk 
and estate, in 1817, was^67,949. 

Lebanon was incorporated as a 
town in 1697. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Jo- 
nathan Trumbull^ distinguished 
for his many public employments, 
was a native and resident of this 
town. He was Governor of the 
State for fifteen years in suc- 
cession, including the period of 
the revolutionary war, with all 
its political animosities, requir- 
ing, in the chief executive magis- 
trate, great prudence, firmness and 
ability. The re-election of Gov. 
Trumbull for such a length of 
time, and a period too of such 
peculiar difficulties and embar- 
rassments, is the best evidence of 
the estimation in which he was 
held by his fellow-citizens. He 
was a whig and a patriot in the 
" times that tried men's soulg." 

The Hon. Jonathan Trumbull^ 
late Governor of the State, was 
the son of the above noticed Jo- 
nathan Trumbull, and was born 
and resided in this town. He was 
educated at Harvard College, 



BIOGRAPHY. 



its 



^&S5S!E 



where he graduated, having gone 
through with the usual course of 
collegiate studies with unusual re- 
putation. In 1775, at the com- 
mencement of the revolutionary 
war, he was appointed by Con- 
gress pay-master . in the northern 
department, and soon after secre- 
tary and aid to General Washing- 
ton. He was for several years a 
member of the State legislature, 
and Speaker of the House. In 
1790, he was chosen a represen- 
tative in Congress from this State ; 
and in 1 791 he was appointed Spea- 
ker of the House of Representa- 
tives, in which situation he con- 
tinued until 1794, when .he was 
elected a Senator in the Senate 
of the United States. In 1796, 
he was chosen by the freemen 
Lieut. Governor of the State, ^nd 
in 1 798 Governor. He was annu- 
ally re-elected to this office for 
eleven years in succession, and 
until his death, in 1309. He was 
69 years of age. Governor Trum- 
bull was a man of handsome tal- 
ents, of very respectable acquire- 
ments, of amiable manners, and 
was distinguished for his social vir- 
tues. The confidence of his fel- 
low-citizens, which he so long en- 
joyed in a very eminent degree, 
affords the most satisfactory evi- 
dence of his talents and virtues. 

The Rev. Eleazer Whtelock^ D. 
D. was a resident clergyman in 
the north Society in this town, 
which has since been incorpora- 
ted into the town of Columbia. 
He was educated at Yale Col- 
lege, where he graduated in 1733. 
He became the Principal of a semi- 
nary which had been established 
in this town for the education of 



the native Indian youth. About 
the year 1 770, he removed from 
this town to Hanover in New- 
Hampshire, and the seminary wa9 
transferred to that place, and be* 
came the foundation of Dartmouth 
College, of which the Rev. Mr# 
Wheelock was appointed the first 
President, and may be considered 
as the founder of the Institution* 
At this period, the country about 
Hanover was mostly a wilderness. 
The object of the primitive semi* 
nary was still in a measure retain^* 
ed ; and Dartmouth College was 
originally designed principally for 
the education of Indian youth. 
President Wheelock presided over 
this Institution until his death, in 
1 779, aged 69 years. The Insti- 
tution, from this small beginning, 
continued to flourish under his 
presidency, and attained to the 
character of a respectable Col- 
lege. On the death of President 
Wheelock, he was succeeded by 
his son, John Wheelock. 

The Hon. John Wheelock^ L. L. 
D. was bom in this town. He suc- 
ceeded to the presidency of Dart- 
mouth College, on the death of 
his father, in 1779, and continued 
to preside over the Institution, 
with the exception of a short inter* 
val, until his death, in 1817. He 
was a man of erudition, and equal-' 
ly respected for his talents and 
learning, and beloved for his jvir- 
tues. He presided over the In- 
stitution with great ability and suc- 
cess, and gave it a very respecta- 
ble reputation. Some years since, 
this Institution was re-organized, 
having received a new charter, 
wherein its name was changed to 
that of Dartmouth Universit 




216 



MANSFIELD. 



MANSFIELD, a considerable 
and flourishing post township, is 
situated upon the western border 
of the county, 28 miles east from 
Hartford ; bounded on the north 
by Willington and Asbford, on the 
east by Hampton and Windham, 
on the south by Windham, and on 
the west by the Willimantic river, 
which separates its from Coven- 
try. 

Its average length from east to 
west is 8 miles, and its average 
breadth nearly 6 miles, compris- 
ing an area of about 46 square 
mifes. 

The face of the country is un- 
even, being diversified with hills 
and dales, the eminences in gene- 
ral having considerable elevation. 
Upon the streams of water there 
are some small intervals. The 
geological character of the town- 
ship is of a primitive formation, 
die rocks and stones consisting of 
granite, gneiss, and micaceous 
schistus ; and the soil is a hard, 
dry gravelly loam. Some mine- 
rals have been discovered,- mica, 
felspar and quartz. 

The natural growth of timber 
is oak, walnut, chesnut elm, ash, 
maple, &ۥ 

The agricultural productions 
are grass, rye, oats, Indian corn, 
butter, cheese, ^pork and beef. 
The white mulberry tree is culti- 
vated in this town, for the making 
of silk ; and it is estimated, that 
25001bs. of raw silk are aimually 
manufactured. The silk manufac- 
ture is a branch of industry un- 
known in most of our towns, and 
is confided principally to females, 
who are the guardians and attend- 

•of the silk-worm, the most 
us and useful of insects. 



Besides the Willimantic, which 
washes the western border of the 
town, it is watered by Nachaug ri- 
ver and its tributary streams, the 
Mount Hope and Fenton, which 
unite their waters near the south 
part of the town. These streams 
afibrd various sites for mills and 
other winter works. Ja Uie first 
Society, there is a small pond, 
called Fish pond, comprising ^n 
area of about 30 acres* 

The middle turnpike road from 
Hartford to Boston leads through 
this town, and also a turnpike from 
Norwich tp Stafford, and ano- 
ther from Windham to Hartford. 

The manufacixires of the town 
consist of screw-augeFB, steel-* 
yards, horn combs t£e manufac- 
ture of which is carried on to coa- 
$idefrab!e extent, sewing silk, cot-* 
ton, of which thejre are two estafa^ 
lisbments, apd woolen, of which 
there are 2 Factories. There are 
also 7 Grain Mills, 10 Saw Mills, 5 
Carding Machines, 1 Oil Mill^STaa- 
neries, and 7 MercantileStores. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2570; and there are 
500 Electors, 1 72 Militia, and 360 
Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $62,750. 

The civil divisions of the town 
are 3 located Ecclesiastical Socie- 
ties or Parisjies and 19 School 
Districts. There is also 1 Society 
of Baptists and 1 of Methodists ; 
each of these Societies is accom- 
modated with a house for public 
worship ; and in each of the School 
Districts there is a primary or 
common School maintained. 

There are 3 Social Libraries, 
4 Physicians and 2 Clergymen, 1 
Congregationalist and 1 Baptist. 




PLAINPIELD. 



217 



mm 



mm 



ns 



, Mansfield was comprised within 
the original Hmits of the i county 



*t^ 



of Hartford, and was first settled 
in 1703. 



PLAINFIELD. 



PLAINPIELD, a post town- 
sbip^ is situated in the southeastern 
section of the county, 41 miles 
east from Hartford, and 30 west 
from Providence ; bounded on the 
north by Killingly^ on the east hy 
Stirling,, on the south by Volun- 
town and Griswold, and on the 
west by Canterbury and Brook- 
lyn. The township comprises 
an area of about 40 square miles ; 
having a mean length from north 
to south of about 8 miles, and a 
mean breadth of about 5 miles. 

From the surface, soil and geo- 
logical features, the township is 
divided into two sections. The 
eastern section is rough and brok- 
en, being hilly and stony. The 
hills are considerably elevated and 
cODtinaous, forming ridges, exten- 
ding in a northerly and southerly 
direction. The western section 
is an extensive plain, the surface 
being level, and the soil a light, 
sandy loam, which is cultivated 
with facility, and is fertile and 
productive. These plains are well 
adapted to a gram culture, afford- 
ing excellent corn, oats, rye, &c. 

When this town was first settled 
by the English, these plains were 
free from timber, admitted of im- 
mediate cultivation, and, from the 
great , quantities of corn raised 
here^ they were called the Egypt 
of the surrounding settlements* 
Plaster is found to be a valuable 
manure upon this -soil; the use of 
which, and a proper regard to 
the amelioration of the soil by 

28 



clover and other cultivated grate*. 
es, have maintained the land in a 
rich and fertile state. . 

The soil in the eastern section 
of the township is of a gravelly 
character, and affords good graz- 
ing. Its natural growth of timber 
comprises the various trees com- 
mon to this region. 

The Quinibaug river washi^s the 
western border of the town, and 
forms a considerable part of its 
western boundary, separating it 
from Brooklyn and Canterbury. 
Upon this river there are two 
bridges, one connecting this town 
with Brooklyn, and the other with 
Canterbury. The Moosup river 
runs through the eastern section 
of the town, and dischai^es its 
waters into the Quinibaug, afford'' 
ing in its course an unequalled 
number of excellent sites for hy- 
draulic works. 

The town is accommodated with 
the Connecticut and Rhode-Island 
turnpike, which passes through it ; 
and by the Windham county turn- 
pike, which terminates at the point 
of intersection with the former. 

Of the manufactures of the town, 
those of cotton are the most im- 
portant, there being 4 Cotton Fac- 
tories, one of which is called the 
Union Factory ; one the Moosup 
Factory, which has been burnt 
down, and is not yet rebuilt ; the 
Central Factory ; and one other* 
There are also 2 Woolen Fac-x 
tones. In addition to these, 
there are 4 Carding Machines aadi 



318 



POMFJIET, 



2 Clothiers' works for customers, 
and 6 Grain Mills. 

The population of Plainfield, in 
1810, was 1738; and there are 
now about 230 Electors, one com- 
pany of Infantry, one Rifle com- 
f9L»Y, and a part of a company 
of Cavalry, of militia, and about 
300 Dwelling houses. 

There are in this town 2 Reli- 
gious Societies, one located Con- 
gregational and one Baptist; 12 
School Districts and primary 
Schools ; and an Academy, called 
Plainfield Academy, incorporated 
in, 17839 suid which is now a Tcry 
flouristung institution. There are 
also 2.Social Libraries^one contain* 
tng 200 volumes of well selected 
books, and the other recently es- 
tablished, and confided to the 
care of the settled Clergyman. 

Xhf^re are 7 IMLercantile Stores, 
4 practicing Physicians, and 2 At- 
tormes* 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 181 7, was $38,253. 

This town was settled in 1689, 
pripQipaUy by emigrants from 



masgmm 



Chelmsford in Massachufietts. 
The first settlers found the land 
in a great measure fit for cultiva- 
tion, there being much leas forest 
land then than what there is at this 
time. The Indians were very nu- 
merous in this neighbouihood, and 
continued for many years^ with the 
English, living iathe most finenitty 
manner. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Rev, Jo- 
el Benedkcty D. D. was for 32 years 
settled in the n^inistry in this town. 
He was ordained in 1 782, and con- 
tinued until his death in 1815. 
He was distinguished as a scholar 
and man of science, not only 
in his profession^ but in mathe- 
matics and the learned languages. 
He had applied himself wi£h great 
diligence and success to the study 
of the Hebrew language, and be- 
came an excellent Hebrew scho- 
lar, there being few men superi- 
or to him in biUical criticism. But 
he was not more remarkable . for 
the extent of Iris learning than for 
the mildness of his manners and 
the placidity of bis temper. 



POMFRET. 



POMFRET, a post township, 
is sftuated in the central section 
of the county, 40 miles northeast 
from Hartford, and 3Q east from 
Providence ; bounded on the north 
by Woodstock and Thompson, on 
the east by the Quinibaug river, 
which separates it firom Killingly, 
south by Brooklyn and Hampton, 
and west by Ashfard. Its mean 
length from east to west is about 
7 miles, and its mean breadth 
nearly 6 miles, comprising about 
42 square miles. 



The surface is uneven and di- 
versified, consisting of hills and 
dales ; and the geological charac- 
ter of the township is granitic, the 
soil being a gravelly loam, and the 
rocks consist of r granite, gn$^i«s, 
micaceous^ schistus and other, ori- 
ginal formations. . Tliere are se- 
veral quarries of free stone, valu- 
able for building and other uses. 

Although the lands in this town 
are hilly, and somewhat stony ^nd 
rough, it is a rich and productive 
agricuUuFal township. The soil 




POWrRET. 



219 



MM 



is deep, stroogand fertile, and ad^ 
mirably adapted to grazing. And, 
as the natural quality and adapta- 
tion of the soil onust always, in a 
greater ^MT less degree, control the 
agricultural pursuits, the leading 
interests of the farmers of this 
town are 9uch as are dependent 
upon, or are promoted by a sys- 
tem of improving lands by graz- 
ing. The dairy business is gene- 
rally attended to, and pursued to 
an extent and with a success that 
is scarcely surpassed. Not only 
cheese and butter, but pork, lard 
and beef are among the surplus 
productions of the farmers of this 
town. For some years past, and 
particularly during the late war, 
considerable attention has been 
paid to sheep, and wool has been 
added to the agricultural products 
of the town. But, although the 
lands are best adapted to grazing, 
they admit of the successful culti- 
vation of grain^ and considerable 
rye, com and oats are raised. 

The township is well watered. 
Besides the Quinibaug, which 
washes its eastern border, it is 
watered by Little river and nu- 
merous smaH streams. There are 
Several shad fisheries in the Quini- 
baug; some salmon are also ta-' 
ken. 

The town is accommodated 
with several turnpike roads ; one 
leading from Hartford to Boston 
passes trough it, and one from 
the former place to Providence ; 
also one leading from Norwich to 
Worcester in Massachusetts. 

Although agriculture is the 
principal busiaesd of the town, a 
manufacturing spirit has disclosed 
itself, and produced some results. 



A Cotton Factory has been esta- 
blished upon a very extensive 
scale, and is one of tlie largest 
establishments in the State ; there 
is also a Woolen Factory upon ra» 
ther a small scale. In addition 
to these manufactures, diere are 
3 FuUing MiUs & Clotluers' works, 
2 Carding Machines, 3 small Dis- 
tilleries, 4 Grain Mills and 6 Tan** 
neries. 

The town contains 2 located 
Congregational Societies or Pa- 
rishes, and 11 School Districts. 
Besides the located, tiiere is 1 
Society of Baptists and 1 small 
Society of Friends. A common 
school is maintained in each of 
the School Districts, a considera- 
ble proportion of the year. 

In the first located Society 
there is a small village of SO or 
30 Dwelling houses, a Post office, 
Congregational Church, and se- 
veral Stores. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1905; and there are 
280 Freemen or Electors, about 
the same number of Dwelling hou*- 
seS) and 3 entire companies of In- 
fantry, part of a Rifle company, 
part of a company of Cavalry, 
and part of a company of Artillery, 
of militia. 

Tlw amount of taxable proper- 
ty, as rated in n^aking up the lists, in- 
cluding polFs, in 1816, was ^55,077. 

The celebrated wolf den^ which 
has been rendered famous by an ex- 
ploit of Gen. Israel Putnam, who 
entered it with a torch light in one 
hand and a gun in the other, and 
shot a wolf at tke extremity ; and ' 
having bad a rope fastened to his 
leg, was drawn out, together with, 
the wolf ; is in this town. 



n 



220 



BIOGRAPHY. 



There are in the tovrn 7 Mer- 1 
cantile Stores, 4 Public Inns, 3 
Social Libraries, 4 practising Phy- 
sicians, 3 Clergymen and 2 Attor- 
nies. 

Pomfret was first settled in 
1686, b)r emigrants from Roxbury 
in Massachusetts, and was incor- 
porated, with town privileges, in ^ 
1713. I 

BIOGRAPHY. TheHon.7%0-1 
mas P, Cfro«t>enor, recently a mem- ; 
ber of Congress from the District ; 
of Columbia, in the State of New* • 
York, was a native of this town. \ 
He was a man of talents, and be- \ 
came one of the leaders of the • 
opposition in Coi^ress. He died ; 
at the seat of Government, during ; 
the session of Congress, in the 
year 1817* 

The Hon* Syhantis Backus^ late 
of this town, was a lawyer of con* 
siderable eminence, and for a suc- 
cession of years was Speaker of 
the House of Representatives in 
this State. He died in 1817. 

Maj. Gen. Isrml Putnam was 
for several yearsai'esident of that 
part of Pomfret which now belongs 
to the town of Brooklyn. Gen* 
Putnam was born in Salem, Mass. 
and emigrated to this town in 
1739. He possessed strong natu- 
ral talents, but his mind was never 
much improved, having enjoyed 
but very limited advantages as to 
education. Gen. Putnam at an 
early period engaged in the pursuits 
of agriculture, being an indepen- 
dent but laborious farmer. Yet 
even in this retired and obscure 
situation, bis vigorous natural pow- 
ers and characteristic braverycould 
not remain concealed; but his cou- 
rage and spirit were displayed in 
a conspicuous manner, by the well 



known adventure of his descending 
into a cavern and kiHins:a wolf« at 
the imminent risk of his life. The 
distinguished bravery and deter- 
mined resolution, which charac- 
terized General Putnam, having 
brought him into notice at the 
commencement of the French 
war, he received the commission 
of a captain in the Provincial 
troops, and became distinguished 
for his services in the campaign of 
1755. In that of the succeeding 
year, he encountered many diffi- 
culties, endured the greatest hard^ 
ships, was exposed to the most 
imminent perils, and displayed the 
greatest intrepidity, firmness and 
resolution, whereby he acquired 
great credit as an officer. In the 
month of August of this year, h6 
was unfortunately taken prisoner 
by the Indians, in which situation 
he was destined to experience all 
the horrors of savage barbarity. 
He was fastened to a tree, in a 
situation which r^ideredhim ex- 
posed to the fire of both of the 
contending armies ; and, in the 
night, he was stripped of bis clo- 
thing, and encircled with combus-^ 
tible materials, which were set on 
fire, and he would inevitably have 
fallen a sacrifice to the most ex- 
cruciating and systematic savage 
torture, had it not been for the 
timely interposition of a humane 
French officer, who rescued him 
from this perilous and truly horri- 
ble situation. He was sent to 
Montreal, as a prisoner of war, 
and was not exchanged until 1 759. 
After the close of the French war 
be retired to his farm, and resum- 
ed the laborious occupations of 
husbandry. He was plowing in his 
field when he heard of the battle 



BIOGRAPHY. 



221 



fm 



mm 



of Lexington ; and he forthwith 
dropped the impleincnts of hus- 
Ib'andry, and repaired to Cam- 
bridge. He however soon retarn- 
ed apd raised a regiment of mili- 
tia, which he marched to Cam- 
bridge ; soon after which he was 
appointed Major-General in the 
militia of Connecticut. He was 
engaged in the battle of Bunker 
Hill, was the highest officer in 
rank, and was distinguished for his 
cool intrepidity. He gave orders 
to his men to reserve their fire 
until the enemy appeared within 
a convenietit distance, and then to 
take deliberate aim, so that there 
should not a shot be lost. The 
result is well known. On the or- 
ganization of the army by Con- 
gress, he was appointed to com- 
mand the reserve under General 
Washington, and was the second 
in command. In August 1 776, he 
was stationed at Bi-ooklyn, on 
Long-Island. After the defeat of 
our army, on the 27th of that 
month, he retired to New-York ; 
and, at that dark and desponding 
period, he did not despair of the 
gldrious cause, but was very active 
and serviceable in the city and 
vicinity. The spring following, 
he was appointed to command at 
the Highlands, or upon the Hudson 
river. Here a singular incident 
occurred, which serves to show 
the decision and firmness of his 
character. An American royalist, 
who was a lieutenant in the Bri- 
tish service, was discovered in the 
American camp, and taken into 
custody. Gov. Tryon. reclaimed 
him as a British officer, and threat- 
ened retaliation, if he was not re- 
stored. To this demand. Gen. 



Putnam returned the following la-' 
conic answer : 

" Sir, Nathan Palmer, a lieuten- 
ant in yoor king's service, was tak- 
en in my camp as a spy, he was tri- 
ed as a spy, be was condemned a9 
a spy, and he shall be hanged as a 
spy. 

L Putnam." 

" P. S. Afternoon. — He is hang- 
ed." 

After the toss of Fort Montgom- 
ery, Gen. Washington confided to 
Gen. Putnam the selection of a 
suitable site for a permanent fortifi- 
cation ; and to him belongs the ho- 
nour of the judicious selection of 
West Point. Gen. Putnam spent 
the remainder of his military life 
in erecting and improving the fot; 
tifications at this place, and which 
continued until about the year 
1780, when the infirmities of age 
obliged him to retire from the field 
of strife and glory, and with him 
the theatre of so many heroic 
achievements. 

General Putnam was possessed 
of the most daring natural courage ; 
not the offspring of insensibility, 
but of extraordinary natural vigor 
and energy, both of body and mind. 
He was bold and fearless in his en- 
terprises, and firm, determined and 
persevering in their execution; 
neither appalled by dangers, dis- 
couraged by difficulties, nor was the 
firmness of his resolutions impair- 
ed by hardships and sufferings, 
however severe ; he pursued h!s 
object with a steadiness and de- 
termination, which have had few 
examples. He, was a brave officer, 
an ardent patriot and a good citi- 
zen; and having lived during the 
most important period of our an- 



322 



STERLING. 



' nals, and taken a distiiigaished part 
in tbe events of two wars, his his* 
lory is identified with that of his 
country, and his name is enrolled 
with diose heroes and patriots, who, 
to the latest posterity, as long as 
the genius of liberty maintains her 



dominion, will be r^arded as the 
fathers of it. 

General Putnam died at Bro^^ 
lyn, May 29th 1 790^ aged 72 years. 
He was buried with the honours of 
war, & an elegant eulogy was deliv- 
ered on the occasion, by Dr. WaWo. 



STERLING. 



STERLING is a post township, 
situated in the southeast part of 
the county, 44 miles from Hartford ; 
bounded on the north by Killingly, 
on the east by Rhode-Island line, 
on the south by Voluntown, and on 
tile west by Plai afield. It contains 
an area of about 24 square miles, 
leaving an average length of 
8 miles, and an average breadth 
of 3 miles. The face of the 
country, within this town, is gene- 
rally uneven, or moderately hilly ; 
but there are some sections of pine 
plains. The^soil is a light, gravelly 
and sandy loam. The natural 
growth consists of jthe deciduous 
trees common to this region, to- 
gether with a considerable propor- 
tion of yellow pine. The land is 
best adapted to a grain culture, 
and affords good crops of rye, 
corn &c. 

The town is watered by a branch 
of the Moosup river, called Quan- 
duck, an inconsiderable stream. 

In addition to the county orpub- 
Hc roads, the town is accommo- 
dated with the Norwich and Provi- 
dence turnpike, which passes 
through it. 

Near the centre of this town, 
(tiere is a cavern called the devil's 
d^n, possessing very singular and 
ciirioas features. It is situated 
witUin a ledge of rocks, and has a 



circular area of about 100 feet in 
diameter. The rock is cleft in two 
places, forming at each a chasm or 
fissure, of about 50 feet deep; 
through one of which, Aere runs a 
small stream of water; theo^^r 
communicates with a room of about 
12 feet square, at the interior patt 
of which, there is a fire-place, and 
a chimney extending through ^e 
rock above, forming an ap^tur^ 
of about 3 feet square. In another 
part of the rock, there is a natural 
stair-case, winding around it from 
th6 bottom to the top. In the cold 
season of the year, a large mass of 
ice is formed in the room before 
described, by the dashing of water 
down the chimney, which con«- 
tinues there through nearly the 
whole of the warm months ; the 
sun being almost excluded from 
this subterraneous recess. 

There are in Sterling 3 Cotton 
Factories, one of which is upon a 
large scale, and contains 1600 
spindles. The buildings for the ac- 
commodation of the workmen are 
of stone. This is one of the largest 
establishments in the State; the 
other two are less extensive. 
There are 3 Grain Mills, 1 Carding 
Machine, 1 Fulling Mill and Clo- 
thiers' works, 2 Tanneries, 4 Mer- 
cantile Stores and 2 Taverns. 

The town contains, one located 






Tmm?scm, 



223 



■9 



CoQgfegational Society & Church, 
one Society of Baptists^ one Acade- 
laj) 9 School districts and common 
Schools, and one Social Library* 

Its population, in 1810, was 1101; 
and there arie 1 50 qualified Elec- 
tors, 1 Company, and a part of an- 
other Company of Militia, and 
about 1 80 Dwelling houses. In the 



.m ii.»^» 



centre of the town there is a ^m 
village, consisting of about 30 
Dwelling houses, a Church and 
several Stores. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is ^1S,766« 

Sterling was incorporated as a 
town in 1794. 



THOMPSON. 



THOMPSON, a post township, 
is situated in the northeast comer 
of the county and State, 47 miles 
northeast from Hartford, and 26 
Borthwest from Providence; boun- 
ded on the north by Massachusetts 
line, <m the east by Rliode-Island, 
on the south by Killingly, and on 
the west by Woodstock and Pom- 
fret. 

The township forms nearly a 
square, and comprises an area of 
about 50 square miles j or 32,000 
acres. 

The town is intersected in- 
to nearly two equal parts, by the 
Quinibaug river, which runs thro' 
it from north to south. In addi- 
tion to this stream, it is wa- 
tered by the French river, a tribu- 
tary stream of the Quinibaug, and 
by Five mile river, which rises in 
Dougla§s, in Massachusetss, and 
enters the town at the northeast 
comer, and running through it 
from north to south, passes into 
Killingly, and discharges itself in- 
to the Quinibaug. Muddy brook, 
also, which rises in Woodstock, 
runs across the southwest corner 
of the town, a distance of about 
two miles. Upon these streams 
there are numerous bridges main- 
tained by the town. Some salmon 



are taken in the Quinibaug and^ 
French rivers. 

The surface of this township ex- 
hibits an interesting diversity of 
hill and dale ; many of the hills 
are considerably elevated, but no 
portion of it can be called moun- 
tainous. The prevailing soil is a 
gravelly loam, strong and dry, 
well adapted to the culture of In- 
dian com, wheat and clover, and 
generally excellent for grazing. 
There is a great supply of valua- 
ble stone, for walls and buildings ; 
and they are used extensively for 
wall fence, of which it is thought 
by our correspondent that there is 
more than in any other town' in the 
State. 

The forests in the town .are not 
extensive, but are sufficient for 
the purposes of fuel, and afibrd 
sufficient timber for buildings and 
other uses. 

The agricultural productions are 
beef, pork, butter,cheese and grain. 

The Hartford and Boston turn- 
pike road intersects the township 
from the southwest to the north- 
east corner, a distance of about 
11 milesk The Thompson turn- 
jpike, leading to Providence, runs 
through it from northwest to south- 
east, about the same distance ; and 



(1 



224 



VOLUNTOWN. 



4he 'Woodstock turnpike passes 
through it from west to east, a 
distance of about 8 miles. 

A maniifactaring spirit has dis- 
closed itself iii this town ; it has 
been directed principally to cotton 
manufactures. There are 3 large 
Cotton manufacturing establish- 
ments, containing in all about 
5000 spindles. These establish- 
ments usually employ a great num- 
ber of persons, and add greatly 
to the aggregate industry of the 
town. There arc 8 Grain Mills, 
1 1 Saw Mills, 3 Wool carding Ma- 
chines^ 2 Clothiers' works and 3 
Tanneries. 

For an inland town, its com- 
mercial business and capital are 
very respectable. It is estimated 
that about 1 0,000 dollars are an- 
nually employed in a trade to 
Georgia. There is one vessel 
owned here, which sails out of 
Providence, and is, employed in 
the coasting trade. There are 8 
Mercantile Stores in the town. 

Its civil divisions are 1 located 
Religious Society and 14 School 



Districts. Besides the locate^^ 
there are 3 Religious Societiesv 
one of Baptists, one of Methodists, 
and one of Quakers. There ^re 
3 houses for religious worship, re- 
cently erected, one very elegant? 
built in 1817. 

The population of the town, ia 
1810, was 2467; and there are 
400 Electors, 1 company of Mili- 
tia, in which there are 200 men 
enrolled, 1 Light Infantry compa^ 
ny of about 65 members, aii4 a 
part of a company of Cavalry. 

There are more than 400 Dwel- 
ling houses; 14 primary Schools, 
one in each District ; 1 Social Li- 
brary; 3 Clergymen, 3 Physicians, 
and 2 Lawyers. 

Thompson was settled in 1715^ 
being then a part of Killingly,from 
which it was separated, and incor-* 
porated as a town in 1785. 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen. Dftvid 
Learned J of this town, was borr> 
in 1743, and died in 1797. He 
was highly distinguished for hi& 
eminent and useful life, and for hi& 
civil and military employment^.. 



VOLUNTOWN. 



VOLUNTOWN is situated in 
the southeast part of the county; 
bounded on the north by Plain- 
field and Sterling, on the east by 
Exeter, in Rhode-Island, on the 
south by North-Stonington, and 
on the west by Griswold, in New- 
London county. It has an average 
length of about 9 miles, and 
an average breadth of more than 
4 miles, comprising nearly 
square miles. 

The surface is generally diver- 
sified with hill and dale, but there 
arc some sections of pine plains, 



39 



which are level. The prevailing 
character of the soil is th^t of a 
light, sandy and gravelly loam* 
It is best adapted to grain, and 
produces Indian corn, rye, oatSy 
&:c. ; but corn is principally cul- 
tivated. 

The town is watered by the Po- 
chaug, a branch of the Quinibaug* 
It is 9 small and sluggish stream, 
but contains, however, swne mill 
seats. There is a pond, situated 
partly in this town and partly iix 
Rhode-Island, called Paucamack 
pond,, a considerable body of wa- 




WOODSTOCfe. 



22i 



ter, and is the source of the Po- 
chaug riven 

The manufacturing and mecha- 
nical interests and employments, 
aside from those of a domestic cha- 
racter, consist of 1 Cotton Facto- 
ry, 4 Grain Mills, 2 Fulling Mills 
and Clothiers' works, 2 Carding 
Machines and 2 Tanneries. There 
are 2 Mercantile Stores and 2 Ta- 
verns. 

The town contains 2 located Con- 
gregational Societies &l Churches, 
1 Society of Baptists, 1 small So- 
cial Library, and 8 School Dis- 
tricts and Schools. 



Its population, in IS 10, was 
1016; and there are tdO qualified 
Electors, 1 Company of Militia^ 
and 160 Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is ^21,1 10. 

Iicthe centre of the town there 
is a small village of about 15 
Dwelling bouses. There are 3 
Physicians in the town. 

This town was first settled m 
1696, having been gk*anted to vo- 
lunteers in the Narraganset war ; 
hence its name. But it was not 
incorporated as a town until the 
year 1719. 



WOODSTOCK. 



WOODSTOCK is a post town, 
situated in the northern section of 
the county, bordering upon Massa- 
chusetts, 45 miles northeast from 
Hartford, 33 northwest from Pro- 
vidence, and 60 southwest from 
Boston ; bounded upon the north 
by Massachusetts line, upon the 
east by Thompson, upon the south 
by Pomfret and Ashford, and up- 
on the west by Ashford and Un- 
ion. Its mean length is 8 miles, 
and its mean breadth 7 and a 
half miles, comprising an area of 
about 60 square miles. 

This township, although its phy- 
sical features are less smooth and 
interesting than those of many oth- 
ers, ranks deservedly among the 
first of the rich and flourishing in- 
terior towns in the State. The 
surface is characteristically hilly, 
but is not mountainous or broken, 
and comprises very . little waste 
land ; most or all of the eminen- 
ces beipg capable of cultivation. 

29 



The prevailing soil is a deep, gra- 
velly loam, which is strong ^nd 
fertile, having a permanent basis, 
and is very favourable for ma- 
nures, which have a very sensible 
and lasting effect. It is best adapt- 
ed to grazing, but generally admits 
of tillage ; and considerable quan- 
tities of grain are annually raised, 
consisting principally of rye and 
corn. For some years past, spring 
wheat has been cultivated to ad- 
vantage, and to an extent afibrding 
a supply for the consumption of 
the town. 

Of the agricultural productions, 
butter, cheese, beef .and pork are 
the most important. Of these, 
there is annually a considerable 
surplus which is sent abroad 
for a market. 

The township is well watered by 

numerous small streams, of which 

the most considerable is Muddy 

Brook, running through the town, 

i^nd discharging its waters Into 



r 



230 



WOODSTOCk. 



the Quinibaug* This and other 
streams afford mauy valuable wa- 
ter privileges* 

This town is accommodated with 
three turnpike roads, one leading 
to Norwich, one to Providence, 
and one to Somers, and thence to 
Connecticut river. 

Agriculture, being the principal 
interest, affords employment for 
most- of the industry of the town, 

' excepting what is employed in do- 
mestic or household manufactures, 
which' receive general attention, 
there being a loom in almost eve- 
ry h(mse. Most of the primary 
and substantial fabrics of clothing 
are the products of domestic in- 
dustry. Besides the manufactures 
of this description, there are some 
others of impprtance, particularly 

'■"^ pile Woolen and one Cotton Fac- 
tory, in the Society of Muddy 
Brook, both of which have large 
and commodious buildings, and 
belongto incorporated companies. 
They are both upon a large scale, 
and the Woolen Factory is now do- 
ing business extensively. There 
is also atn incorporated Woolen 
and Cotton manufacturing estab- 
lishment, in what^s called the old 
Society, which is iii operation. In 
addition to these establishments, 
there are 7 Grain Mills, 1 Oil Mill, 
2 Distilleries, 12 Saw Mills, 1 Ful- 
ling Mill and Clothier's works, 1 
Carding Machine, 2 large Trip- 
hammers and JBlacksmiths^ shops, 
1 Gold-smith and 2 Wheel-wrights. 
This town is divided intp three 
located Societies or Parishes ; the 
one in its western section is called 
New^Roxbury Society ; one of the 
others is galled Muddy Brook So- 
ciety, to which there is annexed a 
icriier of the town of Thompson ; 



and the other the old Society* 
Besides the located, there are 2 
Baptist Societies ; all of these. se- 
veral Religious Societies are ac- 
commodated with houses for piib-* 
lie worship. The town is also di<* 
vided into 1 8 School Districts. 

Its population, in 1810, was 
2653 ; and there are about 350 
Electors, 4 companies of Militia^ 
and about 350 Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, as rated in making up lists, in- 
cludingpolls, in 1816, was {^62,028. 

There are inthis town 1 8 prima- 
ry Schools, 3 Social Libraries, 6 
Mercantile Stores, 6 Physicians, 
3 Attornies and 5 Clergymen. 

This town, together with Suf* 
field, Enfield and Somers, was set- 
tled under the jurisdiction of the 
colony of Massachusetts, in or 
about the year 1686 ; and incor- 
porated by the authority thereof, 
although by the charter of Con- 
necticut they were included with- 
in the limits of this State. In 
1713, the line between the two 
States was surveyed, and, upon 
certain conditions, it was agreed 
by Connecticut that the towns set- 
tled by Massachusetts should re- 
main under its jurisdiction. This 
compromise produced general un- 
easiness and dissatisfaction with 
the inhabitants at the tim#; which, 
instead of subsiding, as was ex- 
pected, continued to increase, so 
that in May 1747, they presented 
a memorial to the General Assem- 
bly of Connecticut, praying to be 
annexed to, or taken under, thp 
jurisdiction thereof, wheroby they 
might be restored to the charter 
privileges, granted to them in 
common with other citizens of thi« 
State. 




BIOGRAPHY* 



227 



as 



rfrii 



lii 



The General Assembly, after ha- 
ving appointed commissioners to 
attempt to settle this dispute, with 
others that might be appointed 
bjr Massachusetts, without effect, 
adopted a resolution, that, as the 
agreement of 1713 had never re- 
ceived the royal confirmation, it 
was not binding ; and that all the 
inhabitants who lived south of the 
line of Massat;htisetts, as defined 
by its charter, were entitled to the 
privileges, and ought to be subject 
to the jurisdiction of the govern- 
ment of this State. In 1753, an 
act was passed, securing to the se- 
veral religious societies of the 
"aforesaid towns all the rights and 
privileges of religious societies, 
according to the laws of this colo- 
ny. These proceedings on the 
part of Connecticut produced from 
Massachusetts a remonstrance to 
his majesty. This was ^opposed 
by the agent of Connecticut, then 
in England, and the claims of the 
latter supported, which were final- 
ly recognized, and the boundary 
established accordingly in 1755. 
While this town was under the ju- 
risdiction of Massachusetts, it was 
at first a part of the County of Suf- 
folk, and deeds were recorded at 
Boston. On the organization of 
the county of Worcester, it was 
annexed #to that county, and so 
continued as long as it remained 
a part of the territory of that 
State. 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen. miliam 
Eaton was a native of this town, 
and was born February 23d, 1 764. 
At a very early period, he disclosed 
strong indications of ihtellectual 
vigor, and of mental eccentricity. 
At the age of about 16 years, with- 
out the knowledge or consent of 



his parents, he went from home, 
and enlisted into the army. This 
was in 1780, near the close of the 
revolutionary war ; and young Ea- 
ton continued in the army until the 
close- of the war, a considerable 
part of the time in the humble sta- 
tion of a private soldier ; but he 
attained the rank of a sei^eant. 
After the peace, in 1 784, he com- 
menced the study of the Latini 
language ; and the year after, wafi 
admitted a member of Dartmouth 
College, where he graduated in 
1 790 ; the period of his collegiate 
life having been protracted, from 
the circumstance of his having de- 
voted a portion of his time to 
school keeping, which his want of 
pecuniary resources rendered ne- 
cessary. 

In October, 1791, he was cho- 
sen clerk of the House of Delegates 
of Vermont, residing at that time 
in the town of Windsor, where he 
had been engaged in school keep- 
ing. In March, 1793, he was ap- 
pointed a Captain in the army of 
the United States ; and whilst in 
this situation, he performed vari- 
ous services upon the western and 
southern frontiers. He continued 
in the army until 1797, when he 
was appointed Consul to Tunis. 
He continued in this difficult, (and 
it may be added perilous) situation, 
until 1803; during which period, 
he discharged the consular func- 
tions with great firmness and abili- 
ty. In 1804^ Gen; Eaton returned 
to America and visited Washing- 
ton, where he disclosed the famous 
enterprise which he had planned to 
restore the Ex-Bashaw of Tripoli ; 
and, having obtained the sanction of 
government, he embarked in July 
of the same year, in the Argq^ sloop 



238 



BIOGRAPHY. 



of war, with the intention of enga- 
ging in this bold and hazardous 
undertaking, end arrived at Alex^ 
andria in Egypt, on the 25th of 
November following. From Alex- 
andria be proceeded to Cairo, 
where he found the Ex-Bashaw, 
who approved of the enterprise ; 
a^d after having made suitable ar- 
rangements aod recruited about 
500.qfien, ( 100 of which only were 
christians,) it was determined by 
Eaton 9iid the £x-Bashaw, to cross 
the desert and seize the province 
and city of Oeme. After a diffi- 
cult and fatiguing journey thro' 
a dreary desert, presenting innu- 
merable obstacles, they arrived 
within the province of Derne, and 
soon attacked and captured the 
city, having the assistance of the 
Hornet sloop of war. The bold- 
ness and desperate bravery of Geii. 
Eaton and his little party alarmed 
the reigning Bashaw and his bar- 
barian subjects, who almost thought 
that they were something more than 
human beiogs ; but the progress of 
Gen. Eaton was arrested by a 
peace which the American consul 
concluded with the Bashaw* After 
this, Gen. Eaton returned to his 
native country, and was every 
where received with the most dis- 



tinguished applause, the grateful 
tribute of patriotic and heroic 
achievments* After some time 
he fixed his residence in Brimfiehl, 
Massachusetts, where he continued 
until his death in 181 K Whikt 
here, he was elected a representa- 
tive of the town, in the legislature 
of the State* 

Gen. Eaton was a very ex- 
traordinary character*, he pos- 
sessed much original genius ; was 
bold in his conceptions, ar- 
dent in his passions, determined 
in his resolutions aiid indefatigably 
persevering in his conduct. He 
possessed considerable literary ac« 
quirements, and the style of his 
writings was characteristic of his 
mind; bold, energetic and deci- 
sive. His courage was equalled 
only by his resolution, and the 
boldness of his enterprises, by his 
ability and perseverance to exe- 
cute them* He was an important 
witness in the case of Burr's trial, 
and the celebrated toast which he 
gave, with reference to this trans- 
action, is alike an evidence of his 
patriotism, and the originality of 
his conceptions : ^^ Phrensy to the 
head that shall plot to dismember, 
and palsy to the arm that will not 
draw to defend the union." 



/% 



LITCHFIELD 



COUNTY 



LITCHFIELD, an extensive 
agricultural and manufacturing 
county, is situated in the north- 
western section of the State; boun- 
ded on the north by Berkshire 
county, in Massachusetts, on the 
east by Hartford and New-Haven 
counties, on the south by the coun- 
ties of New-Haven and Fairfield, 



and on the west by the State of 
New- York, 

This county has an average 
length from north to south of about 
33 miles, and a mean breadth 
from east to west of nearly 27 
miles, comprising about 885 sq. 
miles, being the largest county in 
the State. 



The following Topographical and Statistical Table exhibits a 
view of the several towns in the county ; their situation, with re- 
lation to Litchfield the seat of justice ; their population, according 
to the census of 1810; dwelling houses ; religious societies ; school 
districts, and post-ofiices. 

Towns. Post- Popu- Dwelling Religious School Distance from 

offices, lation. houses, societies, districts. Litchfield. 



Litchfield. i 


I 4639 


512 


8 


26 




Barkhamsted. 


1 1506 


230 


4 


11 


18m.N.E. 


Bethlem. 


1 1118 


170 


3 


9 


8 m. S. 


Canaan. i 


I 2203 


276 


4 


12 


16m.N.W. 


Colebrook. 


1 1243 


200 


3 


8 


18m.N. E. 


Cornwall. ] 


[ 1602 


200 


3 


11 


12 m. N. W. 


Goshen. 1 


I 1641 


230 


2 


8 


6m.N.W. 


Harwinton. ] 


i 1718 


298 


2 


n 


7m.E. 


Kent. ] 


I 1794 


270 


2 


10 


15 m. W. 


New-Hartford. ; 


1 1507 


220 


1 


8 


12m.N.E. 


New-Milford. ] 


\ S557 


540 


6 


16 


18m.S.W. 


Norfolk. ] 


[ 1441 


240 


1 


10 


16m.N. 


Plymouth. 


1 1882^ 


270 


3 


12 


10 m. S.E. 


Roxbury. 


1217-^ 


200 


3 


9 


15m.S.W. 


Salisbury. ] 


I 2321 


340 


2 


14 


20 m. N. W. 


Sharon. ! 


2 2606 


380 


4 


15 


16m.N.W. 


Torrington. 1 


I 1586^ 


250 


3 


9 


7 m. N. E. 


Warren. 1 


i 1096 


170 


2 


8 


8m.W. 


Washington. 


I 1575 


230 


4 


11 


lOm.S.W. 


Watertown. ] 


I 1714 


250 


2 


8 


10 m. S. E. 


Winchester. J 


I 1460-^ 


230 


2 


' 9 


13m.N.E. 


Woodbury. 1 


1963 


300 


4 


14 


15m*S. 



230 



LITCHFIELD COUNTY. 



The principal part of the 
couuty of Litchfield is elevated 
and mountainous ; several branch- 
es of the extensive granitic ran- 
ge intersect the county from north 
to south, and comprise an exten- 
sive evergreen district* _ 

In the northwestern section 
there are some large and exten- 
sive calcareous vales, abounding 
in limestone ; but most of the oth- 
er sections of the county are of a 
granitic, geological character. The 
prevailing soil is a gravelly loam, 
generally deep, and in many sec- 
tions strong and fertile, and admi- 
rably adapted to grazing. In the 
limestone district, the soil is a cal- 
careous loam, rich and fertile, and 
excellent for arable purposes, par- 
ticularly for the culture of wheat, 
which is raised here very success- 
fully, and to great extent. This 
i« the best section for wheat that 
there is in this State. 

Upon the Ousatonick and its 
bmnches, in the southwestern sec- 
tion of the county, there are tracts 
of alluvial of considerable extent, 
and some small sections that are 
a light sandy loam. 

The ajiricultural interests of the 
county are very respectable, and 
constantly improving. The staple 
productions consist of cheese, but- 
ter, pork and beef. Considerable 
attention is paid to the raising of 
neat cattle and sheep ; and in the 
calcareous section there is a con- 
siderable surplus of grain raised, 
which is sent abroad for a market. 

The waters of the county are 
abundant, and principally cin- 
bodi-ed in the Ousatonick and 



Tunxis rivers. The former of 
these, which is the second river 
in size in the State^ intersects the 
county, and has numerous branch* 
es, of which the principal are the 
Naugatuck, the Pomperaug and 
the Shepaug, which affqrd many 
excellent sites for hydraulic works. 
The Tunxis washes the northeast- 
ern section of the county, and af- 
fords also numerous sites for wa- 
ter-works. 

The manufacturing business re- 
ceives considerable attention iq this 
county, particularly that of iron, 
which is carried on more exten- 
sively here than in any other sec- 
tion of the State. There are 39 
Forges, many of which pursue the 
business extensively, 5 Furnaces, 
8 Anchor Shops and 2 Slitting 
Mills. The ore used at these es- 
tablishments is obtained within the 
county, and abounds in various 
places. There are 2 Oil Mills, 1 
P^per Mill, 62 Grain Mills, 4 Cot- 
ton Factories, 8 Woolen Factories, 
50 Carding Machines and 46 Cloth 
Dressing establishments. In the 
county of Litchfield there are 68 
Religious Societies, 31 School So- 
cieties, which are divided into 
249 School Districts, 29 Social Li- 
braries, and about 100 Mercantile 
Stores. 

The population of the^ounty, 
in 1800, was 41,214; andinlSlO, 
41,375. 

The aggregate hst,in 1817, was 
$881,601. • 

This county was incorporated ini 
1751 ; and a considerable section 
of it was more recently settled 
than any other part of the State* 




LITCHFIELD. 



isi 



LITCHFIELD, an extensive, 
wealthy and populous interior 
post townsfaip, and the seat of 
justice of the county, is situated 
in north lat. 4 1 ^50', being 30 miles 
west from Hartford, 36 northwest 
from New-Haven, and. 100 from 
New- York 5 bounded on the north 
by Goshen and Torrington, on the 
east by the Naugatuck river, which 
separates it * from Harwinton, on 
the south by Watertown, Bethlem 
and Plymouth, and on the west by 
Washington and Warren. The 
township contains about 72 square 
miles ; having an average length 
from east to west of more than 9 
miles, and a mean breadth of 
nearly 8 miles. 

Litchfield is an elevated town- 
ship; its surface presents an in- 
teresting diversity of hill and dale. 
The hills a^re in general conside- 
rably elevated ; and their prevail- 
ing course is from north to south. 
In the eastern section of the town, 
near the Naugatuck river, there 
are mountainous ranges, extending 
in an eastwardly and westwardly 
direction. In the western section 
of the township, there are also 
some mountainous tracts, which 
comprise several considerable emi- 
nences, of which Mount Tom is 
tlie most elevated. From actual 
mensuration it has been found to 
be about 700 feet from the margin 
of the river to the summit of this 
eminence, upon the south side. 
Little Mount Tom and Mount 
Prospect are eminences of less 
elevation. From the elevation of 
this township, some of its eminen- 
ces afford the most extensive and 
interesting prospects ; to the east 
may be seen tlie hills upon the 
east side of Connecticut river, and 



to the west the Catskill mountains, 
appearing in huge and disorderly 
piles. 

The geological character of 
the township is primitive ; the 
prevailing strata of rocks consist- 
ing of granite and schistus, inter- 
spersed with some quartz, primi- 
tive limestone and other original 
formations. There is one quarry 
of slate-stone, of an inferior quali- 
ty ; and in the eastern section of 
the town there is a quarry of free- 
stone, valuable for hearths and 
other uses. Some indications of 
iron ore have been discovered. 

The prevailing soil is a dark co- 
loured gravelly loam, with some 
sections of argillaceous loam. It 
is deep, strong and fertile ; and, 
for an elevated tract, is warm, and 
favourable for vegetation. It is 
in general best adapted to grazing, 
the interests of which are pursu- 
ed very extensively and advanta-, 
geously. 

The staple agricultural produc- 
tions are cheese, butter, pork and 
some others. In some sections of 
the town considerable grain is cul- 
tivated, and the raising of cattle 
and sheep receives considerable 
attention. In 1 8 1 1 , there Were 
6784 sheep shorn in this town. 
The agricultural interests of the 
town are flourishing; and great 
exertions are making to improve 
them* 

The town is well siipplied with 
forests, comprising a great varie- 
ty of trees ; sugar maple, beach, 
button-wood, oak, birch, chesnut, 
butternut, walnut, elm, peperidge, 
wild cherry, bass^ hornbeam, sas- 
safras, &c. 

The township is well watered. 
The Naugatuck v;ashes its eastern 



•232 



LITCHFIELD. 



border, the Shepaug its western, 
forming a part of its boundary, 
and the Bantam waters its interi- 
or, intersecting the township from 
northeast to southwest, passing 
through Great, Little and Cran* 
berry ponds,and discharging its wa- 
ters into the Shepaug, a branch of 
the Ousatonick. These streams 
afford numerous excellent sites for 
hydraulic works, particularly the 
latter, which, at the outlet of the 
Great pond, has some of the most 
valuable mill seats in the town, and 
which are scarcely rivalled. Great 
pond is an extensive and beautiful 
sheet of water, comprising an area 
of about 900 acres, and is the lar- 
gast pond or lake in the State. 
Mount Tom pond, a part of which 
is in the town of Washington, com- 
prises about 72 acres, Little pond, 
15, and Cranberry 8. In the 
streams and ponds various small 
fish are taken. In the winter of 
1809, 28 pickerel were taken in 
Southwick pond, and conveyed in 
casks of water and put into Cran- 
berry pond, in this town. Their 
progeny now begin to be tak- 
en in considerable numbers ; but 
it is apprehended that these for- 
midable strangers will be likely 
to destroy the shiners, red fins and 
small perch, the former occupants 
of the pond. 

This town is well accommoda- 
ted as to roads, there being five 
turnpikes leading from it ; one to 
New-Haven, sometimes called the 
Straits turnpike; one from the 
western part of the town to New- 
Mil ford, called the Litchfield and 
Ne^-Milford turnpike ; one pass- 
ing through Harwinton to Hart- 
ford, called the Litchfield and 
Harwinton turnpike ; one to Ca- 



naan, called the Litchfield and 
Canaan turnpike ; and one head- 
ing from the northeast corner of 
the town to New-Hartford, called 
the New-Hartford turnpike. There 
is also a turnpike road running 
upon the eastern border of ttie 
township, contiguous to the Nau- 
gatuck river, which unites with 
the Straits turnpike at Salem, and 
extends northwardly through Win- 
chester and Col'ebrook to Massa-' 
chusetts. 

The most important manufac- 
ture in the town is that of iron, 
of which there are 4 Forges, 1 
SHtting Mill and 1 Nail Factory. 

There are 1 Cotton Factory, 1 
Oil Mill, 1 Paper Mill, 2 Carding 
Machines, 6 Fulling Mills, 5 Grain 
Mills, 18 Saw Mills, 5 large Tan- 
neries besides several on a small 
scale, 2 Comb Factories, 2 Hat- 
ters' Shops, 2 Carriage Makers, 
1 Cabinet Furniture Maker, 3 
Saddlers, and a number of House 
Carpenters, Joiners, Smiths and 
other Mechanics. 

The population of Litchfield, in 
1810, was 4639; and there are 
about 600 Electors, 4 Companies, 
of Militia, 512 Dwelling hou- 
ses, 8 Churches and 2 Post offices. 

The commercial business is re- 
spectable, and employs considera- 
ble capital, there being 4 6 Mer- 
cantile Stores. 

The civil or corporate divisions 
of the town are 4 located Eccle- 
siastical Societies, 26 School Dis- 
tricts, and an incorporated vil- 
lage. 

Besides the located, there are 
3 Episcopal Societies and one of 
Baptists ; all of which are acconfi- 
modated with houses for religious 
worship. . There are 26 primary 



LlTCBFIEtD. 



253 



mmm/BimmmmmumsBSBmsmmmm 

Schools, ooe in eachJDktrict, and ( 
an Aca^en^, established in 1790, 
in the Spcjiety of South Farms. 
The luatin and Greek languages, 
Matiiematics,, English, Gmmmar, 
Lo^c and Moral Philosophy are 
taught at this. Seminary, which is 
very flourishing* There is in this 
Societ;y a Social Library, estahlish- 
ed in 1 785, and comprises from 300 
to 400 vols, of well selected books. 

There is a medicinal spring in 
the first Society, about half a mile 
from, the Court House. Its waters 
have never been analyzed ; but 
they appear to be chalybeate and 
sulphureous, and have been found 
efficacious in cutaneous diseases. 

LiTCHFiBLD Vii/LAGE, incorpo- 
rated in 1818, is delightfully situa- 
ted upon an elevated plain, in the 
centre of the first located Socie- 
ty, aSprding the most extensive 
prospects, surrounded with inter- 
esting scenery and charming land- 
scapes, and enjoying in the sum- 
mer season the most salubrious 
and refreshing atmosphere. 

The corporate limits of the vil- 
lage are about one mile and a half 
in length and a mile in breadth. 
The houses are chiefly built upon 
two streets, which intersect each 
other, forming a pleasant square in 
the centre. The principal street, 
running from northwest to south- 
east, is well built, comprising nu- 
merous neat, handsome and con- 
venient dwelling houses, which are 
generally handsomely arranged, 
and some of which are elegant edi- 
fices. Within the corporate limits 
of the village there are 84 Dwel- 
ling houses, 9 Mercantile Stores, 
2 Bookstores, several excellent 
Public Inns, a Printing ofiice, a 
Sank, being a branch of the Phoe- 

30 



mamm 



,'ii.,iijj.ia,ii 



wMt^g^m 



nix Bank at Hartford, a Court 
Hou^e, the Gaol of the county, 3 
Churches, %Post office^ several 
Professional offices. Mechanics^ 
shops, &c. 

In addition to the public or 
common Schools, there is in the 
village a private School for young 
ladies, which at times has main- 
tained a very distinguished repu- 
tation. There is also a Law 
School maintained here, which is 
very flourishing, and contains stu- 
dents from almost every section in 
the Union. It was established in 
1784, by the Hon. Tapping 
Reeve, then one of the Judges 
of the Supreme Court. In 1798, 
the Hon. James Gould, at present 
one of the Supreme Judges, was 
associated as a joint instructor 
with Judge Reeve ; and at this 
time he is the principal instructor. 
The number of students who have 
been educated at this school, from 
its establishment, in 1784, to 1812, 
was 474. This has justly been 
considered as the most respectable 
and systematic Law School in iht 
United^States. 

Xhe aggregate list of Litchfield, 
in 1817, was j{86,872; and the va- 
luation of the lands and buildings 
of the town, in 181 5, made in pur- 
suance of the laws of the United 
States,and which comprised 39,227 
acres, was ^1,255,380; being an 
average value of $32 per acre. 

There are in this town 8 Physi- 
cians, 4 practising Attomies, and 5 
Clergymen. 

The tract of land comprising 
this township, the Indian name of 
which was Bantam, was purchas- 
ed of the colony of Connecticut, 
(the Indian title having been pre- 
viously extinguished,) by a compa- 



I 



234 



jilOGRAPHY. 



ny, in 1718. The purchase was 
divided into 60 shares, denomina- 
ted Proprietor's rifhts, ehdh of 
whith was estimated at £5. The 
original purchasers and the first 
settlers were from the towns of 
'Hartford, Windsor and Lebanon. 
The settlement commenced soon 
after the purchase ; and in 1 720 
and 1721, there were several fa- 
milies upon the trtict; and after 
this the settlement progressed ra- 
pidfy. Frdm the elevated situa- 
tion of the lands in this tract, they 
afforded excellent huntinggrouads; 
and many of the hills had been 
bui*ned by the Indians for this pur- 
pose, and the forests entirely de- 
stroyed, which facilftaited the im- 
prbv<iments« There were, bow- 
ever, Buf&cient forests left for the 
purposes of the settlers. 

BIOGRAPHY. TheHon.O/t- 
ver WolcoH, distinguished for his 
many public employments, was for 
many years a resident of this town. 
He was bom in Windsor, Dec. 
1726 ; and was the son of the 
Hon. Roger Wolcott, Who was af- 
terwards Governor of the colony 
of Conrieclicnt. He was edcteated 
at Yale College, where he gra- 
duated in 1 747. He was engaged 
in the expedition against Canada, 
in 1748, having the command of a 
company. Me continued in the 
jarmy during one campaign only ; 
soon after which, he entered upon 
the study of physic, and having be- 
come qualified- for ^practice, he es- 
tablished himself at Goshen. 'But 
he did not continue long in the 
practice pf this profession ; for, in 
1751, he was appointed sheriff of 
the county of ^Litchfield, whereup- 
on h^e removed to this town He 
contiaued in this situation until 



1772, a peiiod of 21 years, when 
he was elected a member ef t^ 
Conncil. TbesaBtre yearbe wate 
appointed Judge of the Court of 
Probate kt the District of Litch- 
field -; and in 1774, Judge ^ Ike 
Cqurt of Common Pleas for tiiifi 
County. In 1 775, he was chosen 
a member otHie Contifnentai Coa- 
gre^s ; and was contiimed in Hm 
situation, being a memfbef of th^ 
imtooi-tal 'Congress of '76, which 
proclaimed the eolemn deckratios, 
that these colonies were^ Aad of 
right ought to be, free, sovereign 
and independent. 

Gov. Wolcott was one of those 
venerated patriots who signed tb»t 
declaration, which is the charter 
of ou^r national existence. He 
continued a menf*ber of the Cowiit- 
cil, with the exception of the pe- 
riod that he was a Delegate iu 
Congress, until 1 786, when he was 
chosen hient Governor of this 
State. He was annually elected 
to tliis office, until the year 1796, 
a period of ten years, when he 
was chosen Governor; an ofiice 
which he did not long enjoy, as 
be died 12th Dec. 1797. "^ The 
duties of these numerous and im- 
portant offices, which occupied 
the greater portion^ of bis active 
life, he discharged with gre&t in- 
tegrity and firmness. 

Gov. Wolcott possessed, in a« 
eminent degree, a sound and vig- 
orous mind, pemaricable penetra- 
tion, and a strong and efficient tal- 
ent for investigation ; forming no 
opinions but what resulted from 
satisfectory proof. From a <:oi>- 
sciousness of his own integrity, he 
never hesitated to disclose the re- 
al motives Which governed his 
conduct. He had iio intentiona 



•i 



■J 






BIOGRAPHY. 



23^ 



iipiiliiiiiumiDitf ! 



an 



fie 



hui what were avowed 5 naobjects 
but what were app.%re9t. N.o^ loan 
ever had less indirection in bis con- 
ditct. He was constiiutionally ao 
honest laao; and heiiig ajso re- 
markable far the firo»Qe«s of his 
character, he never swerved frora 
the most inflexiWe principles of 
rectitadeand iategrity, either from 
weakneBSy or gioister intention. It 
has freifneiitlj beea observed, thnt 
men of the most eminent tal^ents 
ft&d virtues are often the most dif- 
fident ; and the truth of this w^s 
strikingly exempM&ed in Gov. Wol- 
cott. Both in pabhc co^erns, 
and in his private inteix30ui;»e, he 
was singulai;iy modest, and even 
diiSd^nt. lie Hved in an in;ipor* 
tant period in our history, took 
^ distinguished f^i^t in many great 
national evente, and his name is 
associated, and will be transmitted 
to posterity, with those pf the oth- ! 
er patriots of omt glorious Revo- 
lution. 

The Hon. Andrew Adeuns^ for 
many years a re^ideot of this 
town, was bom in Stratford, in 
1 736.. He ^received his education 
at Yale College, where he gradua- 
ted in 1769. Having completed 
hi^ classical education, he com- 
meneed the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in the county 
of Fairfiejd, He commenced prac- 
tice in his profession in Stamford, 
but continued there but a short 
time, having removed to this town 
in 1774. Here he entered upo^d 
the, practice of law with success, 
and was soon appointed a Justice 
of the Peace. Ift 1776, he was 
chosen a Representative of the] 
town in thie Legislature of the 
State ; and continued to be elect- 
ed to this office until 1781, when 



he wa& chosen a member of the 
Council..* About the same period^ 
he w^s elected a Representative 
in the Coi^gress of the United 
Siates* In May, 1793, the Gene- 
ral Assembly appointed him Chjef 
Jfudge of the Superior Court ; aR4 
he held this important office, un- 
til his death, Noy^ 26th!, ^799. 
He was 62 years pf age. As a 
lawyer and a^voc^^? be wsis emi^ 
nently distinguished, and was v^y 
successful in his- practice ; and as 
a Judge, he wa& very able and 
correct, ^ving a souad apd discri- 
minnting miind. 

Ephraim Kirhy Esq., ^istiii- 
guisbed aa a lawyer anfVstatesi- 
man, and fo,r Uis services during 
the revolutionary war, was, foe ma.- 
ny years a resident in this town. 
Col. Kirby was in the service 
of his county during tie revolu- 
tionary war, and was distinguished 
for his fidelity, bravery, enterprise 
and activity. Few officers^ it i$ 
beHeveK}, of hi^ rank, rendeiced 
more ii^portant services, or ac- 
quired k more distinguished repu- 
tation. The severe wounds which 
he received were the honourable 
testimonials of his bravery and 
services. After the close of the 
war, he engaged in the practice 
of law in this town, and becanie 
distinguishedin his profession^ both 
as a lawyer and advocate. Hav- 
ing a respectable knowledge of le- 
gal science, his views and ojjinions 
upou that subject were solid and 
correct ; and he possessed a mind 
remarkably clear, comprehensive 
and discriminating* Whilst in the 
practice of law, in the year 1789, 
he published a volume of Reports, 
of the decisions of the Superior 
Court and Suprenae Court of Er- 



c 



236 



BIOGRAPHV* 



rin 



mmmm 



rors in this State. This was a no- 
vel undertaking; being the first 
volume of Reports ever publish- 
ed in Connecticut; it was exe- 
cuted with faithfulness, judgment, 
accuracy and ability ; and his Re- 
ports are now regarded as authori- 
ty by the Courts of this State. 

Col. Kirby was appointed to va- 
rious offices in the militia of this 
State, and attained to the rank of 
Colonel. For a number of years, 
be wa« elected by the freemen of 
this town, as their representative 
in the popular branch of the Le- 
gislature of Connecticut. In this 
dtuation, he was always distin- 
guished for the dignity of his de- 
pottment, for his comprehensive 
and enlightened views as a states- 
man, for the liberality of his prin- 
ciples, and for the ability, firmness 
and decision of his conduct. 

On the elevation of Mr. Jeffer- 
son to the presidency, in 1 BOl , 
Col. Kirby was appointcid Super- 
visor of the Revenue of the Uni- 
ted States, for the State of Con- 
necticut* About this period, he 
was for several years a candidate 
for the office of Governor of this 
State. After the acquisition of 
Louisiana, Col. Kirby was appoint- 
ed by the President a Jtldge in the 
then recently organized territory 
of Orleans. Having accepted of 
this appointment, he set out for 
New-Orleans ; but he was not 
destined to reach that place, or 
entet upon the duties of his re- 
cent appointment. He proceed- 
ed as-far as Fort Stoddard, in the 
Mississippi territory, where he was 
taken sick, and died 2nd October 
1 804. His remains were interred 
with the honours of war, and oth- 
er demonstrations of respect. 



As a lawyer, a man of ieam- 
ing and talents. Col; Kirby stood 
deservedly high ; as a patriot, and 
friend of civil < liberty, he was 
ardent, almost to enthusiasm; as 
a politician and stat^esman, fais 
views were liberal, just and com- 
prehensive, founded upon an accu- 
rate and extensive knowledge of 
the human character, and its sus- 
ceptibility of improvement; and, 
as a citizen, few have had more so- 
cial and private virtues. His mem^ 
ory will long be cherished by the 
citizens of his native State. 

The Hon. Uriah Tracy was for 
many years a resident t)f this town. 
He was bom in Norwich, in^l 754i 
He was educated at Yale College, 
and was a member of die distin- 
guished class, which graduated in 
1 778. Soon after he left CoHege, 
he came to this town, and coni'- 
menced the . study of law with 
Judge Reeve, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1781. He soon be- 
came distinguished, as a lawyer 
and an advocate. He passed thro' 
various military offices, rising to 
the rank of a Major-General. In 
1788, he was elected a Represent 
tative of the town in the General 
Assembly,and was successively re- 
elected, until the year 1 793, when 
he was chosen a Representativeof 
this State in the Congress of the 
United States. He continued in 
this office until the year 1800, 
when he was appointed a Senator, 
which office he held at the time of 
his death, July 1807. He died 
at the seat of Government. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Tracy was 
very respectable ; and, as a poli- 
tician, eminently distinguished. 
He was among the first of the par- 
ty with which he acted, and was 



BARKHAMSTED. 



^1 



respected for Us talents and his 
isitelligeiice by his poliikai oppo- 
nents. He possessed a compre- 
hensive mtnd, respectable scienti- 
fic acquirements^ and an extensive 
knowledge of the human charac- 



ter. He had also a great share of 
wit and humour, and knew its pro- 
per use ; — to please, without woun- 
ding the fcehngs even of the most 
humble individual. 



BARKHAMSTED. 



BAfiKHAMSTED is a post 
township^ situated 2$ miles north- 
west from Hartford ; bounded on 
&e north by Hartland and Cole- 
brook, on the east by Canton and 
Grani>y, on the south by New- 
Hartford^ and on the west by Win- 
chester. It comprises about 32 
square miles, or 20,580 acres ; be- 
ing about 6 and a half miles in 
length from east to west, and about 
5 wiles in breadth from north to 
souths 

The township is. rough) stony 
and m<Mintainous ; being intersect- 
ed by two elevated granitic ridges, 
which run through it in a norther- 
ly and southerly direction, extend- 
ing to the north far into the interi- 
or of New-England. Upon the de- 
clivities of these ridges, and upon 
their summits, there is much bro- 
ken land, some which is inac- 
cessible. Their geological charac- 
ter is primitive, the prevailing 
i»hata of rock consisting of granite. 
In some places within this town, 
, these ridges exhibit very tofty and 
sublime featiH'es. Their declivities 
afibrd considerable wood and tim- 
ber, and when cleared, tolerable 
grazing* 

Iron ore has been discovered in 
these granitic strata, in different 
parts of the town in small quanti- 
ties^ but of a rich and good quality. 
I^some sections of the town there 



are s(»ne strata of Umestone ; and 
what is commonly called cotton^* 
stone is found in abundance ; and 
also freestone, which is valuable 
only for local uses. Thesoil,corres- 
ponding with the prevailing geolo- 
gical features, is generally a coarse 
gravelly loam, hard and dry ; and 
with the exception of some inter- 
vals upon the streams, is rough and 
stony, and in general inadmissible 
for tillage. It affords tolerable gra- 
zing, the interests of which consti- 
tute the staple agricultural pro- 
ducts of the town. Theidairy busi- 
ness receives general attention, 
and large quantities of cheese and 
butter are made annually ; a con- 
siderable proportion of which is 
sent abroad for a market. 

The raising of neat cattle and 
sheep is attended to, and consider- 
able beef is marketed. The inter- 
vals bordering upon the streams 
are generally rich and feasible, 
and afford tillage and mowing. 
The natural growth of wood and 
timber, which was once very heavy 
and abundant, has been greatly 
devastated. The mountains and 
hills were formerly covered with 
excellent timber, consisting of oak, 
chesnut, sugar maple, beach, pine 
and hemlock ; a considerable pro- 
portion of which has been destroy- 
ed by the elements, wind and fire, 
and by the axe> under a system of 



i 



238 



J 



BARKHAMSTED. 



nea 



improvidence, at a time wheu tim- 
ber was eofisidered of no value* 

The waters of the town are 
abundaatfUnd of an excellent quali- 
ty; the two principal branches of 
the Tunxis, or Farmington river, 
run through it, and form a nnio 
in the north part of New-Hartford. 
The Still river runs northerly thro' 
Torrington and Winchester into 
Colebrook, whence it takes a south-^ 
erly course and unites with the 
west branch of the Farmington 
river in this town, forming what is 
called the forks of the river. Be^ 
sides these, there are numerous 
ffmaM streams which are tributary 
to them, that water the various 
sections of the town* Upon these 
streams, there are various sites and 
privileges for mills and other water 
works, and five considerable bridg- 
es* 

The facilities of cemmunica^ 
tion are greatly increased, consid-r 
ering the roughness of the country, 
by the number of turnpike roads 
with which the town is accommo? 
dated. The Greenwoods turnpike 
leading to Albany passes through 
Its southwest section ; the Farming- 
ton river turnpike, which communi- 
cates with the former and leads to 
Albany* runs through its western 
l^ectioQ in a northerly and souiherr 
ly direction, following the course 
of the west branch of the Farming- 
ton river; the Hartland turnpike 
leading westwardly, and which 
^communicates with the Green- 
woods turnpike in Norfolk, passes 
through the northwest comer of 
the town . In May, 1 8 1 8, a turn- 
pike road was authorized, and has 
since been surveyed, leading from 
the Greenwoods turnpike to New- 
gate prison, which passes through 



'ji'ifi* 



the western section of this town, 
crossing the Farmiri^on river turc^ 
pike, and running dirtily by "ibe 
meeting house* h has not yet been 
opened* 

Of the mechanical and manu- 
facturing establishments of the 
town, there are 3 Grain Mills, 12 
Saw Mills, 1 Fulling Mill and cloth 
I dressing establishment, 1 Furnace 
for casting cart and waggoo boxes, 
clock bells and some other smaU 
articles, and 2 Tanneries* 
V The population of the town, ia 
1810, was 1^06;. and there a^e 
about 2€Q £tectars or Freemen^, 
2 companies of Militia, and about 
230 Dwelling houses. The aggre- 
gate list of the town, in lQ16y ws^ 
^26,978* 

The town contains 2 located 
Congregational Societies, 1 Socics 
ty of Episcopalians and one of 
Methodists ; besides which, there 
are some Baptists* There are % 
houses for public worship, 1 for 
CongregationuUsts and 1 for Epis- 
copalians* It contains also, U 
School districts* There are 3 Mer- 
cantile Stores, 4 Public Houses or 
Inns, 3 Social Libraries ^nd 1 Pfay^ 
sician^ 

The first settler in Barkhamsted 
was Pelatiah AUyn from Windsor, 
who removed there about the year 
1744, and remained the onlyin^ 
habitant of the town for 10 or 12. 
years* la the summer he employ- , 
ed his time in clearing and cultir 
vating his lands, and in the winter 
in bunting. His privations, suffer- 
ings, dangers and hardships^ could 
only have been equalled by his 
perseverancci^ To have been for 
the long period of 10 oc 12 years 
a solitary inhabitant of a dreary 
wilderness, rendered more hideous 






BETHLEM. 



239 



from tbe native mggedness of itis 
&atare&) baviog retraces of civiii- 
'ZatioQ but what his otrn hands had 
produced^ and i^xposed to the fioost 
imminent perils from its native 
inbahibiBis^'*r*wtld beasts which 
claimed to be " lords of the soil^" 
and flvkintaitied an indisputafole 
dominion over . it, i» a sitnation 
«(rhi<eh it is diffi^eult to conceive, 
and impossible >|!0 describe. Mr. 
Allyn jastly deseav!^ to be regard- 
ed as the patriarch of the town. 
Fxom his indastry and perseve- 
rance during this long period of 
volui^ry e:xiie,heiiad ir^e such 
impiK) vemei^) and placed y mself 
in such a situation as to enable 
him to be eeninently uteibi to 
other settlers ; but, notwithstand- 
ing, die progress of the settlement 



Was very slow aiid discouragii^. 
lu 1771, about 37 yeara fnmi the 
commencement of the settlement 
by Mr. AUyn, there were but 20 
faiioilies within the Umite of the 
town. Israel Jones from Enfieldi 
William Austin, Jonathan King 
aad a Mr. Norton from Suffield^ 
Amos Case from Simsbury, John 
Ives from Hamden, Joseph Shep- 
ard from Hartford and Joseph 
Wilder from East-Haddam^ were 
among the first and principal set^- 
tiers. 

The town was tncorporated in 
1779. Joseph Wilder was the first 
magistrate^ and for several years 
the only one in the town. The 
Rev. O^s Ells, who was ordain* 
ed in 1 787, was the first minister^ 
He died in 1813. 



BETHLEM. 



BETHLEM is a small elevated 
interior post township, 38 miles 
from Hartford, and 33 from New- 
Haven ; bounded on the ixorth by 
sLitchfield, on the east by Water- 
town, on the south by Woodbury^ 
and on the west by Washington. 
Its avemge length from east to 
weet is 4 and a half miles, and its 
averager breadth 4 miles, contain- 
ing an area of about 18 square 
miles. 

The township is c<»isiderably 
hilly; its surface being diversified 
with granitic eminences and val- 
lies. The soil is generally a gra- 
velly loam, and is best adapted 
to grazing. It however pt^duces 
tolerable crops of grain. 

The natural growti^ consists 
of oak^ maple, cbesnut, walnut, 
&c. ■ ' 



The township is watered by se- 
veral branches of Pomperaug riv*^ 
er, which afibrd some good sites^ 
for mills, some of which are oc- 
cupied. 

The populati<m of the town, iu 
1810, was 1118; and there ane. 
1 50 qualified Electors, 1 Compa*. 
ny of Militia, and 1 70 Dfrelling 
houses. 

There are 3 small Distilleries, 
1 Grain Mill, 1 Fulling Mill and 
Clotbkr's works, 1 Carding Ma- 
chine, 1 Tannery, 4 Saw Mills, 
and 1 Mercantile Store. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is |S^7,000; and 
the assessment of the lands and 
buildings of the town, in 1816^ 
whicli included 11,161 acres, 
amounted to ^306^555 ; being an 
average value of $27yVir P®''*^^* 



240 



CANAAN. 



The town contains 1 located 
Congregational Society &.Churcb, 
1 Society of Episcopalians and 1 
of Baptists. 

It is divided into 9 School Dis- 
tricts, each of which is provided 
with a School house, and main- 
tains a School for several months 
in the year. 

The professional men are 1 Phy- 
sician, 1 C]erg3rman and 1 Attor- 
ney ; there is 1 small Social Li- 
brary, 

Bethlem was taken from Wood- 
bury, and incorporated in 17&7. 

BIOGRAPHY. TheRev. Jlzel 
B(ick%i$^ D. D. was for many years 
a resident clergymaa in this 
town. Dr. Backus was educated at 
Yale College, where he graduated 
in 1787. Having qualified him- 
self for the ministry, at an early 
period, he was ordained as the 
successor of Dr. Bellamy, in this 
town, and continued in this situa- 
tion until the establishrpent of Ha- 
milton College, in the county of 
Oneida, in the State of New- York, 
when he was appointed to preside 
ever that Institution. Whilst in 
this town, he instituted a school, 
and took upon himself the charge 
and instruction of his pupils, whom 
be took into his own family, there- 
by adding parental care and 6oli«t 
citude to the advantages of lite- 
rary and moral instruction. This 
school became very highly and de- 



servedly celebrated, and was at- 
tended by students from different 
parts of the Union. 

The distinguished reputation 
which he bad acquired, as a di- 
vine, a man of science, and an in- 
structor of youth, procured for 
him the appointment to the pne- 
sidency of Hamilton College. He 
received the ^pointment about 
the year 1812, and continued in 
this situation until his death, De- 
cember 26th, 1816. He was the 
first President of this College, and 
taking the charge of the Institu- 
tion at its commencement, he had, 
during the short period that he 
presided over it, very arduous and 
complicated duties to perform. 
But his learning, judgment and 
faithfulness rendered him admira- 
bly qualified for his situation ; and, 
under his guidance and direction, 
this infant seminary was rapidly 
rising into notice, and afforded a 
most flattering promise of future 
usefulness and reputation. 

Dr. Backus was distinguished 
for remarkable vigour and apti- 
tude of mind. He was an able 
divine, a good scholar, and a ju- 
dicious and successful instructor. 
He was also eminent for his social 
virtues, the mildness of his dispo- 
sition, and the complacency of faia 
temper. He was both respected 
and beloved by his pupils. 



CANAAN. 



CANAAN, a considerable post 
lo -unship, is situated in the north- 
westeni section of the county, 41 
miles northwest from Hartford ; 
bounded on the north by Massa- 



chusetts line, on the east by Noft 
folk, on the south by Cornwall, 
and on the west by the Ousatonick 
river, which divides it from Salis- 
bury. 



CANAAN. 



241 



1 he township comprises an area 
of about 50 square wiiles ; having 
an average length from north to 
south of about 9 miles, and a mean 
breadth of neariy 6 mites. - 

The face of the country is bro- 
ken and mountainous, several con* 
siderable ranges, same of which 
are elevated, extending through 
the town in a noiftheasterly and 
southwesterly direction. These 
ranges are of a primitive gtrmitic 
character. Between the moun- 
tiains and hills there are extensive 
calcareous vales. These vales 
have internal strata of limestone ; 
numerous quJirries of which, 
in these calcareous strata, have 
been opened for the making of 
lime. The best limestone is usu- 
ally found on the northern declivi- 
ties of small eminences. In the 
northeasterly section of the town- 
ship, iron ore has been discovered 
near the surface. A mine has 
been opened, and quantities of the 
ore raised and worked. The ore 
was found tobe rich, as to the quan- 
tity of ftron which it contained ; 
but it is of an inferior quality. 

The soil is various, being of a 
difierent quality in different sec- 
tions, according to their geological 
character. Upon the mountains, 
lulls and their declivities, it is ge-^ 
neralljt a primitive gravelly loam ; 
and in most of the vallies it is a 
calcareous loam. The former are 
principally reserved for forests, or 
improved by grazing ; and the lat- 
ter are admirably adapted to a 
grain culture, affording excellent 
crops of wheat, rye, corn and 
oats. The^e is considerable bro- 
ken and waste land inthetown«- 
ship, but many sections that are 
rich and fertile ; so that it may be 

31 



considered as a good and flourish- 
ing agricultural town. 

The forests comprise various 
species of trees, principally deci- 
duous ; oak, chesnut, walnut, but- 
ternut, beach, sugar maple, soft 
maple, birch, hemlock, white and 
yellow pine, white and red cedar, 
spruce, red, white and black ash, 
elm, bass, boiwood, whitewood, 
peperidge, mountain ash, sassa- 
fras, alder, &c. 

The agricultural productions are 
rye, Indian corn, oats, wheat, buck 
wheat, peas, beans, barley, cheese, 
butter, beef, pork, flax, flax-seed^ 
&c. The staples are rye andeom^ 
of which there are annually con-* 
siderable quantities raised that are 
sent abroad foT a market* 

The western border of the 
township is washed by the Ousa- 
tonick riVer; and the interior is Win- 
tered hy nnmerous small streams, 
of which Blackberry river, that ri- 
ses in Norfolk, and runs through 
the town, and Hollenbach/ having 
its source within the town, and 
both of which 4li8charge their wa- 
ters into the Ousatoiiick, are the 
principal. Upon these and other 
smaller streams there are nume- 
rous sites for hydraulic works. 

This town is accommodated 
with severiail turnpike roads ; the 
Greenwoods turnpike, leading 
from New-Martford, northwester^ 
]y, passes through this town; the 
Litchfield and Canaan turnpike, 
leading to Litchfield ; and the Ca- 
naan and Salisbury turnpike, which 
unites with the last mentioned, 
near the old furnace in Salis- 
bury. 

The manufactures of the town 
are principally of iron, which con- 
stitute an important, and \n gene* 



342 



COLEBROOK. 



mttm 



ral a profitable business. There 
are 8 Forges, 7 Anchor Shops, aid 
2 Furnaces. The dre used here 
is transported from SaHsbury. The 
iron fnanufactures have developed 
an extensive field of industry, and 
are sourcesof considerable wealth. 
Besides these, there are 1 Cotton 
Factory, 1 Distillery, 4Grain Mills, 
1 Plaster Mill, 15 Saw Mills and 
4 Carding Machines* There are 
a number of Limekilns in this 
town ; and large quantities of lime 
are annually made, and sent to dif- 
ferent places for a market. 

In 1810, there were 3183 inha* 
bitants in this town ; and there are 
BOW abibut 300 Electors, 300 Mi« 
Htia, and 976 Dwelling houses. 

Tlie mercantile business is re« 
spectable, there being 9 Dry Goods 
and Grocery Stores in the town. 



The civil or corporate divisions 
are 2 located Congregational So« 
cieties and 12 School Districts. 
Besides the located, there are 2 
other religious Societies ; one of 
Methodists and one of Friends, or 
Quakers* There are I ^ primary 
Schools, one in each District ; 3 
Social Libraries, 3 Attornies, 2 
Clergymen, and 2 practising Pby«. 
sicianB. 

Thti township was sold at New^ 
London, at auction, in 1 738 ; and 
the settlement commenced in June 
the same year. The first settlers 
were Daniel and Isaac Lawrence, 
and John Franklin ; but they were 
soon joined by various otbera* 
The town was incorporated in 
1739 ; and the first clei^maa, the 
Rev. Elisha Webster, was settled 
in Oct. 1740. 



COLEBROOK* 



COLEBROOK, an elevated 
post township, is situated 31 miles 
northwest from Hartford, on the 
northern border of the county; 
bounded on the north by Massa- 
chusetts line, on the east by Hart- 
land, in Hartford county, on the 
south by Winchester, and on the 
west hj Norfolk. Its average 
length from east to west is $ miles, 
and its average breadth 5 miles, 
eoiitaining about 30 square miles. 
This township is embraced with- 
in the granitic district, which con- 
Atitutos the height of land in the 
western part oi the State. It is 
hilly and mountainous ; and the 
^ soil is a hard, gravelly loam, and 
generally stony. It is in general 
rather cold and wet, but aflfdrds 
tolerable good grazing. There 



are some intervals which are well 
adapted to grass or mowing. 

The dairy business is the prin- 
cipal agricultural interest of the 
town ; and considerable quanti- 
ties of butter and cheese are 
made annually by the inhabitants. 

The natural growth of timbeY 
consists of oak, maple, beech, 
hemlock and other perennial trees; 
but the latter comprise a conside-r 
rable proportion of the forests in 
this town. 

The main branch of the Tuux- 
is or Farmington river intersects 
the eastern section of \ the town, 
and aifi>rds most excellent mill 
seats and privileges for water 
works. Still river, a considerable 
branch of the Tunxis, washes its 
southeastern border ^ and another 



CORNWALL. 



S4a 



branchy called the Sandy m^r, 
runs through its interior. These 
two streams afford also numerous 
sites for mills and other hydraulic 
workSi 

The tomi is well aecomatiodated • 
with ^irnpike roads ; the Albany! 
turnpike teads throng its eastern; 
Qi3ctioD ; the Hudson turnpike thro' j 
itssouthwesf^ra; anidtheHartIand| 
turnpike leads through the centre t 
of the town from east to west ; and I 
flie New-Haven turnpike from 
porCh to south ; there is, also the 
Still rirer turnpike. 

The population of the town^ in 
1810, was 1243; and there are 
about 200 Dwelling houses, 200 
Fr^men or Electors, and 2 com- 
panies of militia* 

The amount of tatable proper- 
ty, including polls, is |^26,447 ; and 
the valuation or assessment of 
lands and buildings in 1815, which 
included 17,555 acres, amounted 



wtmmm 



to ^270,102 , being an average of 
of $^ B^v f^t iSLcre. 

The most considerable manu- 
facturing and mechanical employ- 
ments are 1 establishment for the 
manufacture of Steel, 2 Scythe 
Factoiies, at Which sleigh shoes 
and several other articles are ma-* 
nufttctured, 1 Woolen Factory, 3 
Tanneries, 1 Grain M tU, 1 Fulling 
Mill and Clothier's workd^ 1 Car* 
ding Machine, and 3 Manufacto*- 
ries of Wooden Ware, Or Turning 
establishments. There are 4 Mer« 
cantile Stored. 

The town contains 1 located 
Congregational Society & Church, 
and 1 Society of Baptists, 1 Social 
Library, and 8 School Districts 
and Schools. 

The professional men are S Phy- 
sicians, 2 Clergymen and 1 Att'y. 

Colebrook was first settled in 
1765, and was incorporated in 
1779. 



CORNWALL, 



CORNWALL^ a post township, 
is situated 38 miles west from Hart- 
ford, and 48 northwest from New« 
Haven ; bounded on the north by 
Canaan, on the cast by Goshen, 
on the south by Warren and Kent, 
and on the west by the Ousatonick 
river^ separatii^it from Shati^n. 

Its average %ngtb from nortti 
to south is more than ^ miles^ 
and its average breadth about 5 
miles, comprtsing an area of about 
46 square mile^ 

The township is hilly and moun- 
tainous ; containing ma ly elevated 
and continuous hills, and deep and 
extensive vales. Its geological 
character is primitive ; the rocks 



consisting of granite, micaceous 
ichistus, and some limestone in 
the vales. Several minerals have 
been discovered ; in the west sec- 
tion of the town, there is a moun- 
tain, in which, at various places, 
there are veins of black lead ore. 
It has been used for marking, and 
some other purposes ; but has not 
received that attention which is ne- 
cessary to develope its quantity, 
ridinesb or Value. About two miles 
south of the principal settlement in 
the town, there is a bed of porcelain 
clay, of 5 or 6 feet in depth, 7 or 8 ^t 
in width, and of several rods in 
extent. It is thought that the 
quality of the day is as good as 



r 



244 



CORNWALL. 



that of foreign countries ; and, if 
properly manufactured, would af- 
ford excellent porcelain ware. 
There are also various indi- 
cations of iron ore, at various 
places; but no mines have been 
opened or worked. 

The soil is generally a gravelly 
loam ; but in some sections of 
the vales it is a calcareous loam, 
It is ws^rm, fertile and productive ; 
.being well adapted both to grain 
and grazing. 

Among the natural growth of 
timber, oak. chesnut, maple and 
pine abouna ; there is also birch, 
ash, beech, &G., comprising every 
kind of wood, valuable for fuel, 
fencing or building. 

The agricultural productions 
consist of wheat, of which con- 
siderable quantities are annually 
raised, rye, oats, hay, butter and 
cheese, of which considerable 
quantities are annually marketed 
abroad, beef, pork, wool, and some 
other articles. 

The Ousatonick washes the wes- 
tern border of the town. Besides 
which? there are several small 
streams, affording many sites for 
water works. 

^ Across the Ousatonick, there 
are several bridges ; one on the 
Goshen and Sharon turnpike, call^ 
ed Hart's bridge ; one on the road 
lei^ding from this town to Ells- 
worth Society, in Sharon, called 
Lewi§' bridge, at the village of 
that nanie ; and one on the Sharon 
and Cornwall turnpike; these 
bridges are ?ibout 120 feet in length. 
The town is accommodated 
with several turnpike roads ; the 
Canaan and Litchfield turnpike 
crosses its northeast corner; the 
t:^rnJpike from Sharon to Pough- 



keepsie, after ipassing through Go- 
shen, leads through the centre of 
the town east and west, and passes 
the north meeting-house ; Corn- 
wall and Washington turnpike 
leads through the town north and 
south, about one mile east of its 
centre; Warren turnpike runs 
north and south, on its west line ; 
and Sharon and Cornwall turnpike 
east and west, near its south bor- 
der. 

About two miles from the north 
boundary of the town, and near 
its centre, east and west, there is 
a pond called Cornwall pond, be- 
ing one mile in length, and half a 
mile in breadth, from which there 
is an outlet that affords numerous 
sites for mills and other water- 
works. In the southeast comer 
of the town, there is also a pond 
of about one mile in length, and 
nearly half a mile in width. These 
ponds are stored with pickerel and 
trout; the latter are also taken 
plentifully in the small streams. 

The manufactures and mecha- 
nical interests and^ trades in the 
town, are the following : 1 Woolen 
Factory, which employs about six 
hands, 2 Iron Forges, constantly 
in operation, 4 Distilleries, 2 
of gin and 2 of cider brandy, 4 
Tanneries, 3 Grain Mills, 2 Mills 
to clean clover-seed, 2 OU Mills, 
20 Saw Millsy 3 Fulling Mills and 
Clothiers' works^ *and 2 Carding 
Machines, for Customers.. There 
are 2 Cabinet; Makers, 4 House 
Joiners, 2 Carpenters, 2 Wheel- 
wrights, 1 Carriage Maker, 6 
Coopers, 7 Blacksmiths, 1 Mason 
and Bricklayer, 1 Hatter, 20 Shoe 
Makers and 6 Tailors. There are 
4 Mercantile Stores and trader)»> 
and 4 Public Inns. 



^ 



BIOGRAPHY. 



245 



The population of the town^ in 
1810, was 1602; and there are 
about 250 Electors, 2 Companies 
of militia, one of about 80 mem- 
bers) and the other a Light In^ 
fantry Company of about SJ, and 
about 200 Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable jwrpper- 
ty, including polls, estimate ac- 
cording to the laws for making up 
lists, in 1816, was |^37,559 ; and 
the assessment' of the lands and 
buildings of the town, in 1815, 
which comprised 23,484 acres, 
amounted to $490,696 ; being 
20y«J?^ dollars per acre. The as- 
sessment of the real estate of this 
town and Goshen, in 1 799, amoun- 
ted to $5 17,342 ; being only $ 1 7,- 
646 more than the valuation of 
Cornwall alone, in 1815. 

The town comprises 1 located 
Society and 1 1 School Districts. 
There are, however, 2 Congrega- 
tional Churches, and a Society 
and Church of Methodists. There 
is a common or primary School 
maintained in each of the School 
Districts, a suitable portion of the 
year. Besides which there is a 
Foreign Missionary School, design- 
ed for the education and ecclesias- 
tical instruction of foreigners, and 
is the only school of the kind in 
the United States. 

It contains, at this time, 20 scho- 
lars from various parts of the 
world, some from the Sandwich 
Islands. 

There are 3 Social Libraries, 
1 Clergyman, 1- Attorney and 2 
Physicians. 

This township was divided info 
53 shares or rights, and sold at 
public auction at Fairfield, in Feb- 
ruary 1737 or 1738, bya commit- 
tcQ, consisting of John Barnes, 



£dmund Lewis and Ebenezer 
Silliman, appointed by the Gene- 
ral Assembly for ttiat purpose. 
The jsale was effected, at ^30 per 
right, with the reservation of one 
right for the support of the minis- 
try, and another for the benefit of 
schools. In laying out the town- 
ship, there was also a reservation 
of 384 acres for the benefit of 
Yale College. 

The first settlement was made 
about the year 1738, probably in 
the spring of that year ; and in 
1740 there were 13 families in the 
town, previously to the arrival of 
John Dibble, with several others, 
from Stamford. Soon afterwards, 
Joshua Pierce removed from Pem- 
broke, in Massachusetts, and set- 
tled in this town. The settlement 
soon became respectable and flou- 
rishing; and in 1741, a clergy- 
man was ordained, being the first 
settled in the town. 

BIOGRAPHY. CoL Ethan Al^ 
len^ distinguished for his bravery^ 
his adventures and his sufferings, 
during the revolutionary war, was 
a native of this town. Whilst he 
was a youth, his father removed to 
Vermont. In the year 1 770, when 
the disturbances in that territory 
had assumed a serious aspect. Col. 
Allen first came into notice, from 
the bold and active part which he 
took in favour of the " Green 
Mountain Boys," as they were 
called, in opposition to the claims 
of the Government of the State 
of New- York. So obnoxious had 
he rendered hin/.elf, that an act 
of outlawry against bim was pass- 
ed by the Government of that co- 
lony^ and 500 guineas were offered 
for his apprehension. But he had 
nothing to fear from these proceed* 



c 



346 



BIOGRAPHY. 



tt)^, as his party were too nume- 
fous and too faithful to the man 
who had been the great champi- 
Oikof their eause^ to suffer him to 
be apprehended. During the pe- 
riod that this subject was agitated, 
in all the struggles which it occa- 
sioned, and in which Col. Allen 
took a part, be was uniformly suc- 
cessful. 

On receiving the news of the 
battle of Lexington, the first hos- 
tile event of the revolutionary con- 
test, Col. Allen determined to en- 
gage on the side of the colonies ; 
and being hasty in his decisions, 
and desperately bold and deter- 
mined in his enterprises, his ar- 
dour and attachment to the cause 
of his country were soot? signalized 
by a daring and almost unexam- 
pled exploit. Soon after the af- 
fair at Lexington, a project had 
been consulted, to surprise and 
take the forts of Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point, by several gentle- 
men from Connecticut; and on 
being informed of this enterprise, 
Col. Allen engaged in it with his 
usual ardour and characteristic 
bravery, and being joined by Col. 
Arnold, this party of adventurers 
accomplished their object, without 
the loss of a man. In this affair, 
an incident occurred, which in a 
peculiar manner exemplified the 
ha meter of Col. Allen. He rush- 
ed into the fort, at the imminent 
risk of his life, and demanded its 
immediate surrender. The asto- 
nished commander, equnlly filled 
v/itb surprise dnd consterhation, 
inquired " by what authority ?" 
To this, Allen, without the least 
hesitation, replied, '-in the name 
of the Great Jehovah and of the 
continental Congress.'' 



I In the autumn of 1775, he wai 
sent into Canada, to observe the 
dispositions of the people in th^t 
province, and to endeavour to al* 
tach them to the American oatiae. 
Whilst on this' tour, Col* Browft 
proposed to him the project of aa 
attack upon Montreal, which waa 
eagerly embraced by CoL AlieQ« 
For the execution of this bold 
enterprise, he collected 110 meo^ * 
nearly 80 of whom were Canadi* 
ans ; and with this little party, o& 
the evening of the 24thof Septem^ 
ber, he crossed the river, expect- 
ing the co-operation of Coi^ '^ 
Brown, in which, however, . he 
was disappointed. In the moroiog 
he was attacked by a force of 600 
men, a part 6f whom were In^ 
diansy and after an obstinate and 
desperate resistance, he was com- 
pelled to surrender. On falling 
into the hands of the British, he 
was put in irons, and treated with 
the greatest severity and cruelty*: 
He was shortly after sent to £ng«^ 
land, as a prisoner, although not 
allowed the rights belonging to a 
prisoner of war, being aAer liia 
arrival there confined in a castle 
near Falmouth. On the 8th Jan. 
1776, he was embarked on board 
a frigate, destined for Halifax, and; 
from thence proceeded to New-^ 
York. Here he-wa» detained 
ab6ut a year and a half, and had 
an opportunity to witness the se- 
vere and inhuman manner in 
which the American prisoners 
were treated. He calculated that 
nearly 2000 of these unfortunate 
persons perished by hunger and 
cold, and from diseases which 
originated from the anwholesome^ 
ness of their provisions, and t^ 

limpurity of their prisoiu 



GOSHEN. 



247 



Coh Allen was exchanged in 
May 1778, and soon returned to 
Vermont ; where, from his des- 
perate exploits and extreme suf- 
ferings in the cause of his country, 
be was received with the most en- 
thusiastic joy. He was soon 
♦fter promoted to the rank bf a 
Brigadier^General in the militia of 
that State. He acquired great in- 
fluence in that section of the couh- 
tfy,asdwa6 extensively active and 
useful during the remainder of the 
war. 

Cok Allen possessed a mind na- 
turally strong, vigorous and ec- 
centric, but it had not been im- 
proved by an early education. He 
was brave in the most imminent 
danger, and possessed a bold, dar- 
ing and adventurous spirit, which 
neither feared dangers nor regard- 
ed difficulties* He was also inge- 
nuous, frank, generous and patri- 
otic^ which are the usual accompa- 
nying virtues of native bravery and 
courage. He wrote and publish- 
ed a narrative of his sufferings du- 
ring his imprisonment in England 
and in New- York } comprising al- 
QO various observations upon the 
events of the war, the conduct of 
^e British, their treatment of their 
prisoners^ &c. He died Idth Feb. 
1789. 

The Hon. Heman Swift was a 



resident of this town, and died here 
on the 14th Nov. 1814, aged 82 
years. He was the son of Ja- 
bez Swift, and was born in Sand-' 
wich, Massachusetts, in 1733; soon 
after which, his father emigrated 
to this State, and settled in the 
town of Kent. During the French 
war, at an early age, Mr. 'Swift, 
the subject of this notice, entered 
the service, having the rank of a 
lieutenant in the provincial troops 
sent to the northern frontier. At 
an early period of the revolution- 
ary war, he was appointed a colo- 
nel in the continental army, by 
the American Congress. He con- 
tinued in the service until the ter- 
mination of the war ; and, through- 
out most of this arduous and dis- 
tressing contest, he belonged to 
the main army, and executed the 
orders of its illustrious leader. 
He was esteemed a good officer^ 
and was distinguished for his firm- 
ness*, integrity, and strict regard to 
military discipline, and enjoyed 
the esteem and confidence of the 
Commander in chief. After the 
close of the war, having retired to 
his residelnce in Cornwall, he was 
soon appointed to various civil of- 
fices, under the Government of 
this State, and for twelve years 
in succession, was a member of 
the Council. 



GOSHEN, 



GOSHEN is an elevated post 
township, situated 32 miles west 
from Hartibrd, and 43 from New- 
Haven ; bounded on tiie north by 
Norfolk, on the east by Winchester 
and Torrington, on the south by 
Litchfield and Warren, and on the 



west by Cornwall. Its average 
length is about 9 miles from north 
to south, and its average breadth 4 
and a half miles, comprising about 
40 square miles. 

This township is very elevated, 
and is undoubtedly the highest 



I 



248 



GOSHEN. 



fiSfifi! 



mm 



mmm 



land in* the State, but it is not gene- 
rally mountainous; the surface be- 
iag undulating, affording an inter- 
esting diversity of hill and dale. 
Just north of the centre of the 
town, there is an elevated hill call- 
ed Ivy mountain, which rises con- 
siderably above the general surface 
of the town, and is considered as 
the most elevated point of land in 
the State. It affords a most exten- 
sive and interesting prospect, in 
almost every direction; to the 
westt is a view of the Catskill moun- 
tain for a considerable extent ; its 
rugged features, and high and dis- 
orderly hills ; and to the east is a 
view of the elevated country east 
of Connecticut river. 
. The road called East-street is 
so situated upon a height of ground, 
as to divide the waters which de- 
scend into the Ousatonick and 
Waterbury rivers. 

The geological character of the 
township is primitive ; the rocks 
consisting of granite, gneiss and 
other original formations. The 
soil is a gravelly loam, deep, strong 
and fertile ; and is admirably adapt- 
ed to grazing ; and hence, the dai- 
ry business is extensively and ad- 
vantageously carried on, the pro- 
ducts of which, consisting not only 
of butter and cheese, but of pork 
and lard, canstitute the agricultu- 
ral staples of the town. The grow- 
ing of cattle and fattening of beeves, 
also receive considerable attention. 
This is one of the best towns for 
the dairy business in the State ; 
and the farmers are generally 
wealthy and flourishing. In 1 81 1 , 
there was 380,236 lb. of cheese 
marketed abroad, from this town, 
which was much less than the 
whole quantity made; the consump- 



tion of the inhabitants, and sales 
at home being considerable. This 
quantity of cheese at 10 cents per 
pound, would have amounted to 
^[38,023:60, a very Considerable 
sum for-the avails of a single sta- 
ple. But neat cattle, and th^ va- 
rious interests of the dairy basinNs 
do not occupy the exetiisive at- 
tention of the farmers of this town; 
sheep and the growing of wool, 
receive considerable attention, 
particularly since the merino breed 
has been introduced. ^ 

Of the natural growth of timber, 
the sugar maple prevails ; and for* 
merly, the industry of the inhabi- 
tants suppHed large quantities of 
sugar, from the saccharine juice 
of this valuable tree. 

There h no stream in Gosheny 
excepting one which rises in Nor- 
folk, and runs across the northieast 
corner of the town, deserving the 
character of a river ; font there are 
several small mill streams^ having 
their sources in ponds and springs 
within the town, some of which 
afford good sites for water wcftkffi 

There are five ponds in the town 
of different sizes, from one to three 
miles in circumference; the out^ 
lets of some of which afibrd excel- 
lent sites for hydraulic works* The 
stream which flows from one of 
these ponds in the western part of 
the town, is admirably calculated 
for water works, having an ade- 
quate supply of water at all times, 
and characterized by great uni- 
formity; being neither affected by 
drou^fks, nor heavy rains occasion* 
ingfineshetsasinotherstreams. Up- 
on this stream, there are now. 2 
Woolen Factories, a Carding Ma* 
chinefor customers, 2 Fulling Milis^ 
a Grain Mill, Saw Mill, Trip Ham- 



HARWINTON. 



249 



N 



l^lMHiMAMMa^M^ — ■ ' J — ■ — . - —r- 

tner^ a Machine fof dressing flax 
and an Oil 1^11, ail situated with- 
in 50 oc 60 rods of each ottier. 

The turnpike road from Hart- 
ford to Sharon^ and thence to 
Poughkeepsie, leads through the 
centre of this town ; and one also 
from New-Hay en to Albany, inter- 
secting the former at right an- 
gles. -- 

The more considerable manu- 
factures and mechanical interests 
.and employments are the follow- 
ing: 2 Woolen Factories, each 
employitig from 1 5 to 20 persons ; 
and it is estimated, that from 8 to 
10,000lbs« of wool are manufactur- 
ed annually at these establishments; 
the fabrics of whieh have justly 
acquired a considerable local ce- 
lebrity, not only for durability, but 
for fineness and elegance of style. 
In addition to the Woolen manu- 
factures, there are 2 Potteries, or 
manufactories q[ earthen ware, 
2 Carding Machines, (besides those 
belonging to the two Woolen facto- 
ries,) 3 Fulling Mills and Clothiers' 
works for customers, 2 Grain Mills, 
B Saw Mills and 5 Tanneries, most- 
ly upon a small scale. There 
are io. the town, d Mercantile 
Stores* 

The population of the town^ in 
1810) was 1641 ; and there are 
about 340 Electors, 2 Companies 



of Militia, and about 240 Dwelling 
bousesv 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, in 1817, waA 
|||45,840. The assessment ot lands 
and buildings, includiog 20,706 
acres, amounted |a^ 12,272 ; be- 
ing p4 tVjt per acrew 

The town contaitis 1 located 
Ecclesiastical Society and 8 School 
districts, which constitute its civil 
divisions; besides the located, 
ther'e is a Society of Methodists, 
both of which are accommodated 
with houses for public worship. 
There is a primary School main- 
tained in each of the School dis- 
tricts for a auitable portion of the 
year; besides Which, there is 
usually a Grammar School in ihe 
centre of the town. There are 2 
Clei^men, 2 Physicians and 1 
Attorney. 

The first settlement in Goshen 
commenced in 1738 or 1739, the 
township having been sold atNeW<> 
Haven in 1 737. The first settlers 
were principally from New-Haven, 
Wallingford & Farmington. Prom 
the elevated situation of the town, 
it has been remarkably healtliy, 
having never been visited wi& 
epidemical or contagious diseases. 
The town was incorporated in Oc«>^ 
tober, 1749, being nine or ten yearns 
from the first settiiement* 



HARWINTON* 



^HARWINTON is a post town- 
ship, situated in Uste southeastern 
section of the county, 23 miles 
firom Hartford; bounded on the 
north by New-Hartford and Tor- 
rington, im the east by Burlington 
in Hartford county, on the &outb 

32 



by Plymouth, and on the west by 
the Naugatuck river^ which sepa- 
rates it from Litchfield. It is 6 miles 
in l^igth, and 5 in breadth, compri- 
sing an area of 30 square miles. 

The township is elevated and 
billy ; and its geological structure, 



950 



KENT. 



bodi with respect to its rocks and 
Boil, is of a granitic character; theire 
tre, however, some quarries of 
micaceotts schistas, aiid other pri- 
mitive rocks* The timber and 
forests consist principally of deci- 
duous trees. The lanch are best 
adapted to grazmg, and the making 
of butter and cheese is a leading 
agricultural interest. 

The town is watered, exclusive 
of the Naugatuck which washes 
its western border, by the Lead 
Mine river a branch of the Nauga- 
tuck, which runs through the inte- 
rior of the township, and by nume* 
Mus small streams. 

The town is accommodated with 
the Hartford and Litchfield turn- 
pike road, which leads through it ; 
also by the Waterbury turnpike, 
leadingto New-Haven. It contains 
one located Congregational Socie- 
ty, anyone Society of Episcopa- 
lians.* There is one small village 
of 15 or 30 Dwelling houses. 



The manufactures and mechani- 
cal employments, excli^sive > of 
those of a domestic character, con- 
sist of I Tinware Factory^ 3 Full- 
ing Mills and Clothiers' Works, S 
Carding Machines, 4 Grain Milk 
and 2 Tanneries. There are 3 
Mercantile Stores and 4 Taveiss. 

There are It ^hool districts 
and common Schools, and 1 Aca- 
demy in the town ; 1 smiall Social 
Library, 3 Houses for Public Wor- 
ship, SClei^menand 1 Physician* 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1718; and ttiere are 298 
Dwellinghouses, 240 Electors, and 
1 Company of Militia. 

The quantity of land included 
in the assessment, in 1816, was 
17,069 acres, valued at g407,225 ; 
being an average 4>f ^23 A p^r 
acre.* 

The general list of the town, 
induing polls, is $36,648^ 

Harwinton was incorporated in 
1737. 



KENT. 



KENT is a post townsh^, situa- 
ted in the soujthwestem section of 
the county, 45 miles from Hartford ; 
founded on the north by Sharon 
and Coi*nwall, oh the east by Wash- 
ington and .Warren, on the south 
by New-Milford and Sherman, and 
on the west by the State of New- 
•York; having an average length 
of nearly 8 miles, and an average 
breadth of more than 6 miles, con- 
taining 48 square miles* 

The township is characteristi- 
cally mountainous ; and its geolo- 
gical structure consists principally 
of granite^ although in some sec- 
tions it is eakareous. Among its 



mineral treasures, iron ore is found 
in great abundance. Several mines 
have been opened and worked, 
from which it is estimated, that 
several thousand dollars worth of 
the ore is annually raised. There 
are seven forges that have been 
erected, and are usually in opera- 
tion ; all of which, it has been es- 
timated^ manufacture 100 tons of 
iron annually. These mines, & the 
mantj^actures and various interests 
which depend upon them, afiopd 
employment to industry, a stimu- 
lus to enterprise, and are sources 
of cG^siderable wealth to the 
town. 



NEW-HARTFORD. 



251 



The soil in this town varies, sic- 
cording to its geological structure. 
Uponthe hiils of granite^it is hard 
and gravelly, and in the limestone^ 
vales, it is a rich calcareous loam ; 
the former affords tolerably good 
grazing, and the latter produces 
wheat, rye and grass* The, timber 
is oak, chesQut, walnut, ash, &c. 

This town is watered by the 
Oiisatanick *and its nunuerous 
l>ranches, wliich affoi^ many valu- 
able sites for milJs and other water 
works* It is accominodate4 by the 
Litchfiold and New-Preston tum- 
|uke^ which passes through its south 
section. ^ 

The population of the town, in 
1 SI 0, was 1 794 ; and there arenaw 
200 qualified Electors, 2 Compa- 
nies of MiUtIa, & about 290 Dwell- 
ing houses* 

In addition to the domestic 
manufactures of, the town, and 



those of iron already noticed^ there 
are 2 Grain Mills, 2 Fulling Mills 
and Clothier's woiks, 1 Carding 
Machine and 2 Tanneries* Ther^ 
are 3 Mercantile Stores* 

The taxable property of the 
town, including polls, is $36,967 ; 
and ]the United States assessment, 
in 1816, was |^414,278, being an 
average of more than |^ 1 8 per acre 
for the quantity valued^ which was 
but 22,764 acres* In 1799, this 
town, together with Warren, was 
assessed at $405,982* 

Kent contains but one located 
Society ; besides which, it has a 
Society of Episcopalians, and each 
of them has a house for public 
worship* It contains 10 School 
districts and Schools, 3 practising 
Physicians, 2 Attornies and 1 Cler- 
gyman. 

The town was incorporated in 
1739* 



NEW-HARTFORD. 



NEW-HARTFORD is a post 
town, situated on the eastern bor- 
der of the ciMinty, being 20 miles 
northwest from Hartford. It is 
bounded on the north by Bark- 
hamsted, on the east by Canton, 
in Hartford county, on^ the south 
by Harwinton and Burlington, and 
on the west by Torriogton* It is 
6 miles in length from north to 
south, and nearly 6 imles in 
breadth from east to west, con- 
taining 34 square miles* 

The Farminglon or Tunxis riv- 
iH* washes the eastern section of 
the town, and affords numeraus 
sites and privileges for mills and 
other waterworks. The town is 
also watered by innumerable small 



streams, in almost every direc- 
tion. 

The township is hilly and moun- 
tainous, containing' a range of 
mountain of considerable eleva- 
tion, consisting of granite and oth- 
er rocks of primitive formations: 
These ranges are covered with 
trees, and contain abundance of 
timber. The forests consist gene- 
rally of deciduous trees, except in 
the northern part of the town, 
where the perennial or ever-green 
region of Connecticut commences* 
Here, but a few years since, was 
an extensive tract of forests, call- 
ed " Green woods," but now they 
are reduced; roads having been 
opened through them ; considera- 



c 



352 



NEW-MILFORD. 



iSlMii 



ble portions cleared ; and the wood 
upon what remains, is considerably 
diminished. These lands, former- 
ly, were not considered of any value 
for cultivation, but are now more 
justly estimated. The soil in this 
ever-green district is a coarse, 
hard gravel, abounding with stone ; 
and the land is not cleared or culti- 
vated, without difficulty or labour ; 
but when cleared, it will produce 
one crop of grain, and then makes 
indifferent pasturage. 

In the other sections of the town, 
excepting the mountain, the soil 
is a gravelly loam, warm and fer- 
tile ; it produces grain, but is best 
adapted to grass. 

The Talcott mountain and Green 
woods turnpike passes through this 
town, in a northwestern direction. 
This is the principal road from 
Hartford, the eastern section of 
Connecticut, Rhode-Island and 
the southern part of Massachusetts 
to Albany, and the western district 
of New- York ; and is one of the 
great avenues to the western 
country ; and hence, this town has 
become a great thoroughfare for 
travelling. The Goshen and Tor- 
xington turnpike passes through 
the southern section of the town. 

The population of New-Hart- 
ford, in 1810, was 1507 ; and there 
^.re now 200 Electors or Freemen, 



m- 



2 Companies of Militia, and* about* 
220 Dwelling houses. 

The general list of the town, in- 
cluding polls, amounts to ^31,434. 
The assessment of the United 
States, in 1 8 1 5, was ^343,940 ; be- 
ing an average value of^l7pfer 
acre, for all the lands in the town* 
ship. In 1799, this town, together 
with Barkhamsted, was valued on- 
ly at jl387,078. * 

in addition to the domestic man- 
ufactures of the town, there are 1 
Tin Ware Factory, 4 Carding Ma* 
chines, 4 Fulling Mills and Clo- 
thier's Works, 4 Distilleries, a 
Tanneries, 4 Grain Mills, 4 Saw 
Mills, 1 Ashery, and an extensive 
manufactory of machinery, inelu* 
ding carding, shearing and spinning 
machines, &c. There are 3 Mer- 
cantile Stores in the toWui 

New-Hartford contains but one 
located Society, which has a house 
for public worship ; it is divided 
into 8 School districts, in each of 
which there is a School maintain* 
ed for several months in the 
year. 

There are 2 small villager 
in the town, of about 30 houses 
each. There are 2 small Social 
Librariesi 1 Clergyman, 2 AttOr- 
nies and 1 Physician. 

New-Hartford was incorporated 
in 1738. 



NEW-MILFORD. 



NE W-MILFORD is a large and 
flourishing post town, in the south- 
vrestern extremity of the county, 
48 miles southwest from Hartford ; 
bounded* on the north by Kent, on 
the ^3i8t by Washington, Roxbury 



and Southbury, on the south hy 
Newtown and Brookfieid, in Fair- 
field county, and on the west by 
New-Fairfield and Sherman. It 
has an average length of 13 miles, 
and an average breadth of 6 and s^- 



^ 



NEW-MILFOBD. 



253 



half iiiiles, coinpriBing an area of 84 
square miles ; bemg one of the lar- 
gest townships in the State. 

It is watered by the Ousatonick 
wliich intersects the town, and by 
two branches of the Aspetuck, a 
tributary stream of the Ousatonick. 
Upon these and other smaller 
streams, there are numerous sites 
and privileges for mills and other 
hydraulic works. There are two 
sb^d fisheries upon the Ousatonick ; 
lamprey eels are also taken in 

treat plenty. There are three 
ridges across this river, within 
this town. The section of the town 
which lies west of the Ousatonick, 
is watered by Rocky and Still riv- 
ers which intersect it, running in 
a northeasterly direction to the 
Ousatonick, into which they dis- 
charge their waters. 

This township is hilly and bro- 
ken, several mountainous ridges 
extending through it. These ridg- 
es Qoasist of granite and mica- 
ceous schistus ; the former is ge- 
nerally found upon their tops or 
summits, and the latter upon their 
declivities. 

Quarries pf the mica slate have 
^een opened and worked ; it 
makes excellent hearth-stones, 
&c. The vales in some sections 
qf the town abound with lime- 
stone ; and within these calcare- 
ous districts there are several va- 
luable beds of marble, several 
quarries of which have been open* 
ed, and large quantities pf the 
8|on^ dislodged and raised, which 
is manufactured into slabs for use 
and market; for which purpose, 
there have been six saw*mills 
erected for sawing marble. 

Among^the ininerals of the town 
are iron* ore, in small quantities, 



porcelain clay, yellow ochre, and 
some silver ore ; a mine, con- 
taining small quantities of this ore, 
was formerly worked, but has long 
since been abandoned. 

There are 4 Forges for the ma- 
nufacture of iron ; but the ore is 
principally brought from without 
the town. 

~ This town contains 2 located 
Congregational Societies, 2 Socie- 
ties of Episcopalians, 1 of Baptists 
and 1 of Quakers ; all of which 
are accommodated with houses 
for public worship. 

It contains also a pleasant and 
flourishing village, situated upon a 
flat or plain, bordering upon the 
Ousatonick. The village has 60 
Dwelling houses, many of which 
are large, neat and handsome 
buildings, a Post office, several 
Mercantile Stores and Mechanics' 
Shops. 

In this, as well as the other 
towns in the county, agriculture 
is the leading and principal busi- 
ness of the inhabitants. The 
lands, which are a sandy and gra- 
velly loam, and some of them a 
calcareous loam, are in general 
fertile and productive, anording 
wheat, rye, corn, oats and flax. 
The making of butter and cheese, 
beef and pork, and the growhig of 
wool receive considerable atten- 
tion- 

The New-Preston turnpike road 
passes through this town. 

In addition to the domestic ma- 
nufactures, and those of marble 
and iron, already mentioned, there 
are 1 Woolen Factory, 1 Hat Fac- 
tory, 4 Grain Mills, 4 Carding Ma- 
chines, 6 Fulling Mills and 4 Tan- 
neries. There arc 7 Mercantile 
Stores. 



»• 



Q 



3A4 



NORFOLK. 



m 



BBSHI 



The population of the town, in 
1810, was 3537; and there are 
now about 500 qualified Electors, 
about 350 Mihtia, and 540 Dwel- 
ling houses 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is gi74, 857. 

The valuation or assessment un« 
der the laws of the United States, 
in 1816, was j^l, 113,01 2; being 
an average value of ^GrVr dollars 
per acre, for the whole quantity 
included in the valuation, which 
Was 41,630 acres. 



In 1799, the real estate of thk 
town, together with Roxbury, wa« 
valued at ^776,146. 

There are, in this totrn, 16 
School Districts and Schook^ 4 
practising Physicians, 3 Clergy- 
men and 3 Attornies* 

New-Milford was settled in 
1713, and at that lime belonged 
to the county of New-Haven« It 
was incorporated soon after, and 
was included within the county of 
Litchfield, when that was incoifKH 
rated. 



NORFOLK. 



NORFOLK is an elevated post 
township, situated 35 miles north- 
west from Hartford ; bounded on 
the north by the State of Massa- 
chusetts, on the east by Colebrook 
and Winchester, on the south by 
Goshen, and on the west by Ca- 
liaan. 

The township comprises an area 
of about 41 square miles ; having 
an average length, from north to 
south, of about 9 miles, and a 
mean breadth of more than 4 and 
a half miles. 

This township is elevated and 
mountainous, several considera- 
ble granitic ridges extending thro^ 
it from northeast to southwest; 
and the general character of the 
surface consists of a succession of 
lofty hills. 

The soil is a primitive gravelly 
loam, generally coldj stony, and 
nnsuitable for arable purposes; 
but it has considerable depth and 
strength, and affords good grazing. 
In the north section of the town- 
uhip^ the soil is warmer and more 
fertile. 



The natural growth of timber 
here is principally oak and ches- 
nut; but in the other and more 
considerable sections, the prevail* 
ing forests consist of sugar n^ple^, 
beech and hemlock. Formerly, 
large quantities of su^c were 
made from the maple ; more than 
20,000Ibs. having been manafaC'^ 
tured in a single season. But (ot 
some years past the bdsiness had 
greatly declined ; the forests bar- 
ing been cleared for improvement, 
by the progress of settlements, and 
destroyed extensively by the ele- 
mentsv 

The dairy business comprisesr 
the principal agricultural interests 
of the town; considerable quan-f 
tities of cheese, butt^er, pork, &c« 
being annually sent abroad for a 
market. In 1 8 11 , there were mar- 
keted 100 tons of cheese, at $160 
per ton, making $ 16,000 ; six tons 
of butter, at $320, making $1920 ; 
100 bbls. of pork, at $12 per bar- 
rel, producing $ 1 900 ; and 1 00 
head of beeves, averaging $20 per 
bead, making $2000; the a^re- 




NORFOLK. 



Q55 



gate of which was J52 1 , 1 20. Con- 
siderable attention has been paid 
to sheep, there being, in 1811, 
4000 in the town. 

The town is watered by nume- 
rous small streams, the most con- 
siderable of which is Blackberry 
river, which rises within the town- 
ihip, and running through it north" 
westerly, passes into Canaan, and 
discharges its waters into the Ou- 
satoniek. This stream affi^rds nu- 
mercms excellent sites for hydrau- 
lic works falling near the centre 
of the town, over a ledge of rocks, 
of nearly 30 feet in height. There 
are several mills, manufacturing 
establishments, forges, &c. erected 
upon it* In the southern section 
erf" the town, the west branch of 
the Naugatuck has its source ; in 
the eastern the Mad river, a 
branch of the TuniLis ; and in the 
Qortheastern section the Sandy ri- 
ver commences, having its source 
in Benedict's pond. Besides this, 
fiiere are several other ponds in 
the town, one of which forms the 
head of the west branch of liie 
Naugatuck river, already noticed. 
The Greenwoods tumpike,which 
was opened in 1600, leads through 
the centre of this town, and the 
Hartland turnpike, connects with 
this within this township. 

The principal manufacture of 
the town is that of iron, of which 
there are 2 Forges, upon a consi- 
derable scale. They manufacture 
bar iron, anchors, mill irons, cart 
and waggon tire, sleigh shoes, &c. 
There are 2 Grain Mills, 1 Ful- 
ling Mill, and several Mercantile 
Stores. 

In 1810^ there were in Norfolk 
1441 inhabitants; and there are 
BOW about 240 Dwelling houses, 



about 200" Electors, 1 company of 
Militia, and part of several others. 

The corporate divisions of the 
town are 1 located Ecclesiastical 
Society and 10 School Districts. 
There are 10 primary Schools, 
one in each District ; 2 Social Li* 
braries, I Physician, 1 Clergyman 
and 2 Attomies. 

This township was sold in pur- 
suance of a resolve of the General 
Assembly at Middtetown, at pub- 
lic auction, in 1 742. It was divi^ 
ded into 63 rights ; one of which 
was reserved for the benefit of 
schools, one for that of the minis- 
try, and one for the first clei^- 
man. Such were the prejudices 
against this tract of land, that all 
the purchasers, except Timothy 
Hosford, of Windsor, who had re- 
ceived a deed of 4G0 acres, 
suffered their rights to become for- 
feited; thereby losing the first in- 
stalment of 40 shillings upon a 
right, which they had paid. Timo- 
thy Hosford, having retained his 
right, afterwards sold it te Titus 
Brown, who removed inta the 
town about two years after the 
first sale. The Liegislature, hav- 
ing failed in their first attempt to 
sell the town, after a lapse of 12 
years, in 1 754, a second time or- 
dered its sale at public auction, 
at Middletown, excepting Brown's 
right. This attempt succeeded ; 
and, soon after, (a settlement ha- 
ving been previously begun,) a 
number of families removed into 
the town, and the settlement roado 
considerable progress. The first 
settlers were Titus and Cornelius 
Brown, from Windsor, and John 
Turner and Jedediah Richards, 
from Hartford. These located 
themselves upon Brown's right. 



n 



256 



PLYMOUTH. 



The town was incorporated in 
1758, whei^ there were 27 fami- 
lies ; butfrdtn this period the set- 
tlement was very rapid, three 



years after, in 1761, there being 
70 families. In this year the first 
clei^man was settled. 



PLYMOUTH, 



PLYMOUTH is a post town, 
situated in the southeast corner of 
thecounty,24 miles from Hartford, 
and 30 from New-Haven; bounded 
on the north by Harwinton & Litch- 
field, on the east by Bristol, in 
Hartford county, on the south by 
Waterbury and Wolcott, in New- 
Haven county, and on the west by 
Watertown. Its average length 
is 5 and a half miles, and its ave- 
rage breadth nearly 5 miles, com- 
prising 25 square miles. 

The township is uneven and hil- 
ly. The soil is a gravelly loam ; 
which, together with the rocks and 
stones, is of a granitic character. 

The natural growth consists of 
oak, chesnut, maple, principally 
swamp maple, and some pine and 
hemlock* 

The lands, when cultivated, 
produce rye, corn, oats and flax. 
They also afford tolerable graz- 
ing ; and the making of butter and 
cheese, and beef and pork, are 
important agricultural interests. 
Of all these articles, there is an- 
nually a surplus raised, which 
IB sent abroad for a market. . 

The town is watered by the 
Naugatuck, which washes its west- 
ern section from north to south. 
This river here is a fine mill 
stream. There are also in the 
northern parts of this town, seve- 
ral sniall streams, which are bran- 
ches of the Poquabuck. 

The Waterbury turnpike lejads 
through the town in a northerly 



and soqtherly direction ; and the 
Hartford and E)anbury turnpike iu 
an easterly and westerly direc- 
tion. 

The manufactures and mecha- 
nical employments of the town, 
in addition to those of a domestic 
character, consist of 1 small Wool- 
en Factory, 2 Wooden Clock Fac- 
tories, upon a considerably exten- 
sive scale, 3 Grain Mills, 2 Fulling 
Mills and Clothiers' works, 2 Car- 
ding Machines and 4 Tanneries. 
There are 6 Mercantile Stores. 

The population of the town, nt 
1810, was 1882; and there are 
270 Dwelling houses, about 260 
Freemen or Electors, and 2 Com- 
paneis of militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is 1^39,215; and 
the assessment, under the laws of 
the United States, in 1816, which 
included 18,070 acres, amounted 
to g577,386, being an average va- 
lue of 31 dolls. 94 cts. per acre. 

The town contains 1 located 
Congregational Society & Church, 
and 2 Episcopal Societies, each 
of which is accommodated with a 
house for public worships It con- 
tains 12 School Districts and 
Schools, which are kept for seve- 
ral months annually. 

There is a small village in the^ 
centre of the town, comprising 1 5 
or 20 houses. 

There are 1 Clergyman, 3 Phy-' 
sicians, and 1 Lawyer in the 
town. 




ROXBURY- 



iSl 



m 



Plymouth became an indepen- 
dent Society in 1739, belonging 
at that iime to the town of Wa- 
terbury, and bore the name of 
Northbury. At this time Westbu- 
ry belonged to this Society, but 
was afterwards incorporated as a 
distinct Society, retaining its name. 
Afterwards both of these Societies 
were incorporated as towns, the 
last mentioned bj the name of 
Watertown, and tibe first or the 



Society of Northbury, in 1795, by 
the name of Plymouth. 

There is a curious perpendicu- 
lar, cylindrical excavation in a so** 
lid rock in this town, about three 
miles from the Meeting house, 
near the turnpike^ about 21 feet 
above high water mark, in the Nau- 
gatuck river. This excavation is 
about 2 feet in depth, and 1 5 inch- 
es in diameter, and is supposed to 
have been made by the Indians. 



ROXBURY. 



ROXBURY is a small town- 
ship, situated upon the southern 
border of the county, 46 miles 
from Hartford, and 32 from New- 
Haven ; bounded on the north by 
Washington, on the east by Wood- 
bury, on the sauth by Southbury, 
in New-Haven county, and on the 
west by New-Milford. 

Its average length from north to 
south is 6 and a half miles, and its 
average breadth from east to west 
nearly 4 miles, containing about 
26 square miles* 

The township is diversified ; be- 
ing, characterized with hill and 
dale. There are also some gra- 
nitic ridges. 

The soil is a gravelly loam, in- 
terspersed with some small tracts 
of sandy loam ; it is considerably 
warm and fertile. The Natural 
growth of timber consists of oak, 
walnut, chesnut and other decidu- 
ous trees. 

The agricultural productions are 
such as are common to this dis- 
trict. The lands are well adapt- 
ed to grazing ; ^but afford conside- 
rable grain. The making of but- 
ter and cheese and be^f and pork 

33 



are the most considerable agricuK 
tural interests. 

The geological structure of thd 
town is generally granitic. Some 
other rocks are found ; and there 
are some quarries of micaceous 
schistus. Mines of iron ore have 
been discovered, but they have 
received little attention. 

The town is watered by the 
Shepaug, a considerable branch 
of the Ousatonick. 

There are, in this town, 2 Grain 
Mills, 1 Carding Machine, 2 Ful- 
ling Mills and Clothiers' works, 1 
Store and 1 Tavern. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1217; and there are 
200 Dwelling houses, 1 50 qualified 
Electors, and 2 Companies of Mi* 
litia. ' 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is |^25,833; and 
the assessment of the lands and 
buildings of the town in 1 815,which 
included 13,257 acres, was ^3l4,- 
051 ; being an averagi of $^2j%\ 
per acre. 

The township contains 1 loca- 
ted Congregational Society and 
Church, 1 Society of EpiscopaK- 



258 



SALISBURY. 



aas, Mid 1 of Baptists, which are 
accommodated with houses for 
public worship, 9 School Dis- 
tricts and Schools, and 1 Social 
Library. 
The professional men are 1 Phy- 



sician, 3 Clergymen and 2 Attos^ 
nies* 

Roxbury was originally a part 
of Woodbury, and was incorpora- 
ted in 1861. 



SALISBURY. 



SALISBURY is a considerable 
and flourishing post township, situ- 
ated in the northwest comer of the 
county and State, 47 miles from 
Hartford, and 60 from New-Ha- 
ven; bounded on the north by 
Mount Washington and Sheffield, 
in Massachusetts, on tlie east by 
the Ousatonick river, which sepa- 
rates it from Canaan, on the south 
by Sharon, and on the west by the 
State of New- York. Its avers^ 
length is 9 miles, and its average 
breadth about 6 and a half miles, 
comprising an area of about 58 
square miles. 

The township is broken, con- 
sisting of elevated hills and deep 
and extensive vales, generally of 
a calcareous character ; this town 
being embraced within the lime- 
stone district of Connecticut,which 
is confined to its northwestern bor- 
der, adjoining the State of New- 
York. . The hills, and more ele- 
vated lands consist principally of 
granite, the calcareous rocks and 
soil being confined to the valleys 
and more level tracts. 

The principal mineral in the 
town is that of iron ore, which 
is found in great abundance. In 
the westenf section of the town, 
three mines of iron ore have been 
opened and worked, from which 
large quantities of the ore are an- 
nually raised, which is. used not 



only to supply the forges and fur- 
naces which are in operation here, 
but a portion of it is conveyed to 
neighbouring towns. These mines 
are believed to be equal to any in 
the United States ; the ore being 
very rich, and of an excellent 
quality. Near the centre of the 
town, there is also a mine of iron 
ore, which has been opened ; and 
another in the northwest part of 
the township ; from both of which 
comparatively small quantities of 
ore are annually raised. These 
mines are a source of considera- 
ble wealth, and afford a stimulus 
to enterprise and industry. 

The soil of the township is ei- 
ther a calcareous loam, or a gra- 
velly loam ; varying, according to 
the geological character of the in- 
ternal structure* The former is 
very rich and productive, and is 
admirably adapted to a grain cul- 
ture, particularly wheat, of which 
it carries large crops. Rye, oats, 
Indian corii, barley, flax and peas 
are also cultivated with success. 
This is one of the best towns for 
grain in the State ; and it is proba- 
ble there is more wheat annually^ 
raised here than in any other. 
Grass also flourishes well in this 
towiij and the. lands afford excel- 
lent grazing ; but t|^ attention of 
the farmers has been principally 
directed to the cultivation of 




SALISBURY, 



259 



wheat and other kind^ of winter 
grain. 

The Ousatonick river washes 
the eastern horder of the town, 
and forms its houndary ; and Salm- 
on river, a small stream, runs thro' 
the town in a southeasterly direc- 
tion, and discharges its waters into 
the Ousatonick. Upon Salmon 
river, there are a number of ex- 
cellent sites for mills and other 
Waterworks ; and there are seve- 
ral bridges, across the Ousatonick, 
and a fall of the whole body of 
water of the river, of about 60 
feet, which is a very considerable 
curiosity. 

There are four ponds in the 
town,well stored with fish, particu- 
larly pike or pickerel ; North- 
east pond, Mountain pond in 
the west, Furnace pond ia the 
south, and Long pond in the south- 
west section of the town. 

Although the agricultural inter- 
ests of this town are flourishing, 
and occupy a very great propor- 
tion of the attention and industry 
of the inhabitants ; yetthe adyan- 
tages and facilities which it affords 
for various kinds of iron manufac- 
tures have not been neglected. 

Of the manufactures of iron, 
there ate 3 Forges, 2 Blast Fur- 
naces, 1 Anchor and Screw Manu- 
factory, 1 Scythe Manufactory, 
and 2 Shops with' hammers, ope- 
rated by v^ater power, for the lia- 
nufacture of Gun barrels. Sleigh 
shoes. Hoes, &c. In addition to 
these manufactures^ there is 1 But- 
ton Factory, 4 Grain Mills, 4 Saw 
' Mills and 2 Carding Machines. 
There are 5 Mercantile Stores. 

The Salisbury and Canaan turi]^- 
pike road leads through this towh 



from east to west, but is a road 
of little public travel. 

The population, «t tlie census 
of 1810, was 2321 ; and there are 
340 Dwelling houses, 264 Free- 
men or Electors, and 3 Compa- 
nies qf Militia. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, (estimated according to the 
laws for regulatitig lilts,) including 
polls, is |{[5 1,626; and the valua- 
tion of the lands and buildings of 
the town^in 1815, which included 
28,053 acres, amounted to 1^677^^ 
231 ; being an average value of 
24tV\ dollars per acre. In 1790», 
the valuation of Salisbury and Sba;^ 
ron together, amounted to ^6l2f 
134; being about $65,000 le^ 
than the valuation of this town 
alone in 1815. 

The town contains 1 located 
Congregational Society, and 1 of 
Methodists, both of which ave ae- 
commodated with houses for pub- 
lic worship. There are also some 
Episcopalians. 

There are 14 School Districts 
and Sc^hools ; 2 Social Libraries, 
one consisting of about 600 vo- 
lumes, the other, which is for 
young persons, contains about 400 
volumes, and was a present from 
the late Caleb Bingham Esq. of 
Boston ; 5 Physicians, 4 Attornies 
and 1 Congregational Clergyman 
in the town. 

Salisbury was first settled by 
three Dutch families from the 
State of New- York, in the year 
1720, which was 12 years before 
the town wais laid out. These 
families settled upon tiie border 
of the Ousatonick, in the vicinity 
of a considerable Indian settle- 
ment, (ionsisftiiig of peaceable and 



360 



SHARON. 



MWil 



mssm 



friendly natives. The township, | and the first settlement, under 



having been granted to proprie- 
tors, was laid out into tots, in 1 732, 



their authority, was in 1 740. It 
was incorporated in 1741. 



SHARON. 



SHARON, a considerable and 
flotirtshing post towfiship, is situa- 
ted upon the western border of 
the county and State, 47 miles 
from Hartford ; bounded N. by Sa- 
Ksbury.E. by theOusatonick, which 
separates it from Cornwall, S. by 
Kent, and W. by the State of Neiv- 
York. Its average length is about 
9 miles, and its average breadth 
nearly 6 miles, comprising about 
53 square miles. 

Both the surface and soil of the 
township are strikingly diversified, 
and correspond witli its geolo-> 
gical character. Its eastern sec- 
tion abounds with elevated hills, 
and some granitic mountainous 
ranges, interspersed with which 
there are deep .valleys. 

This district afibrds good graz- 
ing ; and some tracts are tolerably 
well adapted to grait>. The soil 
is a gravelly loam, and considera- 
bly stony. The western section 
of the town, bordering upon the 
State of New-York, consists of an 
extensive calcareours vale, having 
a level or undukiiBg surface, and 
a rich and fertile soil of calcare- 
ous loam. 

This district is admirably adapt- 
ed to grain, and produces excel- 
lent wh0at, rye, corn and oats, & 
jo great abundance. It is one of 
the richest and best tracts of land 
in the State for a grain culture. 
The soil in this section reposes 
up6n a bed of limetone, and some | 
rocks or quarries of maf4>le have 
been discovered; and iron ore is 



supposed to exist in various pla- 
ces ; but neither have been work- 
ed, or in any respect received 
much attention. 

The natural growth of timber 
consists principally of oak, ehes^ 
nut, walnut, ash and maple. 

The Ousatoniek river washes 
the eastern border of the town, 
and separates it from. Corn wall. 
Across this stream there are seve- 
ral bridges. Its western section 
is watered by a small stream, call** 
ed Oblong river. 

Mudge's and Indian ponds are 
situated upon the western bor* 
der of-the town. The former is 
a considerable body of water, and 
the latter is partly in the State of 
New-York. 

There are two turnpike roads 
which pass through this town ; 
one leading to Hartford, and the 
other to New-Haven. 

The town contains twa parishes 
or located ecclesiastical Societies. 
Besides which, there is one 
Society of Episcopalians^ and one 
of Methodists. 

In the first local Society, there 
is a pleasant and considerable vil- 
lage, comprising 60 or 60 I>wel* 
ling houses, several^ of which ai^ 
,neat and handsome, 2 Cburefaes^ 
a Post office, and several Merean* 
tile Stores. 

The n^st considerable manu^ 
factmring establisdunent is a Duck 
Hian^Aetory^ upon an exteiasite 
scale. There is something dotie 
at the Iron manufacture, there be* 




TORRINGTON. 



361 



mm 



log 1 Forge ; besides which there 
are 4 Grain Mills, 2 Carding Ma- 
chines, 2 Distilleries for cider, and 
5 Tanneries. There are 4 Mer- 
cantile Stores, and 3 Taverns. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2706; aod there aire 
380 Dwelling. houses, 300 Free- 
men or Electors, and 3 Coinpa- 
liies of Militia. 

r The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $rj5^503 ; and 
the valuation of lands and build- 
il^gs, in 1815, comprising 29,388 
acres, amounCed to ^695,302 ; be- 
ing 23tV(F dollars per acre. In 
J 799, tlie real estate of this town, 
together with Salisbury, was as- 
8e3sed,upon the same principle of 
valuation, at only ^612,134 ; be- 
illg 1^83,168 less than the valuation 
o{ Shamn alone in 18 IS. This 



is a very surprising rise of landed 
estate, in an inland and agricultur- 
al town, for the short period of 
18 years. 

There are, in the town, 16 
School Districts & primary Schools, 
and an Academy for young gentle- 
men and ladies, 2 Social Libraries, 
5 Physicians, 3 Attornies and 1 
Clergyman. 

Sharon was settled in the year 
1 738. In tlie spring of that year, 
15 or 20 families removed there 
from Colchester and Lebanon, and 
commenced a settlement* The 
next year the settlement received 
considerable accession, by the emi- 
gration of several families from 
New-Haven, which rendered it 
quite respectable. The town was 
incorporated in Oct. 1 739. 



TORRINGTON. 



TORRINGTON is a post town, 
ce&trally situated in the county, 
being 23 miles northwest from 
Hartford, & 7 miles northeast from 
Litchfield. It is bounded north by 
Winchester, east by New-Hartford, 
south byi^itcbfield and Harwinton, 
and west by Goshen. It is about 6 
miles square, comprising 36 square 
miles, or about 23,040 acres. 

The township is uneven, con- 
sisting of hill and dale; apd the 
soil, is a gravelly loam, mostly fer- 
tile and ppodactive, and admirably 
adapted to grazing. The dairy 
business is carried on to, conside- 
rate extent ; whii^h,^together iriih 
the fatting of ^beeves and raisingof 
neat cs^tie and she^^ are the priii^ 
cipal agricultttfal interests of the 
towni ^ 



The forests, which are conside- 
rably extensive, consist principally 
of deciduous trees ; although &ere 
are some evergreens interspersed. 

The town is well watered by the 
east and west branches of Water- 
bury river. 

There are two important turn* 
pike roads passing thro' the town, 
and affording a facility to its inter- 
course and communication abroad; 
Goshen and Sharon turnpike, and 
Waterbury river turnpike. 

The town contains 2 located Con- 
gregational Societies and Church* 
es, and 1 Society of Baptists. 

WoLcoTTviLLE, a village of 1 8 
houses, has been built principally 
since 1802, and is an s^ctive, flour- 
isha^gplace. Its growth has been 
chij^fly owing to the establisbment 



262 



WARREN. 



99SS" 



of an extensive Woolen Factory, 
which now is owned principally 
by his Excellency, Oliver Wolcott. 
It is one of the largest establish* 
raents of the kind in the State ; em- 
ploying about 40 workmen, and 
manufacturing from 25 to 35 yards 
of broad cloth daily, of an average 
value of $6 per yard. The clotibis 
made at this establishment have a 
substantial texture, and are manu- 
factured in a style, scarcely inferi- 
or to the highest finished English 
cloths. This Factory was erected 
in 181 3, There are also 1 Cot- 
ton Factory in this town, and 2 
Grain Mills, 2 Fulling Milk and 
Clothier's Works, 1 Carding Ma* 
chines, 5 Tanneries, 5 Mercantile 
Stores and 3 Taverns. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1586; and there are 
now 250 Dwelling houses, 175 
Freemen or Electors, 2 Infantry 
Companies of Militia, and a part 
of a Company of Cavalry. 

The town contains 9 School dis- 
tricts and the same number of 
Schools, 2 Social Libraries, 3 prac- 
tising Physicians and 3 Clergy- 
men* 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty,includingpoIls,i8 $40,886. The 
United States assessment, in 1815, 
was $446,965 ; being an averagi^of 
23 and a half dollars per acre, for 
all the lands in the town. I 



Torrington was incorporated as 
a town, in 1 744. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Stan^ 
leyGriswold^ a distinguished schc^- 
ar, statesman and patriot, was a 
Dative of this town. His life was 
characterized with incidetit and ^h- 
cisitudes. He was educated at 
Yale College, and ha'tsing been re« 
gularly qualified therefor, was set- 
tled for several years as a Congre- 
gational Clergyman at New-Mtl# 
ford, in this county. 

About the year 1804, he left 
his native State and established a 
patriotic and spirited weekly news- 
paper at Walpole, in New-Hamp- 
shire^ In this situation he exhibit- 
ed much talent and literary ac- 
quirements, and obtained conside«- 
rable celebrity; there being at 
that time few ably edited news- 
papers in the United states. From 
this situation, in 1 805, he was re- 
moved to the territory of Michigan, 
having received by Mr. JeiSerson, 
then president of the United States, 
the appointment of Secretary df 
that territory. After this, he Was 
appointed by Gov. Huntington of 
Ohio, a Senator in the Congress of 
the United States, to fill a vacancy ; 
and subsequently, receivM the ap^ 
pointment of territorial judge, for 
the territory of IHinois. He died 
whilst in this situation, at Sbawne-^ 
town, in 1815. 



WARREN. 



W^ARREN is an inconsiderable 
post township, having an elevated 
situation, 38 miles from Hartford, 
and 45 from New-Haven ; bound- 
ed on the north by Cornwall, on 
the cast by Litchfield, on the south 



by Washington, and bn the West 
by KetkU Its average length from 
north to south is 5 miles, and its 
average breadth about 4 and a half 
miles, comprising about 23 square 
miles. 




WASHINGTON. 



263 



The township is hilly and tnoan- 
tainous, and its rocks and soil are 
of a granitic character ; of the for- 
mer^ however, there are some 
quarries of micaceous schi^tus, and 
&e latter is a coarse gravelly loam. 
The natural grow& consists of oak, 
walnut & maple ; and the agricultu- 
ral productions are grass, some 
grain, butter and cheese, and beef 
and pork. i 

The town is watered by the She- 
paug,, a considerable branch of the 
Ousatonick, which runs through 
the eastern section of the town, 
and by numerous small streams* 
Raumaug pond, a considerable bo- 
dy of water, is situated partly in 
this town,and partlyin Washington. 

There are 1 Forge, 1 Distillery, 
1 Carding Machine, 1 Grain Mill, 
1 Tannery, 2 Mercantile Stores 
and 2 Public Inns in the town. 



The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1 096 ; and there are 1 20 
Freemen or qualified Electors, I 
Company of Militia, and about 170 
Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is g21 ,440 ; and 
the assessment in 1815, which in- 
included 13,884 acres of land, 
amounted to ^222,961 ; being an 
average value of $16 j&^ per 
acre. 

The town comprises 1 located 
Congregational Society & Churchy 
1 Society of Baptists, . 8 School 
districts and Schools, 1 Grammar 
School and 1 Social Library. The 
professional men are 2 Physicians 
and 1 Clergyman. 

Warren was incorporated as a 
town in 1786, previous to which 
it belonged to Kent. 



WASHINGTON. 



WASHINGTON is a post town- 
ship, situated in the southwestern 
section of the county, 40 miles 
southwest from Hartford; bound- 
ed on the north by Warren, on the 
east by Litchfield and Bethlem, 
on the south by Woodbury and 
Roxbury, and on the west by 
New-Milford and Kent. 

The average length of the town- 
ship from north to south is about 
7 miles, and its average breadth 
from east to west more tlian 5 
miles; comprising an area of 
about 37 square miles. 

A considerable proportion of 
this township is elevated and 
iliountainous; several granitic rid- 
ges extending through its western 
and northwestern sections. Ii^^r- 



vening between these ridges are 
calcareous vales of considerable 
extent. The other sections of the 
town present a surface consisting 
of a succession of hills and dales. 
Limestone abounds in many of 
the vales ; and in these calcareous 
strata there are several quarries of 
marble, from which considerable 
quantities are raised, and two mifls 
are constantly employed in sawing 
it. Iron ore has been discovered 
in various places ; ochre, fullers' 
earth, and white clay, suital^le for 
fine pottery, have also been found 
here. 

The soil, corresponding with 
the geological character of the 
different sections of the township, 
is either a calcareous or primitive 



264 



WATERTOWN. 



gravelly loam. The calcareous 
vales are fertile and productive in 
grain, and the ridges, hills and 
their declivities afford good graz- 
ing. 

The dairy business affords the 
principal agricultural staples. Con- 
siderable quantities of grain, how- 
ever, are raised, consisting of 
wheat, rye, com and oats. 

The town is watered by the 
Shepaug river, which intersects 
it, forming nearly two equal sec- 
tions ; by the Bantam, which runs 
through its north section , and by 
the Aspetuck, which has its source 
in Ramaug pond, in the northwes- 
tern border of the town. These 
streams afford numerous sites for 
hydraulic works. 

This town is accommodated 
with the Litchfield and New-Mi I- 
ford turnpike, the New-Preston 
turnpike, and one leading to New- 
Haven. 

The most considerable mecha- 
nical employments are the iron 
and marble business. There are 
3 Marble Saw Mills, already no 



!ll 



ticed, 2 Forces, 1 Slitting Mill, 

1 Nail Factory and 2 Trip Ham- 
mers. There are 4 Grain Mills, 

2 Fulling Mills and Clothiers' 
works. 2 Carding Machines and 
5 Saw Mills. 

At the census of 1810, there 
were 1575 inhabitants; and there 
are about 240 Electors, 3 Com- 
panies of Militia, and about 230 
Dwelling houses. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, in 1817, waa 
1^42,360 ; and the valuation of the 
lands and buildings of the town in 
1815, which comprised 20,605 
acres, amounted to ^573,132; be* 
ing an average of ^28 per acre. 

The corpprate divisions are 2 
located Congregational Societies 
and 1 1 School Districts. In ad-^ 
dition to the located, there are 2 
Episcopal Societies. 

There are several Mercantile 
Stores, 2 Physicians, 1 Clergynaan 
and 1 Attorney. 

This town is of recent date, ha- 
ving been incorporated in 1779* 



WATERTOWN. 



WATERTOWN is a post town- 
ship, situated in the southeastern 
section of the county, 26 miles 
from New-Haven, and 30 from 
Hartford ; bounded on the north 
by Litchfield, on the east by West 
branch and Naugatuck river, which 
separates it from Plymouth and 
Waterbury, on the south by Wa- 
terburyandMiddlebury,and on the 
west by Woodbury and Bethlena. 

The township comprises an area 
of about 27 square miles ; being 



of an average length of 6 and a 
half miles, and an average breadth 
of more than 4 miles. 

It is generally uneven, or rather 
hilly ; but some; sections are level. 
Its geological character is granitic; 
being comprised within the district 
having this character, which in- 
cludes the greater section of this 
county. There are, however, some 
limestone, and some tracts of cal- 
careous soil ; but a hard, dry, gra- 
velly loam generally prevails. 




WINCHESTEit 



2B$ 



mm 



The natural growth consists of 
^^k, fnaple, some beech, &:c« 

The lands aVe best adapted to 
giving ; but the different grains 
temmon to this county are culti- 
vated. 

The Naugatuck river washes 
the eastefn border of the town. 
In addition to this, it is watered 
by nutnerous small streams* 

The town is accommodated 
with two turnpike roads ; one 
leading from Danbury to Hartford, 
ftnd the other from Litchfield to 
New-Haven. 

The population of the town, in 
IBIO, was 1714; and there are 
175 qualified Electors, 1 Compa- 
ny of Militia, and 240 Dwelling 
houses. The amount of taxable 
property, including pX)lls, is ^38,- 
338. In 1616, there were 15,629 
acres of land assessed in this town, 



which were estimated at J509,674'» 
bei'ng an average value of J32 pet 
acre. 

The manufactures and mecha- 
nical employments, in addition to 
those of a domestic character, 
consist of 1 Distillery, 2 Grain 
Mills, 2 Carding Machines, 2 Ful- 
ling Mills and Clothiers^ works 
and 2 Tanneries. There are 3 
Mercantile Stores. 

The town contains 1 located 
Congregational Society & Church, 
and 1 Society of Episcopalians, 
which is also . accommodated with 
a house for public worship. It 
comprises 8 School Districts and 
Schools, and has 1 Social Libra- 
ry, 1 Physician, 1 Attorney and 2 
Clergymen. 

Watertowa wa^ incorporated in 
1780. 



WINCHESTER. 



WINCHESTER is an elevated 
post township, situated 27 miles 
liorthwest from Hartford ; bound- 
ed on the north by Colebrook, on 
the east by Barkhamsted, on the 
south by Torrington, and on the 
west by Goshen and Norfolk. Its 
average length is 6 and a half 
miles, from east to west, and its 
average breadth more than 5 miles, 
comprising about 35 square miles. 

This township is situated with- 
in the evergreen district of the 
State, and is hilly and mountain- 
ous. Its geological character is 
primitive ; the rocks and stones 
consisting of granite, liiica slate, 
and other primitive forma1io(is,a^nd 
the soil is a hard^ coarse gravelly 
loam. The lands afford very good 

34 



grazing ; and the making of btitter 
and cheese, and growing of cattle j 
together with some beef and pork, 
constitute the principal agricultur- 
al interests. 

The natural growth of timbej: 
is maple, beech, oak and birch ; 
but hemlock and other perennial 
trees constitute a considerable 
proportion of the forests. 

The town is Watered by two 
considerable nrtill streams, called 
Still and Mad rivers, which unite 
in its eastern s€6tion. These 
streams, particularly the latter, 
afford numerous excellent sites for 
hydraulic works. 

Upon an elevated jrtain there 
is an interestin'g lake, or pond, 
which is one of the larerest bodies 



2«6 



WOOPBURY. 



11 



of water in the State, being 3 and 
a half miles in length, and three 
fourths of a mile in width. The 
outlet of this lake presents a no- 
vel and romantic view. It con- 
sists of a small stream, compressed 
within a narrow channel, literally 
tossed from rock to rock, many 
having nearly a perpendicular fall, 
the whole descent being nearly a 
quarter of a mile, whence it unites 
with Mad river. 

Upon this outlet, there are 
some of the best natural sites for 
hydraulic works in this State, or 
perhaps in the Union ; several of 
which are occupied to advantage. 
This town is justly celebrated 
for iron manufactures, which are 
a source of wealth and industry, 
and have promoted the growth of 
a considerable village. There 
are now 5- Smelting Forges, seve- 
ral of which carry on the busi- 
ness upon an extensive scale. 
The ore to supply these forges is 
brought principally from Salisbu- 
ry, there being no mines in the 
town. In addition to the iron ma- 
nufactures, there are 4 Carding 
Machines, 3 Grain Mills, 5 Tan- 
neries, 3 Cider Distilleries^ 1 



••r^tm 



Clock Factory, 1 Turnery, for 
the manufacture of Wooden Ware, 
1 Scaleboard Factory, 3 Clothiers^ 
works and Fulling Milk and 1 Oil 
Mill. There -are 4 Mercantile 
Stores and 3 Taverns. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1466; and there are 
about 230 Dwelling houses, 200 
Freemen or Electors, 2 Compa- 
nies of Infantry, and a part of a 
Company of Artillery, of Militia. 

There are 2 located Ecclesiastit 
cal Societies or Parishes in the 
town, and 1 Society of Methodists. 
In the Society of Winstead, there 
is a small village, comprising seve- 
ral handsome Dwelling houses. 

The G redwoods turnpike, lead- 
ing to Albany, passes through this 
section of the town. The Cole- 
brook and New-Haven turnpike a^l- 
so leads through the western sec- 
tion of the town. 

There are 9 School Districts 
and primary Schools, and 1 Acad- 
emy or Grammar School, 2 Social 
Libraries, 3 Clergymen, 1 Attor- 
ney and 2 Physicians. 

Winchester was incorporated in 
1771. 



<■ ' 



WOODBURY. 



WOODBURY is a flourishing 
post town, situated on the southern 
border of the county, 36 miles from 
Hartfofd, 25 from New-Haven, and 
15 from Litchfield; bounded on 
the north by Washington and Beth- 
lem, on the east by Watertown 
and Middlebury, in New-Haven | 



county, on the south by Southbury, 
and on the west by Roxbury. Its 
average length,from north to south, 
is about 7 miles, and its average 
breadth from east to west, is near- 
ly 6 miles, comprising about 41 
square miles. 
The face of the country is of an 




BrOGRAPHY. 



267 



undulating character, being plea- 
santly diversified with hill and dale ; 
upon the streams, however, there 
are intervals of considerable ex- 
tent, which with some other tracts 
are level. The soil is generally a 
gravelly loam, warm and fertile ; 
it is well adapted to grain, and 
carries good crops of rye, oats, 
Indian corn, &c. The lands are 
favourable for fruit, and there are 
many valuable apple orchards ; so 
that the making of cider and cider 
spirits are important agricultural 
interests. Many of the farmens 
have small Distilleries upon their 
own estate, whereby they manu- 
facture their cider into a spiritous 
liquor, called cider biikndy* 

The natural growth of timber is 
oak of the different kinds, maple, 
elm, ash, birch, walnut, chesnut 
and other deciduous trees. 

The town is watered by three 
considerable branches of Pompe- 
raug river, which unite their waters 
in its southern section. These 
streams afford some good mill seats, 
and for thier size, very extensive 
and valuable tracts of alluvial. 

In tiiis town, there are 2 located 
ecclesiastical Societies or Parish- 
es, a Society of Episcopalians and 
some Methodists ; 1 very pleasant 
village, containing 50 or 60 Dwell- 
ing houses, 3 Churches, 2 for Con^ 
gregationalists and 1 for Episcopa- 
lians ; a number of Stores, a Post of- 
fice, & several professional offices. 

The Danbury and Hartford turn- 
pike road passes through the vil- 
lage, and the turnpike from Kent 
to New-Haven, through the town. 

The manufactures and mechani- 
cal employments of the town, ia- 



dependent of those of a domestic 
character, consist of 2 Tinware 
Factories, 4 Clothier's works and 
Fulling Mills, 4 Carding Machines 
for wool, 3 Grain Mills, 3 Tanne- 
ries, and a number of cider Dis- 
tilleries. There are 7 Mercantile 
Stores, 2 Taverns, 14 School dis- 
tricts and primary Schools, 1 Soci- 
al Library, 3 Clergymen, 5 Attor- 
nies and 2 Physicians. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1963; and there are 
about 300 Dwelling houses, 300 
Freemen or Electors, and 2 Com- 
panies of Militia. 

The amount of taxable prbper- 
ty, including polls, is ^42,246 ; 
and the valuation of the lands and 
buildings of the town, in 1815, for 
the levy of the direct tax of the 
United States, which comprised 
1 9,528 acres, amounted to |604,- 
175; being an average value of 
nearly ^34 per acre. In 1799, the 
real estate of this town, together 
with Southbury, vas apprised at 
jj847,966. 

Woodbury was incorporated in 
1764. 

BIOGRAPHY. Colonel Henry 
Perry ^ a youthful and gallant hero, 
who was killed on the confines of 
Mexico in 1817, whilst bravely 
contending for the cause of civil 
liberty in that interesting section 
of America, was from his earliest 
youth a resident in this town. Col. 
Perry was one of those heroic and 
chivalrous youth, whose courage 
springs from the noblest impulse of 
nature; an enthusiastic love of 
liberty, and a generous sympathy 
for all who are the unfortunate 
subjects of despotic power. He 



c 



368 



BIOGRAPHY* 



wafi eogagcd as a volunteer in the 
glorious defence of New-Orleans, 
and after the peace, joined the pa- 
triot arpiy of Mexico ; he had the 
command of a detachment of men 
tmdcr Mina, and was disting^shed 



for his zeal, his courage and lus 
enterprise dnring the short career 
of that unfortunate General, whose 
fate, and that of the gallant Perry 's^ 
were associated by that providence* 
whichgovems the deatj^es of man! 



"^ 



MIDDLESEX 



COUNTY 



m^^—fr-i^m I ' I — *■ 



. MIDDLESEX, a pleasant ma- 
ritime county, is centrally situated 
upon Connecticut river ; bounded 
on the north by Hartford county, 
on the east by Hartford and New- 
London counties, on the south by 
Long-Island sound, and 6a the 



west by the county of New-Ha- 
ven. 

Its mean length from north to 
south is about 25 miles, and its 
mean breadth from east to west 
nearly 1 4 miles, comprising about 
342 square miles. 



T'he following Topographicai. and Statistical Table exhibits a 
view of the several towns in the county ; their situation, with re- 
lation to Middletown ; their population, according to the census of 
1810; number of dwelling bouses ; religious societies ; school di^^ 
tricts, aod post-offices. 

Towns. Post- Popu- Dwelling Religious School Distance from 

offices, lation. houses, societies, districts. Middletown. 
Middletown. 2 5332 800 
Haddam. t 2205- 387 
Chatham. 1 3258 453 
Durham. 1 1101 172 
£ast-Haddam. 1 2537 392 
iCillingworth. I 2244 320 
Saybrook. 2 3926 600 

This county has a very advanta- 
geous and pleasant situation, being 
intersected by Connecticut river, 
which gives it important commer- 
cial and other advantages. Its 
surface is greatly diversified, pre- 
senting almost every variety, from 
the lofty, rugged granitic ridg<^s, 
to the delightnil Connecticut river 
alluvial. 

Tlie extensive eastern eranitic 
range of mountain passes uurough 



11 
3 
6 
3 
5 
6 
8 



26 
13 
15 
5 
19 
15 
20 



8 m. S. E. 

Im. E. 

6 m. S. W. 
13 m. S.E. 
20 m. S. E. 
22 m. S. E, 



this county from a northeasterly 
to a southwesterly direction, rising 
upon the west side of Connecticut 
river, and extending into New-Ha- 
ven county, towards the sound, 
where it subsides. Upon the east 
side of the river ^s a mountainous 
range, extending nearly parellel 
with the river, in a direction to- 
wards the sound, which, although 
not distinctly connected, appears 
I to be a branch of the great east- 



270 



MIDDLESEX COUNTY, 



ern ran^e. This, however, is 
mostly m New-London county. 
The first mentioned range forms 
the boundary betweeti the granitic 
and argillaceous district upon 
Connecticut river ; and the north 
section of this county, being the 
commencement of the argilla- 
ceous district, is a highly interest- 
ing country, having a beautifully 
nndnlating surface, and a rich and 
productive soil. The southern 
section being the tract south of the 
principal range, is of a granitic 
character, and generally hilly, 
rocky and broken, with the excep- 
tion of the alluvial upon Connec- 
ticut river, and the flats upon the 
border of the sound* 

The soil, corresponding with the 
geological structure of the coun- 
ty, in the northern section, is a 
rich argillaceous loam, interspers- 
ed with some excellent tracts of 
alluvial, and some small sections 
of sandy loam* In the eastern, 
middle, and more southern sec- 
tions, the soil is a primitive gra- 
velly loam, interspersed occasion- 
ally with small tracts of sand and 
alluvial. 

The forests are deciduous, and 
considerably extensive; and the 
quality of the timber is excellent. 
The agricultural interests of 
the county are respectable, and 
generally directed to the objects 
of the dairy business, and the rais- 
ing of cattle and sheep. In the 
northern section of the county, 
considerable quantities of grain 
are raised ; but in the other sec- 
tions, little attention is paid to this 
branch of husbandry, and the grain 
raised is scarcely sufficient for the 
consumption of the inhabitants* 

The waters of the county are 



abundant and valuable ; and af- 
ford important advantages for the 
business of navigation, ship-build- 
ing and fishing. Being intersect- 
ed by Connecticut river, and its 
southern border washed by Long 
Island sound, this county unites 
greater advantages for navigation 
than any other in the State ; there 
being but one town in the county 
but what is accommodated with 
navigable waters. Numerous smafl 
streams intersect and fertilize thfe 
different sections of the county, 
discharging their waters either in- 
to Connecticut river or Long Isl- 
and sound. These streams abound 
with numerous sites for hydraulic 
works. 

The commercial business of the 
county is important and flourish- 
ing, and is principally directed to 
a trade with the West-Indies, tbc 
southern States and New- York. 
Nearly 100 vessels of every des- 
cription are owned in the county* 
Considerable attention is paid to 
the transportation of wood to the 
New- York market. 

The shad fishery in Connecti- 
cut river is an extensive and im- 
portant interest, and a source of 
great profit* Lai^e quantities of 
shad are annually tak^n, which 
not only supply the immediate de- 
mand, but constitute a staple ar- 
ticle for exportation* 

This county possesses great ad- 
vantages for ship-building ; which, 
at different periods, has been ex- 
tensively carried on* 

There are several very valuable 
quarries in the county, which are 
a source of profit, and afford em- 
ployment to considerable industry. 

The manufactures of this coun- 
ty are respectable, and compara- 




aODDLETOWN. 



271 



"■••^■^^■^i^^W^^tT' 



W J..->^ . 



■ ■i F »l| li |» ■ i i-w «i»W , !i 



M w» ' » ^ 



«! 



tively flourishing. The manufac- 
tures of woolen, of rifles, pistols, 
swords, ivory comhs and button 
moulds are the most important. 
Several of these manufactures, 
particularly those of rifles, pistols 
and swords, have been carried to 
great perfection. There are, in 
this county, 3 Cotton Factories, 
5 Woolen Factories, 17 Fulling 
•Mills and Clothiers^ works, 16 
Carding Machines for customers, 
43 Grain Mills, 1 Paper Mill, 1 
Oil Mill, 1 Powder Mill, I Foi^e 
and 6 small Furnaces. - 

ITiere are in the county of Mid- 



dlesex, 1 8 School Societies, each 
of which is divided into a suita- 
ble number of School Districts, 
of which there are in all 113, 
and 42 Religious Societies, 99 
Mercantjyi^ Stores, and 17 Social 
Libraries* 

The population of the county, 
in 1810, was 20,723; audits ag- 
gregate list, of taxable property 
and polls, is ^429,782. 

The county was incorporated 
in 1785, previously to which, it 
belonged to the counties of Hart- 
ford, New-London and New-Ha- 
ven ; principally to the former. 



MIDDLETOWN. 



. MIDDLETOWN, the semi- 
seat of justice, and the most con- 
siderable towufhip of the county, 
is pleasantly situated upon the 
west side of Connecticut river, 31 
miles from its mouth at Saybrook 
bar, according to the course of 
the river, 15 miles south of Hart- 
ford, 25 northeast of New-Haven, 
and 35 northwest of New-Lon- 
don,- in north lat 41** 35', west 
Ion. 72^ 54'. 

The township is bounded on the 
north by Wethersfield and Berlin, 
in Hartford county, on the east by 
Connecticut river, which sepa- 
rates it from Chatham, on the 
south by Haddam and Durham, 
and on the west by Wallingford 
and Meriden, in New-Haven 
county. 

Its average length from north to 
south is about 9 miles, and its ave- 
rage breadth from east to west 
nearly 7 miles, comprising about 
58 square miles, or 37,1 20 acres. 



This township comprises the 
southern section of the argilla- 
ceous district, upon the borders 
of Connecticut river ; its geolo- 
gical character, surface and soil 
corresponding with the prevailing 
features of this district. 

The surface is strikingly and 
pleasantly undulating and diver- 
sified, and the prevailing soil an 
ai^llaceous loam, rich and fertile, 
which reposes generally upon a 
bed of clay slate rock. But the 
western section of the township 
embraces the eastern branch of 
a greenstone range of mountain, 
being generally a succession,but in 
some places a continuity of eleva- 
ted hills. In this district^ the 
greenstone constitutes the upper 
stratum, and it is underlaid, or re- 
poses upon argillaceous schistus^. 
The soil is favourable both for 
grain and grazing, and is well 
adapted to fruit, with respect to 
w}iich the farmers have paid con- 



272 



MIDDLETOWN, 



Sfia- 



siderable attention, there being 
numerous apple orchards in the 
town ; so that the making of ci- 
der is an important agricultural 
interest. 

Of the grains cultiv||ed, wheat, 
rye, Indian corn and oats are the 
principal; and of these the soil 
carries good crops. Grass, flax, 
«ome hemp, potatoes and other 
roots, culinary vegetables and 
summer and autumn fruits flou- 
rish well, under proper cultiva- 
tion. 

The waving and pleasantly dl^ 
versified character of the country, 
the improved state of its cultiva- 
tion, the richness and variety of 
its productipns, and the majestic 
but pacific tide of the Connec- 
ticut, all of which are thrown un- 
der the eye of the beholder, pla- 
<;ed upon many of the eminences, 
afibrd, in the summer season, most 
delightful and interesting land- 
scapes. 

About one mile below the city, 
upon the bank of the river, lead 
ore has been ^discovered, and a 
mine was opened and worked du- 
ring the revolutionary war, but 
has since been abandoned. In 
this vicinity, there are also some 
indications of coal ; several exca- 
vations have been attempted, 
which hitherto have proved un- 
satisfactory. 

Besides the Connecticut, which 
washes the eastern border of the 
township, it is watered by two in- 
considerable streams, called West 
and Little rivers. The former has 
its source in Guilfordjai'd runs thro' 
Durham and the southwesterly 
section of Middletown, maintain- 
ing a northeasterly course, until 
it unites with Little river, (which 



rises in Berlin, and runs in a south- 
easterly direction,) near the cen^ 
tre of the town, north and south, 
and about two miles west from 
Connecticut river, into which thfe 
watei-s of these united streams 
are discharged, between the citj 
and the village called Middletown 
Upper Houses. These streams^ 
particularly West river, aflbrdnu^ 
merous excellent sites for hydrau- 
lic works, many of which are ad- 
vantageously and profitably ocCu^ 
pied. 

There are several shad and her- 
ring fisheries upon Connecticut ri- 
ver, and various small fish abound 
in most of the small streams. 

In the w estern part of the town, 
near Meriden, there is a pond, 
called Black pond, which is also 
stored with fish. 

There arc seven turnpike roads 
communicating with Middletown ; 
one leading to Hartford, one to 
Windham, one to Colchester, one 
to Saybrook, one to New-Haven, 
one to Meriden and one to Far- 
mington. 

The manufactures and mecha- 
nical establishments and employ- 
ments of the town, inclusive of 
those in the city, consist of the 
following: 2 Woolen Factories, 
both upon a respectable scale, and 
the manufactures of which hteivc 
acquired considerable reputation; 
ana 2 Cotton Factories. Of iroii 
manufactures, there are 1 Sword 
Factory, 1 Pistol Factory, and 1 
Rifle Factory, all upon a consider- 
able scale, and the articles maa^ 
ufactnred at which, particularly 
Swords, have been esteemed equal 
in every respect, if not superior, 
to th^se imported. There are 6 
Tin-ware Factories, 1 Silver plat- 



MIDDLETOWN. 



273 



ing Factory, 1 Button Factory, 3 
Pewter Factories, 1 Comb Fac- 
tory, 1 Paper Manufactory, 1 Pow- 
der Mill, 3 Rope walks, 1 Twine 
Factory, 1 Muff and Tippet Fac- 
tory 3 Saddlers, 2 Cabinet Mak- 
ers, and 2 Carriage Makers. There 
are 7 Grain Mills, 10 Saw Mills, 3 
Carding Machines and 8 Tanne- 
ries. 

There are, in the town, includ- 
ing the city, 1 1 Diy Goods Stores, 
32 Grocery and Provision Stores, 
2 Bookstores, 2 Druggist's Stores, 
1 Hardware Store, 2 Crockery 
Stores, 1 Hat Store and 3 Lumber 
Yards. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 5382; and there are 
700 Electors, 438 Militia, and 
about 800 Dwelling houses. 

The civil divisions of the town 
are 4 located Ecclesiastical Soci- 
eties or Parishes, 26 School Dis- 
tricts and an incorporated City. 
Besides the located, there are 3 
Societies of Baptists, 1 of Episco- 
palians, 2 of Methodists and 1 of 
Independents, making 11 in the 
town, ten of which are accommo- 
dated with Churches, or houses 
for public worship ; and, in each 
of the School Districts, a primary 
school is maintained. 

There are 4 Social Libraries 
and 1 Circulating Library in the 
city ; and, in the town, 6 Physi- 
cians, 10 Clergymen and 7 Attor- 
nies.^ 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, is $\ 13,896. 

MiDDLETOwN CiTY, incorpora- 
ted in 1784, is delightfully situated 
upon the west bank of the river, 
near the centre of the township, 
upon its eastern border. It has a 
safe and commodious harbour, the 

36 



river here having 1 feet of water 
at full tide, and is a port of entry. 
Its site is principally a gentle de- 
clivity ; having a gradual ascent 
back from the river. It is built 
mostly upon eight streets, of which 
Main-street, being the great river 
road, is the principal. This 
street runs in a northerly and 
southerly direction, nearly paral- 
lel with the river ; is well built, for 
nearly a mile in extent, and coo* 
tains most of the public buildings 
and public offices ; the two Bank* 
ing houses, two Churches, the Na- 
val office and Post office, a con- 
siderably extensive range of brick 
buildings^ occupied principally for 
Stores, Washington Hotel, seve* 
ral elegant brick edifices, and a 
number of neat and handsome 
Dvvelling houses. Stores, Mecha- 
nics' Shops, &c. Aside from the 
navigation interests, most of the 
mercantile business is done in this 
part of the city. Upon the mar- 
gin of the river, is Water-street, 
running in a parallel direction, and 
afibrding a communication with the 
several wharves which have been 
built. The maritime business of 
the city is chiefly transacted in this 
street; but it contains few stores or 
other buildings either large or ele- 
gant. High-street has an elevated 
and prospective situation, more 
than 100 rods back from Main- 
street, upon the height of land, 
and runs in a parallel direction. 
This street is a delightful resi- 
dence, affording a view of the oth- 
er parts of the ' city, of the sur- 
rounding country, which, for beau- 
ty, richness and variety of rural 
scenery, is scarcely surpassed, and 
of the river for a considerable ex- 
tent. There are a number of 



\ 



274 



MIDDLETOWN. 



neat and handsome dwelling hous- 
es upon this street. ITiese streets 
are intersected by several others, 
running from the river in a west- 
erly direction. In the north sec- 
tion of the city is Green-street ; 
the next south is Ferry-street, ex- 
tending only from the river, or Wa- 
ter-street, to Main-street. This 
short street is tolerably well built, 
but its buildings are principally 
small and of wood. Washington- 
street intersects Main and High- 
streets south of Ferry-street. 1 he 
Washington Hotel buildings arc 
situated at the corner of this and 
Main-street. The western sec- 
tion of this street is elevated, and 
contains several pleasant residen- 
ces. Court-street intersects Main- 
street near the centre of the city, 
and extends to High-street. The 
Court-Housc is situated upon this 
street. 

The city contains about 350 
Dwelling houses, and about 40 
Mercantile Stores of every des- 
cription ; and, in 1810, it contain- 
ed 2014 inhabitants, and has in- 
creased considerably since that pe- 
riod. It contains the Naval office, 
or Custom-house of the District, 
comprising the several ports up- 
on the river, both in this county 
an^ the county of Hartford, a Post 
office, 5 Churches, one for Con- 
gregationalists, one for Episcopa- 
lians, one for Bapti-sts, one for In- 
dependents and one for Method- 
ists, a Court House, the Gaol of 
the county and an Alms-house. 

There are, in the city, 2 Banks, 
one a branch of the United States 
Bank, established in 1 8 1 7, the oth- 
er incorporated by the State, in 
1 795,which has a capital of 400,000 
dollars, a Marine Insurance Com- 



pany, and a Newspaper establish- 
ment. 

All the tonnage of the District 
is registered at the Naval office 
in this city, and, in 1815, amount- 
ed to 1 9,327 tons. 

The city of Middletown possess- 
es very considerable advantages 
for maritime commerce, but is less 
favourably situated for inland 
trade ; the city of Hartford being 
but 1 6 miles above, upon the riv- 
er, with several considerable towns 
farther up, deprives it, in a great 
measure, of the trade and com- 
mercial advantages of the coun- 
try upon Connecticut river, north 
of that place. But it has a good 
harbour, and a depth of water ad- 
mitting of large vessels, is of com- 
paratively easy access from the 
ocean, and, in other respects, pos- 
sesses advantages for maritime 
commerce, much greater than any 
other place upon the river. 

In addition to the commercial 
advantages of the place, it unites 
many facilities for manufactures, 
was one of the first towns that 
disclosed a manufacturing spirit, 
and its establishments of woolen, 
cotton, swords, pistols and rifles, 
were among the first of the kind 
in the United States ; and most or 
all of them have acquired a ce- 
lebrity which has been attained 
by few others, and have contribu- 
ted to the reputation and impor- 
tance of the place. 

For some time after the close 
of the revolutionary war. Middle- 
town made little or no progress ; 
and, for several years, actually de- 
clined in population ; but for the 
last fifteen years it has been ris- 
ing, has become a place of consi- 
derable importance, and has a fair 



HADDAM. 



276 



prospect of a corresponding ad- 
vancen\ent in size, population and 
business, with the other commer- 
cial towns in the State. 

Middletownwas settled in 1651, 
the first settlers being principally 
from Hartford and Wethersfield, 
and some from England. The set- 
tlement soon after received con- 
siderable accession from Rowlej, 
Chelmsford, and Woburn, in Mas- 
sachusetts. The place was called 
Mattabesick by the natives, and 
received the name of Middletown 
from the General Court, in No- 
vember 1653 ; at which time it 
was probably admitted, to town 
privileges. In 1673, twenty years 
after, there were but 52 families 
or householders ; and the town- 
ship was divided into an equal 
number of shares. In a few in- 
stances, formerly, the General As- 
sembly have held their sessions in 
Middletown; but no particular 
events have occurred here worthy 
of historic notice. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Hon. Tz- 
tus Hosmerj an eminent lawyer, 
and statesman, was a native and 
resident of this town. He was 
one of the patriots of our glorious 
Revolution ; having, at an early 
period, been a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress. He died in 
1781. 

Hugh White Esq., the first set- 
tler of Whitestown, in the State of 
New- York,was a citizen of Middle- 
town. He removed from this place 
withhis familyin 1 7 8 4,and, penetra- 



ting beyond theMohawk flats,which^ 
then formed a barrier to the west' 
ern settlements, located himself 
at Sedaghquate, now Whitesboro' 
village, which, till then, had been 
the gloomy abode of wild beasts 
and savage men. For the first 
four years after the commence- 
ment of this settlement, its pro- 
gress was rather slow and discou- 
raging; yet, in 1788, it contain- 
ed nearly 200 inhabitants ; and 
the same year, the town of Ger- 
man Flats, comprising this settle- 
ment, was divided, and a new 
town established, which, in ho- 
nour of this enterprising man, was 
called " fVhitestown.^^ This town- 
ship, with less than 200 inhabit- 
ants, comprised then almost all the 
western section of that State, 
which, in 1810, contained 280,319 
inhabitants; being about 20,000 
more than the whole population 
of Connecticut ; so that Judge 
White, who survived this period 
two years, lived to see the dreary 
wilderness, into which he was the 
first man to penetrate, and which 
once bore his name, contain a 
greater population than his na- 
tive State. 

As was observed in his obituary 
notice, " Judge White may justly 
be considered as the Patriarch, 
who first led the children of New- 
England into the wilderness ; and 
it may be truly said, that he lived 
to see and enjoy the promised 
land." He died in 1812, aged 
80 years. 



HADDAM. 



HADDAM is a post township, 
situated upon the west side of Con- 



necticut river, 8 miles from Mid- 
dletown, and 23 from Hartford. 



276 



HADDAM. 



The tract of land between Mid- i 
dletown and Saybrook, embracing | 
this township, was originally called 
the lands at Thirty mile Island, 
from the Island in Connecticut riv- 
er of that name, (now Lord's Isl- 
and,) north of the centre of the 
tract which was then thought to be 
SO miles from its mouth,' or the bar. 
These lands were owned and in- 
habited by the natives, of which 
there was a numerous, fierce and 
warlike tribe. In 1G62, the Indian 
title to these lands was acquired 
by Matthew Allyn and Samuel 
Wyllys for thirty coats; not ex- 
ceeding, probably, one hundred 
dollars in value. The same year, 
this purchase was disposed of to 
28 persons, who immediately be- 
came actual settlers upon it. They 
were most, or all of them, from 
Hartford and its vicinity. The first 
settlement was made prpmiscuous- 
ly in the town meadow ; some fa- 
milies, however, located them- 
selves on the plain below Mill 
creek, and were called the lower 
plantation. In October, 1668, six 
years only from the first settlement, 
the town was incorporated by the 
name of Haddam. At this time, 
this town belonged to tlie county 
of Hartford, and so continued until 
the formation of Middlesex county, 
in May 1785 ; previously to which, 
the judicial and other business had 
been transacted at Hartford, the 
seat of justice for the county. On 
the organization of the county of 
Middlesex, this town, on account of 
its central situation, became the se- 
mi-scat of justice for the county, & 
hath so remained ever since. In 
1669, the original limits of this 
township were somewhat circum- 
scribed by a resolution of the As- 



sembly, ordering the division be- 
tween this town and Saybrook and 
Lyme, of a tract of land embraced 
within the original purchase, whicb 
was considered as forming the 
boundaries of Haddam, but which 
was also claimed by these two 
towns. 

At the present time, the mean 
length of this township is 7 miles, 
and its mean breadth more than 6 
miles, comprising an area of 43 
square miles. 

This township is the commence- 
ment of the granitic district, ex- 
tending to the mouth of Connecti- 
cut river. It is considerably rough 
and broken, being hilly and stony. 
There is but little alluvial upon 
Connecticut river, but the lands 
upon its borders are more smooth 
and better adapted to cultivation. 
Upon the branches of the Higga- 
num, and upon Beaver brook, 
there are some small intervals, 
excepting which, the lands back 
from the river are generally rough, 
and cultivated only for grazing or 
timber. The prevailing soil is a 
gravelly loam, hard and dry. The 
forests are considerably extensive, 
and large quantities of wood are 
annually sent to market by the in- 
habitants, principally, to New- 
York. The timber consists of 
hickory, oak and other hard wood. 
In 1 807, there were 2000 cords 
carried from Higganum landing, 
the principal wood market, to 
New-Yoikt 

The agricultural productions con- 
sist principally of butter, cheese, 
beef and pork ; some grain is rais- 
ed, and a supply of potatoes and 
other esculent roots, vegetables &c . 

. There are several quarries of 
stone in this town, wbichj consider^ 




HADDAM. 



277 



^■■■■■■■■■■ii 



ing their vicinity to a navigable 
river, promise to be a source of 
wealth, permanent and inexhausti- 
ble. 

The quarry below Haddam- 
street was opened about the year 
1 794 . It is on a hill of considera- 
ble height, about 100 rods back 
from the river. The stones are 
usually a little bfelow the surface, 
and are exhibited in nearly per- 
pendicular strata. They are valua- 
ble for building, paving, &c. The 
bed is inexhaustible ; and some 
years since, there were 80 or 90 
hands employed in this quarry, and 
one opposite, on the east side of 
the river. These stones have been 
carried to various places in this 
State and Rhode-Island, to Boston, 
New- York, Albany and Baltimore 
for a market. They are sold by 
the foot of 4 inches thickness, from 
1 7 to 20 cents ; and of 2 inches 
thickness, for pavements, from 10 
to 14 cents. 

Besides the Connecticut which 
washes the eastern border of the 
township, it is watered by several 
small streams ; the Higganum and 
its branches, Beaver brook and 
Pine brook. These streams aiford 
various sites for mills and other 
hydraulic works. There are seve- 
ral ferries across Connecticut riv- 
er in this town ; Higganum ferry 
was granted to the town in 1763 ; 
and what are called Haddam ferry 
and Chapman's ferry are both pri- 
vate property. The shad fisheries 
in the Connecticut river in this 
town are very important, and a 
source both of industry and wealth ; 
there are 16 or 17 different fishe- 
ries. In the season of 1814, it has 
been estimated that 130,000 shad 
were taken »t the several fisheries 



in this town, although this was quite 
an unfavourable season ; and it is 
supposed, that about 200,000 are 
annually taken. In 1802, there 
were 2300 taken at a single draught, 
of the seine used for the purpose. 

From the maritime advantages 
of the town being situated upon a 
navigable river, it has from an ear- 
ly period done something at navi- 
gation and ship-building. For 60 
or 70 years, a West India trade has 
been carried on, but upon a mode- 
rate scale. The coasting trade has 
been prosecuted more extensively. 
In 1814, there were owned in this 
town 1 Ship, 3 Brigs, 3 Sloops and 
5 Schooners'; amounting, in all, to 
1 597 tons. Ship-building has been 
regularly carried on for a length 
of time. Higganum landing has 
been its principal seat, although 
something has been done at other 
places. 

The manufacturing and mechani- 
cal establishments and interests 
consist of 2 Clothiers' works, one 
of which fulls and finishes 4,500 
yards of woolen cloth annually, 3 
Carding Machines, 5 Grain Mills, 
9 Saw Mills, 7 Tanneries, 1 Gin 
Distillery, 2 Cider Distilleries, 1 
Machine for welding gun barrels 
and 1 Brick-yard. This brick- 
yard is half a mile from Higganum 
landing ; the clay is taken from the 
bank of the river, and the brick are 
burnt upon a wharf; so that boats, 
and even vessels can approach so 
near, as to load the brick directly 
frorn the kiln. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, in 1816, was 
$40,571. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 2205; and there are 
about 250 Electors, 4 Companies 



I 



-278 



CHATHAM. 



of Militia, and about 390 Dwelling 
houses. 

The town contains one located 
ecclesiastical Society, a Society of 
Baptists, and a Society of Method- 
ists ; 13 School districts and pri- 
mary Schools. 



There are 3 Churches ; one for 
Congregationalists, one for Bap- 
tists and one for Methodists ; one 
Social Library, one Clergyman, 
two Physicians and one Attor- 
ney. 



CHATHAM. 



CHATHAM is a flourishing post 
town, pleasantly situated upon the 
east side of Connecticut river, op- 
posite Middletown, and 17 miles 
from Hartford ; bounded on the 
north by Glastenbury, on the east 
by Marlborough and Colchester, 
on the south by East-Haddam and 
Haddam Neck, belonging to the 
town of Haddam, and on the west 
by Connecticut river. 

The township has an average 
length of 9 miles, from north to 
south, and is more than 6 miles 
in breadth from east to west, com- 
prising an area of about 56 square 
miles. The interior of the town- 
ship is rough and broken, consist- 
ing of granitic hills, interspersed 
with inconsiderable vales. Upon 
Connecticut river, there is a con- 
siderable tract of alluvial, back of 
which, for nearly a mile, is an un- 
dulating argillaceous district, hand- 
some and fertile, and correspond- 
ing with the geological character 
of the country upon Connecticut 
river. The termination of this 
tract forms the boundary between 
the argillaceous and granitic dis- 
tricts. 

There are some valuable mine- 
rals in this town, the most impor- 
tant of which is cobalt ore. This 
valuable mineral has recently been 
discovered in several places in a 



mountain, called the Great Hill, 
about one mile from Middle Had- 
dam Landing. It has been found 
in considerable quantities ; and ap- 
pearances authorize a belief of 
the mine's being extensive. The 
ore is found in a variety of forms 
and situations ; sometimes embed- 
ded in masses of mica, having the 
figure of kidnies, sometimes sur- 
rounding garnets in clusters, some- 
times it is discovered in hornblend, 
but most generally in micaceous 
veins, having a considerable dip. 
The ore of the different qualities 
that has been obtained, is general- 
ly combined with arsenic; but in 
some instances with arsenic and 
sulphur. This mineral is used ex- 
tensively, and is very valuable in 
various manufactures; those of por- 
celain ware, Unen, &:c. The de- 
mand for these manufactures, in 
Great-Britain and Ireland, is sup- 
plied from Sweden and Germany. 
An oxyd of cobalt, called azure, is 
used in the china-ware manufac- 
tories in China, and is an impor- 
tant article of exportation to that, 
country. They are at present sup- 
plied from Poland ; but should this 
mine prove extensive, they might 
be supplied more directly, and up- 
on more reasonable terms, from 
this country. This article, in ad- 
dition to other important advanta- 



CHATHAM. 



279 



tages, would be, to a certain ex- 
tent, a substitute for specie, in our 
trade with that country. 

There is a very extensive and 
valuable quarry of freestone, situa- 
ted upon the bank of Connecticut 
river, opposite Middletown, and 
below the bar in the river; so 
that vessels of 100 tons ^an load 
along side of the bank, near the 
quarry. 

The strata of stone, forming the 
bed of this quarry, are a free sand- 
stone, and can be worked and sha- 
ped with great facility. Very 
large quantities of stone are annu- 
ally raised from this quarry, and 
sent to most of the principal ci- 
ties in the Union for a market. 
For 14 years past, there have been 
employed in this quarry, yearly, 
from 40 to 60 labourers, and a 
number of team?. These quar- 
ries have been worked for about 
150 years ; but not extensively, 
]antil the last 30 years, since they 
have belonged to their present 
proprietors, Messrs. Shalcr and 
Hall. 

Although thes€ stones are con- 
veyed to most of the considerable 
cities in the Union, yet they are 
principally marketed at New- 
York, Boston and Savannah. 

There are five different medi- 
cinal springs in this township; 
but their waters have not been 
subjected to chymical analysis, or 
their efficacy particularly ascer- 
tained. 

Although most of this township 
is rough and stony, yet its agricul- 
tural interests are flourishing. The 
soil in the interior is in general a 
primitive gravelly loam, conside- 
rably warm and fertile, and well 
adapted to grazing. In the dis- 



trict upon Connecticut river, the 
soil is an argillaceous loam, rich 
and fertile, and suitable for a grain 
culture. In the interior, th^ fo- 
rests are extensive, and the timber 
is of an excellent quality. The 
agricultural productions consist of 
rye, Indian corn, oats, flax, grass, 
cheese, butter, &c. 

The most considerable stream 
of water within the town is Salm- 
on river, which runs through its 
southeast section, and discharges 
itself into the Connecticut. Be- 
sides these, there are^ numerous 
small streams which water and fer- 
tilize the different sections of the 
town. 

The Connecticut river, which 
washes the western border of the 
town, affords great advantages for 
commerce, fishing, &c. The prin- 
cipal harbour is at Middle-Had- 
dam Landing, about 6 miles below 
Middletown. From this place, 
large quantities of timber, wood 
and lumber are shipped for New- 
York and Long Island. At this, 
and some other places in the town, 
ship-building has frequently been 
carried on t6 a considerable extent. 

The shad fisheries in Connecti- 
cut river form an important busi- 
ness, and are a source of conside- 
rable wealth. There are li dif- 
ferent fisheries. 

The navigation business is re- 
spectable ; there being 1 5 vessels 
owned in the town, employed prin- 
cipally in a trade to New- York and 
the southern States. 

The town is accommodated 
with several turnpike roads ; one 
leading to Windham, one to Col- 
chester, and one other. 

The manufactures and mecha- 
nical employments consist of 1 



280 



DURHAM. 



Woolen Factory, 1 Forge, 6 small 
Furnaces, for casting bells, cart 
and waggon boxes, &c., 6 Distil- 
ries, one of which, at Middle-Had- 
dam Landing, is upon a considera- 
ble scale, 4 Tanneries, 8 Grain 
Mills, 12 Saw Mills, 3 Carding 
Machines and 4 Clothiers' works. 
The population of Chathara^at the 
census of 18 10, was 3268; and there 
are about 525Electors,2Companies 
of Infantry & lof Lt. Infantry of Mi- 
litia, 453 Dwelling houses, 10 Mer- 
cantile Stores and 6 Churches. 

The corporate divisions of the 
town consist of 3 located Congre- 
gational Societies and 15 School 



Districts. Besides the located, 
there are 2 Episcopal Societies 
and I of Baptists. 

There are 15 primary Schools, 
one in each District, and an Aca- 
demy or Grammar School in the 
first Society. 

There are 5 Social Libraries, 
3 Congregational, 1 Episcopal, and 
1 Baptist Clergyman, 3 Physicians 
and 1 Attorney. 

The amount of taxable proper- 
ty, including polls, as rated in the 
list, in 1817, was g53,6l6. 

This town was incorporated in 
1767, previously to which it be- 
longed to Middletowu. 



DURHAM. 



DURHAM is a post town, situa- 
ted in the western section of the 
county 20 miles south of Hartford, 
and 18 northeast from New-Ha- 
ven ; bounded north on Middle- 
town, east on Haddam, south on 
Guilford and Killingworth, and 
west on Wallingford. 

This is a small township, ave- 
raging about 6 miles in length from 
east to west, and nearly 4 in 
breadth from north to south, com- 
prising an area of about 23 square 
miles. 

The prevailing character of the 
surface is undulating; exhibiting 
an agreeable and interesting diver- 
sity of moderate hills and gentle 
declivities and dales. The east- 
ern and western borders are some- 
what broken and mountainous. 

This township is situated at the 
commencement of the argillaceous 
district extending to the north up- 
on Connecticut river ; being part- 
ly included within it, and partly 



within the granitic region which 

Erevails upon the borders of Long 
sland sound. Within the clay 
slate strata, there is an exhaustless 
quarry of sandstone, which is a ve- 
ry valuable freestone. 

The prevailing soil is an argilla- 
ceous loam, and a slaty or shis- 
tic gravel. It is generally fertile 
and productive. Upon the streams, 
particularly West or Middletown 
river, are considerable tracts of 
alluvial. 

The lands are well adapted both 
to grazing and tillage, and also fa- 
vourable for fruit. 

The staple agricultural produc- 
tions are rye, corn and flax. 

Of the waters of the town, West' 
river is the principal stream. It 
rises near the north line of Guil- 
ford, and runs northwardly through 
the town, embodying, initscourse, 
most of the small streams,in to Mid- 
dletown, where it discharges itself 
into the Connecticut. It affords,. 



/ 



EAST-HADDAM. 



281 



within this town, very extensive 
meadows. 

The MiddletowD and New-Ha- 
vea turnpike leads through this 
town ; the East-Guilford turnpike 
runs from that Society in Guilford, 
into the centre of this town ; and 
there is a turnpike, commencing 
about half a mile south of the cen- 
tre of this town, which leads to 
Haddam. 

The principal manufacture is 
that of shoes ; of which, for some 
years past^ copsiderable quantities 
have been mside, and sent to the 
southern States for a market. 
There are 4 Tanneries, 2 Grain 
Mills, 3 Saw Mills, 1 Carding Ma- 
chine and 1 Cider Distillery. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1130; and there are 
about 150 Electors, 2 Companies 
of Militia, and 172 Dwelling hou- 
ses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, including polls, was 
J{26,609. 



This town comprises but 1 loca- 
ted Ecclesiastical Society. Be- 
sides which, there is 1 Society of 
Episcopalians and 1 of Methodists. 
In the centre of the town,jthere 
is a small but pleasant village. 

There are, in Durham, 3 Mer- 
cantile Stores, 6 common Schools, 
1 small Academy, 2 Social Libra- 
ries, 1 Clergyman and 1 Physi- 
cian. 

The settlement in this town was 
commenced in the year 1699, and 
it was incorporated in 1 708. 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen. James 
Wadsworthj distinguished for his 
revolutionary services, was a na- 
tive of this town. He was a Ge- 
neral in the continental army, du- 
ring the revolutionary war, and 
was esteemed a zealous patriot 
and a good officer. After the 
peace, he was for several years 
a member of the Congress or- 
ganized under the Confedera- 
tion. He died in 1817, aged 88. 



EAST-HADDAM. 



EAST-HADDAM is aconside- 
rable post township, situated upon 
the east side of Connecticut river, 
in the southeast section of the 
couaty, 13 miles southeast from 
Middletown, and about 27 from 
Hartford; bounded on the north 
by Chatham ^d Colchester, on 
the east by Colchester and Lyme, 
in New-London county, on the 
south by Lyme, and on the west, 
.principally by Connecticut river, 
but partly by the Salmon river, sc- 

ffarating it from Haddam Neck, be- 
onging to the town of Haddam. 

The average length of the town- 
ship, from east to west, is nearly 8 

36 



miles, and its average breadth, 
from north to south, is about 6 and 
a half miles, comprising an area 
of about 50 square miles. 

The face of the country pre- 
sents the usual granitic features of 
this region, being rough, and of a 
mountainous character ; but the 
soil, which is a primitive gravelly 
loam, is generally strong and fer- 
tile. There is some alluvial up- 
on the borders of the streams, 
which, with some other small 
sections, is suitable for the cul- 
tivation of grain ; but the prin- 
cipal part of the township is best 
adapted to grazing, and is too 



2B2 



BIOGRAPHY. 



rough and stony for tillage 
There is considerable timber in 
the towa^ which i£ of an excellent 
quality. 

The agricultural interests and 
pursilits are principally directed to 
the dairy business, and the raising 
of cattle and sheep. > 

The waters of the town are 
abundant ; it being washed upon 
its western border by theConnecti* 
cut, throu^out most of its extent, 
and the residue by Salmon river* 
There are also, several small 
streams which intersect and fer- 
tilize the different sections of die 
township^ and afford numerous 
sites for hydraulic works. 

Upon the Connecticut and 
Salmon rivers, Aere are several 
good harbours or landings, at which 
&e commercial business is carried 
an, which consists principally in a 
trade with New- York and the 
southern States. Considerable 
quantities of wood are conveyed 
to the New- York market. The 
landing places afford great facili- 
ties to the business of ship build- 
ing, which at some periods has 
received considerable attention. 

The ^bad fisheries in the Con* 
necticttt constitute an impcMrtant 
business, and are a source of con- 
siderable profit* They are six in 
liumber ; and it has been estimat- 
ed that <2ieaverage quantityof shad, 
taken annually, is nearly 50,000. 

The manufacturing and mecha- 
nical interests of the town are re- 
spectable. There are 1 Cotton 
Factory, 1 Woolen Factory, 3 Clo- 
thiers' works, 3 Carding Aiachines, 
1 Oil Mill, 6 Grain Mills, 19 Saw 
Mills and 13 Tanneries. 

There were 2537 inhabitants in 
this town, at Uie c^isus of 1810; 



and there are about 300 Electors, 
3 Companies of Militia, and about 
390 Dwelling houses. 

This town is accommodated with 
a turnpike road to Colchester^ and 
the contemplated tui^npike from 
New^Haven to Norwich will pas$ 
through it. 

The civil divisions of East-Had* 
dam are 3 located Congregational 
Societies and 19 School Districts. 
Besides the located, there is 1 So- 
ciety of Episcopalians and l~of 
Baptists. 

. There are 8 or 10 Mercantile 
Stores and 3 Social Libraries in 
the town. 

The amount of taxable property 
and polls) in 1817, was $60,327. 

This town was originally a part 
of Haddam ; and for an account 
of its first settlement, we must re- 
fer the reader to iij^t town* It 
was incorporated as a separate 
town in 1734. 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen, Joseph 
Spencery of this town, enjoyed a 
great share of public confidei^ce in 
bis day, and was honoured with 
many distinguished offices, both 
civil and military. During &e 
French .war> in 1758, he went in* 
to the northem^army, having the 
rank of a major, and was soon pro- 
moted to a colonel, in which office 
he served the two succeeding 
years, and acquired considerab^ 
reputation. At the co^nmence- 
ment of the revolutionary war^ ki 
1775, he Was appointed a Bri^- 
dler General, and, the subsequent 
year, a Major General in the Con^ 
tinen^l army. He r^ignf^ his 
commission in 1778, and the year 
after, was elected a m^nber of the 
Continental Congress. He died 
ifi 1789, aged 75 years. 



KILLOWJWORTH. 



383 



msBmBmamemmmmmam 

is a man** 



KILLlNGWpRTH 
ttme posi township, situated tipon 
Long Isbod sound, 38 miles south- 
oast from Hartford, 26 ea^ from 
K«w-Haven,and 2€w€st fromNeww 
LoDfdon; bounded onthc north by 
Durham^, on the northeast by Had- 
dam, on the east by Saybrook, on 
die south by Long Island sound, 
«nd on th^ west by Hammonassett 
river^ whti^h separates it from 
GuilfoM. 

The township is of an oblong 
figure, comprising an area of about 
43 square miles, being about 13 
miles in length, from north to south, 
and having a mean breadth ojf 
uiorh than 3 miles. 

The surface is various ; the sou- 
thern section of the township being 
level, the northern diversified with 
hill and dale, and it is rough and 
stony. Upon the border of the 
sound,there are large tracts of ma* 
fine alluvial or salt marsh,comprts« 
tug, as has been estimated, 1000 
acres. 

The soil is also various. The 
northern section is a gravelly loam; 
in other sections there are some 
tracts of sandy loam, and some ar-* 
glHaceous, and the marine allu- 
vial already noticed. 

Of the waters of the town, the 
Hammonassett river, which wash- 
es its western border, and the Me- 
tiunketesnek, which runs through 
its easteiH section, and discharges 
itself into Pochaug harbour, in 
Saybrook, are flie most considera- 
ble streams. Besides these there 
sire various small streams, which 
accommodate and fertilize the dif^ 
ferent parts of the town* 

Hiere is one harbour in the 
southern part of the town, tolera- 
bly safe and commodious ; hatiifg 



seven and a half feet of water at 
commontides. 

Some attention is paid to fte 
business of fishing. Of the fish 
taken, are shad, black fish and 
shell-fish. White fish are also ta- 
ken venr plentifully,' for the pur- 
poses of manure. 

There are eight small vessels 
belonging to the town^ employed 
in the coasting trade. Wood and 
ship thnber, of which the town af- 
fords lai^e supplies, form a consi- 
derable item of exportation. They 
are sent principally to New- York. 
The wood is of an excellent quali- 
ty, consisting mostly of walnut and 
rock oak. 

Killittgwortb) as an agricultural 
township, does not unite superior 
advantages, or possess very ample 
resources for agricultural improve- 
ments and wealth. Some sections, 
however^Pe feasible, fertile and 
productive, and suitable for a grain 
culture 5 but many parts are rough 
and stony, and adapted only to gra- 
zing or the CTOwth of timber. 

The staple agricultural produc- 
tions are Indian corn, some rye,, 
oats, bariey, the cultivation of 
which (although neglected inmost 
other towns) forms a considerable 
interest, beef, butter and cheese. 

The manufactures of the town, 
exclusive of those which form 
the products of domestic industry, 
are not very important or conside- 
rable. There are 1 Woolen Fac* 
tory, 3 Fulling Mills and Cloth 
Dressing establishments, S dard- 
ing Machines, 8 Grain Mills and 
6 Tanneries. 

Th^ civil divisions of the town 
consist of 2 located Congregation- 
al Societies and 15 School Dis- 
tricts. Besides the locate, there 



2B2 



BIOGRAPHY. 



rough and stony for tillage 
Inhere is considerable timber in 
the town^ which i£ of an excellent 
quality. 

The agricultural interests and 
pursi&ts are principaUy directed to 
the dairy business, and the raising 
of cattle and sheep. 

The waters of the town are 
aibundant ; it being washed upon 
its western border by theConnecti* 
cut, throu^out most of its extent^ 
and the residue by Salmon river. 
There are also several small 
streams which intersect and fer- 
tilize the different sections of the 
township) and afford numerous 
sites for hydraulic works. 

Upon the Connecticut and 
Salmon rivers, tiiere are several 
good harbours or landings, at which 
&e commercial business is carried 
on, which consists principally in a 
trade witji New- York and the 
southern States. Considerable 
quantities of wood are conveyed 
to the New- York market. The 
landing places affprd great facili- 
ties to tile business of ship build- 
ing, which at some periods has 
received considerable attention. 

The ^d fisheries in the Con* 
necticut constitute an important 
business, and are a source of con- 
siderable profit. They are six in 
number ; and it has been estimat- 
ed that tiieaverage quantityof shad, 
taken annually, is nearly 50,000. 

The manufacturing and mecha- 
nical interests of the town are re- 
spectable. There are 1 Cotton 
Factory, 1 Woolen Factory, 3 Clo- 
thiers' works, 3 Carding Blacbines, 
1 Oil Mill, 6 Grain Mills, 19 Saw 
Mills wd 13 Tanneries. 

There were 2537 inhabitants in 
this town^ at tiie c^[isiis of 1810 ; 



and there are about 300 Electors, 
3 Companies of Militia, and about 
390 Dwelling houses. 

This town is accommodated wi& 
a turnpike road to Colchester^ and 
the contemplated tu^ipike from 
New-Haven to Norwich will pas$ 
through it* 

The civil divisions of East-Had* 
dam are 3 located Congregational 
Societies and 19 School Districts* 
Besides the located, there is 1 So- 
ciety of Episcopalians and 1-of 
Baptists. 

. There are 8 or 10 Mercantile 
Stores and 3 Social Libraries in 
the town. 

The amount of taxable property 
and polls, in 1817, was $60,327. 

This tawa was originally a part 
of Haddam ; and for an account 
of its first settlement, we must re^ 
fer the reader to tiiat town« It 
was incorporated as a separate 
town in 1 734. 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen, Joseph 
Spencer, of this town, enjoyed a 
great share of pubUc confidei^ce in 
bis day, and was honoured with 
many distinguished offices, both 
civil and military. During the 
French war> in 1758, he went in- 
to the northern army, having the 
rank of a major, and was soon {m'o- 
moted to a colonel, in which office 
he served the two succeeding 
years, and acquired considerable 
reputation. At the cmunence- 
ment of the revolutionary war^ m 
1775, he Was i^ppointed a Bri^« 
dier General, and, the subsequent 
year, a Major General in the Con* 
tinental army. He resignf^ his 
commission in 1778, and the year 
after, was elected a m^i^r of the 
Continental Congress. He died 
in 1789, aged 75 years. 



KlLLCWJirORltt. 



383 



KILLlNGWpRTH is a inari^ 
time podi tawBship, situated upon 
Long Island sound, 38 miles south* 
«ai8t from Hartford, 26 east from 
New-Haven,and 2€w€st fromNeww 
London ; bounded on the north by 
Durhant, on the northeast by Had- 
dam, on the east by Saybrook, on 
the south by Long Island sound, 
knd on the west by Hammoiiassett 
riverj which separates it from 
Gttilforf. 

The township is <rf aii oblong 
figure, comprising an area of about 
42 square miles, being about 13 
miles in length, from north to south, 
and having a mean breadth of 
morh than 3 miles. 

The surface is various ; the sou- 
thern section of the township' being 
level, the northern diversified with 
hill and dale, and it is rough and 
stony. Upon the border of the 
sound,there are large tracts of ma* 
fine alluvial or salt marsh,compris- 
tng, as has been estimated, 1000 
acres. 

The soil is also various. The 
northern section is a gravelly loam; 
in other sections there are some 
tracts of sandy loam, and some ar-* 
gillaceous, and the marine allu- 
vial already noticed. 

Of the waters of the town, the 
Hammonassett river, which wash- 
es its western border, and the Me- 
nunketesnck, which runs through 
its eastern section, and discharges 
itself into Pochaug harbour, in 
Saybrodc, are flie most considera- 
ble streams. Besides these there 
Are various :8raall streams, which 
accommodate and fertilize the dif- 
ferent parts of the town. 

lliere is one harbour in the 
southern part of the town, tolera- 
bly safe and commodious ; having 



seven and a half feet of water at 
common tides. 

Some attention is paid to the 
business of fishing. Of the fish 
taken, are shad, black fish and 
shell-fish. White fish are also ta- 
ken veiy plentifully, for the pur- 
poses of manure. 

There are eight small vessels 
belonging to the town, employed 
in the coasting trade. Wood and 
ship timber, of which the town af- 
fords lai^e supplies, form a consi- 
derable item of exportation. They 
are sent principally to New- York. 
The wood is of an excellent quali^ 
ty, consisting mostly of walnut and 
rock oak. 

Killittgwortb, as an agricultural 
township, does not unite superior 
advantages, or possess very ample 
resources for agricultural improve- 
ments and wealth. Some sections, 
however^4N feasible, fertile and 
productive, and suitable for a grain 
culture ; but many parts are rough 
and stony, and adapted only to gra- 
zing or the CTOwth of timber. 

The staple agricultural produce 
tions are Indian corn, some rye,, 
oats, bariey, the cQltivation of 
which (altiioush neglected inmost 
other towns) forms a considerable 
interest, beef, butter and cheese. 

The manufactures of the town, 
exclusive of those which forni 
the products of domestic industry^, 
are not very important or conside- 
rable. There are 1 Woolen Fac- 
tory, S Fulling Mills and Cloth 
Dressing establishments, 2 Card- 
ing Machines, 8 Grain Mills and 
6 Tanneries. 

Th^ civil divisions of the town 
consist of 2 located Congregation- 
al Societies and 1 5 School Dis- 
tricts. Besides the locate, there 



ui 



BIOGRAPHY. 



rough and stony for tillage 
There is considerable timber in 
the iowU) which is of aa excellent 
quality. 

The agricuUtiral interests and 
pnrsjlits are principaHy directed lo 
the dairy business, and the raising 
of cattle and sheep. 

The waters of the town are 
al>undaiit ; it being washed upon 
its western border by theConnecti* 
cut, throu^ioQt nost of its extent^ 
and the residue by Salmon river* 
There are also several small 
streams which intersect and fer* 
tilize the different sections of tiie 
townshipi and afford numerous 
sites for hydraulic works. 

Upon the Connecticut and 
Salmon rivears, tiiere are several 
good harbours or landings, at which 
&e commerci9,l business is carried 
(HI, which consists principally m a 
trade witti New- York and the 
southern States. Considerable 
quantities of wood are conveyed 
to the New- York market. The 
landing places affprd great facili- 
ties to the business of ship build- 
ing, which at some periods has 
received considerable attention. 

The ^d fisheries in the Con* 
necticut constitute an imp<Mrtant 
business, and are a source of con- 
siderable profit* Theyaresixin 
number ; and it has been estimate 
ed that <2ieaverage quantityof shad, 
taken annually^ is nearly 50,000« 

The manufacturing and mecha- 
nical ioterests of the town are re^ 
spectable. There are 1 Cotton 
Factory, 1 Woolen Factwy, 3 Clo- 
thiers' works, 3 Carding Mftchiaes, 
1 Oil Mill, 6 Grain Mills, 19 Saw 
Mills and 13 Tanneries. 

There were 2537 inhabitants in 
this town, at ihe ceiutus of 1810; 



and there are about 300 Electors, 
3 Companies of Mihtia, and about 
390 Dwelling houses^ 

This town is accommodated w;ith 
a turnpike read to Colchester, and 
the contemplated tui^pike firom 
New-Haven to Norwich will pas| 
through it. 

The civil divisions of Eaf^-Had* 
dam are 3 located Cotogf^egational 
Societies and 19 School Districts* 
Besides tile located, there is 1 So- 
ciety of Episcopalians and 1-of 
Baptists. 

« There are B or 10 Mercantile 
Stores and 3 Social Libraries in 
the town. 

The amount of ta^ble property 
and polls^ in 1 8 1 7, was ^60,327 . 

This town was origiDaUy a part 
of Haddam ; and for an account 
of its first settlement, we must re* 
fer the reader to tiiat town. It 
was incorporated as a separate 
town in 1734. 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen, /^jepA 
Spencerj of this town, ei^oyed a 
great share of pubUc confide j^ce in 
bis day, and was honoured with 
many distinguished offices, both 
civil and military. During tlie 
French .war> in 1758, he went in- 
to the northeniharmy, having the 
rank of a major, and was soon f>ro- 
moted to a colonel, in which offiioe 
he served the tiro succeeding 
years, , and acquired considerabte 
reputation* At the c<^nmence- 
ment of the revolutionary wat^ in 
1775, be i^as appointed a Biiga- 
<Mer General, and, the subsequent 
year, a Major General in the CoIl<^ 
tinental army. He resignfsd his 
commissipn in 1778, and the year 
after, was elected a m^dber of the 
Continentiil Congress. He died 
m 1789, aged 75 years. 




KlLLlR6?irORtH. 



U3 



KILlilNGWORTH is a mari- 
time post township, $ittiat<ed upon 
Long Island sound, 38 miles south- 
east from Hartford, 26 east from 
New-Haven,and 26west froroNeww 
London; bonndedon the north by 
Durham, on the northeast by Had- 
dam, on the east by Saybrook, on 
the so^th by Long Island sound, 
tad on the west by Hammonassett 
river, which separates it from 
Guilford. 

The township is <rf an oblong 
figure, comprising an area of about 
42 square miles, being about 13 
miles^in length, from north tosouth, 
and having a mean breadth of 
ii&OT% than 3 miles. 

The surface is various ; the sou- 
thern section of the township being 
level, tiie northern diversified with 
hill and dale, and it is rough and 
stony. Upon the border of the 
sound^there are large tracts of ma* 
rine alluvia] or salt marsh,compris« 
tng, as has been estimated, 1000 
acres. 

Tba soil is also various. The 
northern section is a gravelly loam; 
in other sections there are some 
tracts of sandy loam, and some ar-* 
gillaceous, and the marine allu* 
vial already noticed. 

Of the wateirs of the town, the 
Hammonassett river, which wash- 
es its western border, and the Me- 
tilunketesnck, which runs through 
its easterti section, and discharges 
itself into Pochaug harbour, in 
Saybrook, are the most considera- 
ble streams. Besides these there 
sere various ^mall streams, which 
accommodate and fertilize the dif- 
ferent parts of the town* 

There is one harbour in the 
southern part of the town, tolera- 
bly safe and commodious ; hatiitg 



seven and a half feet of water at 
common tides- 
Some attention ti paid to the 
business of fishing. Of the fish 
taken, are shad, black fish and 
shell^h. White fish are also ta- 
ken veiy plentifiilly,' for flie pur- 
poses of manure. 

There are ei^t small vessels 
befonging to the town; employed 
in the coasting trade. Wood and 
ship timber, of which the town af- 
fords lai^e supplies, form a consi- 
derable item of exportation. They 
are sent principally to New- York. 
The wood is of an excellent quali- 
ty, consisting mostly of walnut and 
rock oak. 

Killittgwortb) as an agricultural 
township, does not unite superior 
advantages, or possess very ample 
resources for agricultural improve- 
ments and wealth. Some sections, 
however^4N feasible, fertile and 
productive, and suitable for a grain 
culture ; but many parts are rough 
and stony, and adapted only to gra- 
zing or the ^owth of timber. 

The staple agricultural produc- 
tions are Indian corn, some rye,. 
oats, bariey, the coltivation of 
which (aldiough neglected inmost 
other towns) fonns a considerable 
interest, beef, butter and cheese. 
The manufactures of the town, 
exclusive of those which form 
Hie products of domestic industry, 
are not very important or conside- 
rable. There are 1 Woolen Fac* 
tory, 3 Fulling Mills and Cloth 
Dressing establishments, 2 Card- 
ing Machines, 8 Grain Mills and 
6 Tanneries. 

Th^ civil divisions of the town 
consist of 2 located Congregation- 
al Societies and 15 School Dis- 
tricts. Besides the located, there 



284 



SAYBROOK. 



are 2 Societies of Episcopalians 
and 1 of Baptists. 

In the first located Society, there 
is a pleasant and interesting vil- 
lage, situated at the landing, up- 
on the sound, and upon the great 
road leading from New-Haven to 
New-London. It comprises about 1 1 from Hartford, Windsor and Gull- 



100 Dwelling bouses, some of 
which are neat and handsome, a 
Post office, a Congregational 
Church, ^nd several Mercantile 
Stores. It has a healthful, inte- 
resting and prospective situation ; 
having, in the summer months, a 
salubrious sea air. 

The population of the town, 
in 1810, was 2244 ^ and there are 
about 400 Electors, 3 Companies 
of Militia, and about 320 Dwelling 
houses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
in 1816, was $52,751. 

There are in Killinflfeorth, 15 
primary Schools, 1 Academy, 3 
Houses for public worship, 1 So- 






cial Library, 9 Mercantile Stores 
8 Taverns or Public Inns, 3 Phy- 
sicians, 2 Clergymen and 2 Attor- 
nies. 

This township was called by the 
Indians Hammonassett, and was 
settled in 1663, by 12 families 



ford. 

The township was incorporated 
in 1703, by the name of Killing- 
worth, although it was intended to 
have had the English name of 
Kennelworihj a mistake having 
bc^n made in the record. 

BIOGRAPHY. The Rev. ^. 
red Elliott^ D. D., was for many 
years a resident of this town. ^He 
was a man of genius and science ; 
and invented or discovered the 
art of making sand-iron, being iron 
manufactured from black sand. 
This discovery was perfected in 
1761 ; and he died in 176Q, aged 
78 years. He was a member of 
the Royal Society of London. 



SAYBROOK. 



SAYBROOK is an extensive 
maritime post townsliip, situated 
at the mouth of Connecticut river, 
upon Long Island sound, 40 miles 
southeast of Hartford, 18 west 
of New-London, 34 east of New- 
Haven, and 70 southwest of Provi- 
dence; bounded easterly upon 
Connecticut river, southerly upon 
Long Island sound, westerly by 
Killingworth, and northerly by the 
town, of Haddam. The mean 
length of the township, from north 
to south, is about 1 1 miles, and its 
average breadth, from east to west, 
is more than 6 miles, comprising 
an area of about 70 square miles. 



The general character of this 
township is rough, and considera- 
bly broken, being hilly and stony; 
but there are some intervals, and 
other sections that are level. Its 
geological features are primitive ; 
the prevailing strata of rocjcs con- 
sisting of granite and micaceous 
schistus. ;« VVithin these strata, 
there are, at different places, seve- 
ral valuable quarries of stone. 
Theprevailingsoil, which is a grav- 
elly loam, is considerably fertile ; 
it produces corn, some rye, oats, 
hay, , &c . Indian corn and hay are 
among the staple productions,, and 
are of the best quality. The lands 




SAYBROOK* 



28^ 



\ l I'l'MI" 



mm 



are well adapted to grazing^ and 
th^ dairy business is considerably 
attended tov 

This township is very advanta- 
geously located, with respect to 
waters; being washed by Long 
Island sound upon its southern 
border, which is indented with nu- 
merous inlets, and by Connecticut 
river upon its eastern border, a 
distance of nearly 14 miles; be- 
sides which^ there are several small 
streams that intersect the town. 
Of these, the most considerable 
are Chester river, which runs 
through the north Society ; Pet- 
tipaug river, which discharges it- 
self into the Comiecticut; Oys- 
ter river^ which discharges its wa- 
ters into Long Island sound, and 
the Ppchaug river, which waters 
the western section of the township . 
There are several harbours up- 
on Connecticut river. The depth 
of water at the bar is about 12 
feet ^t spring tides. There is a 
light-house at Lynde Point. 

The navigation business of the 
town is considerable ; there being 
30 vessels of every description 
owned here, which are employed 
in the coasting trade. Ship buil- 
ding also receives considerable at- 
tention, particularly at the village 
of Pettipaug. 

The shad fisheries in Connecti- 
cut river, within this town, are 
very valuable, a source of great 
wealth, and afford employment 
for considerable industry. The 
. shad taken in this town are at least 
equal in quality to those taken at 
any other place upon the river, 
ami are not surpassed by any in 
America. The quantities of shad 
taken in Connecticut river have 
considerably decreased, for some 



years past, and the price has pro- 
portionally advanced. . Formerly, 
they were put up, or salted in 
barrels, without reference to the 
weight ; but some years since, an 
act was passed by the Assembly, 
regulating the packing or salting 
of shad, which requires, that each 
barrel shall contain 200lbs.and be 
inspected, &c. These regulations . 
have improved the quality of the 
shad, which are exported from 
Connecticut rivfer, and given them 
a reputation surpassing that of any 
other, and a consequent higher 
price in market. 

Salmon, which were formerly 
taken very plentifully in this river, 
have, for some years past, wholly 
disappeared. Some herring are 
taken in this town, which are salt- 
ed, and fitted for the West India 
market. White fish are taken up- 
on the shores of the sound, which 
are very valuable for the purpos- 
es of manure. They are sold for 
this object at $2 per thousand ; at 
which price they are a cheap ma- 
nure, their richness and efficacy 
being truly astonishing. The light- 
est soils, enriched with them, have 
produced 40 bushels of rye to the 
acre ; and they have an equally ad- 
vantageous effect upon the growth 
of corn, potatoes and other pro- 
ductions. 

The interests of agriculture, na- 
vigation, fishing and commerce,eri- 
gross most of the capital, industry 
and enterprise of the town ; and 
its manufactures,exclusive of those 
of a domestic character, can claim 
only a very subordinate rank. 
There is 1 Ivory Comb Factory, 
upon a very extensive scale. Large 
quantities of ivory button moulds 
are also manufactured at this es- 



dsa 



SAYBIU>OX. 



tablishment. There are 3 Cloth- 
iers' works, 2 Carding Machine^ 
7 Grain Mills and 6 Saw Mills. 

The mercantile bnstness of the 
town is respectable, there being in 
the several Societies, 14 Diy 
Goods and Grocery Stores. 

The civil divisions of the town 
consist of 4 Parishes or located 
Congregational Societies and 20 
School Districts. Besides the lo- 
cated, there are 2 Societies of 
Methodists, 1 of Baptists and 1 of 
Episcopalians. 

In the Society of Petttpaug, 
there is a consideraMe village, of 
the same name, situated at the 
landing, upon Connecticut riv^- 
er, eight miles from its mouth* 
This is a pl^ce of considerable 
commercial and navigation busi- 
ness. Ship buildii^ also is carried 
iOn here very extensively. 

This village is memorable from 
the attack made upon it by the 
British, during the late war, and 
the entire destruction of the ship- 
ping in the harbour, which seems 
to have been the object of their 
Jriendly visit. This event occur- 
red on the 8th of April, (being 
Good Friday, and a public Fast 
day,) 1814. A detachment from 
the British blockading squadron, 
then Ijring off New-London, con- 
sisting of several hundred soldiers 
and marines, made an excursion 
up the river, in six large barges, 
with muffled oars, and arrived at 
the landing in this village, about 
3 o^cIock in the morning. About 
270 men were immediately land- 
ed, who rushed into, and took pos- 
session of the village. The com- 
manding officer informed the inha- 
bitants, that bis orders were to 
I^nm the shipping, but not to mo- 



lest the citizens, unless they w^e 
attacked ; in which case, he was 
ordered to destroy every hoose in 
the village. The suddenness and 
surprise of this irrupfibn prddv* 
ced a scene of confusion, wliiell 
obstructed the organizaticmof adj 
efficient means of resistance ; and 
the party was left to proceed in 
ttieir work of destruction. They 
burned all the vessels in the har- 
bour, amounting to 23, and va- 
lued, subsequently, at ^206,000^ 
They also destroyed or stove sei^ew 
ral hogsheads of rum, and carried 
oif several thousand dollars worth 
of cordage. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 3926; and there are 
about 450 Electors, 5 Companies , 
of Militia, four of Infantry aoid t of 
Artillery, and about 600 Dwelling 
houses. 

The aggregate list of the town, 
inl816,wa8|75,857. 

There are 2 Post offices in the 
town, one in the first Society, and 
the o&er in Chester ; and, in ad- 
dition to the county or public 
roads, it is accommodated with a 
convenient turnpike, leading thro' 
Haddam to Middletown ; and an- 
other is now opening from this 
town to New-Haven. 

There are, in this town, 20 pri- 
mary Schools, 6 Clei^men, 5 Phy- 
sicians and 1 Attorney. 

This is one of the most ancient 
towns in the State. Lords Say and 
Seal and Brook, having purchased 
the tract of land upon the mouth 
of Connecticut river, previously 
to the year 1635, caused a fort 
to be erected at the Point, this 
and the succeeding year, in which 
a garrison of about 20 men was 
maintained. The garrison made 



BIOGRAPHY. 



28Y 



some improvements ; and it was 
contemplated immediately to pro- 
secute the settlement* But tiie 
war wttb the Pequots, and the con- 
dition, of the colony, retarded it. 
In the summer of the year 1639, 
Mr. George Fenwick, with his fa- 
Inily, arrived in a ship from Eng- 
land, with a view to take posses- 
sion of the country, and establish 
a settlement, in behalf of the pur- 
duiseis or patentees thereof. A 
settlement was soon commenced, 
and in honour of their lordships. 
Say and Seal & Brook, was named 
Saybrook. Messrs. Fenwick and 
TbM)ma8 Peters, who was the first 
QHnister in the settlement, Capt. 
Gardiner, and Capt. John Mason, 
were among the first and principal 
settlers. The town was indepen- 
dent of the government of Con* 
necticut, until after the purchase 
of Mr. Fenwick, in 1644. The 
first tax, levied by authority 
of the colony, was at the Oc- 
tober session, the year after. 
Soon after this period^ the settle- 



ment began to flourish ; a number 
of families removing here from 
Hartford and "V^indsor. The ori- 
ginal limits of the town extended 
upon the east side of the river, for 
several miles, and included a part 
of the town of Lyme. 

BIOGRAPHY. Gen. William 
HSrt, distinguished for his enter- 
prise, as a merchant, his wealthy 
and (he high estimation of his fel- 
low-citizens, was a resident of this 
town. He was in the service, du- 
ring the revolutionaiy war. In 
1795, he, together with Oliver 
Phelps, and their associates, pur- 
chased of the Governor of this 
State the tract of land in the State 
of Ohio, calleid the "Western 
Reserve," amounting to about 
3,300,000 acres ; the considera-* 
tion of which was ^1,200,000. 

Gen. Hart attained to a high 
rank in Society, and unusual pub- 
lic consideration ; having, at one 
period of his life, for several years, 
been a candidate for Governor of 
this State. He died in 1 8 1 T. 



' ■ ' ^ ' . - - 



a -J ■ 



TOLLAND 



COUNTY. 



TOLLAND, an inconsiderable 
and recently organized county, is 
situated in the northeastern sec- 
tion of the State ; bounded on the 
north by the State of Massachu- 
setts, on the east by Windham 
county, on the south by the coun- 



ty of New- London, and on the west 
by Hartford county. 

The county of Tolland has an 
average length of more than 23 
miles, and a mean breadth of about 
15 miles; comprising an area of 
about 337 square miles. 



The following Topographical and Statistical Table esiiibita a 
view of the several towns in the county ; their situation, with re- 
lation to Tolland, the seat of justice; their population, at the cen* 
sus of 1810 ; number of dwelling houses ; religious societies ; school 
districts, and post-offices. 



Towns. 


Post- 


Pot)u- 


Dwelling Religious 


School Distance tvom 




offices, lation. 


houses. 


societies. 


districts. 


Tolland. 


Tolland. 


1 


1610 


300 


3 


13 




Bolton. 


1 


700 


100 


2 


5 


10 m. S. W. 


Coventry. 


1 


1938 


324 


3 


11 


7m. S. 


EUington. 




1344 


162 


2 


8 


7 m. N. W. 


Hebton. 


2 


2002 


321 


4 


12 


15m. S. 


Somers. 




1260 


200 


1 


9 


10 m. N.W. 


Stafford. 


I 


2230 


320 


5 


19 


8 m. N.E. 


Union. 




750 


120 


2 


6 


15 m. N. E. 


Vernon. 


1 


827 


135 


1 


6 


8 m. S.W; 


Willirigton. 




1161 


200 


2 


11 


7 m. E. 



Tolland county, as it respects 
its surface, soil and geological cha- 
racter, is divided into two di^inct 
sections. The western section is 
a very handsome, level or undula- 
ting country,and as it is in location, 
so it appears to be in its character, 
aa intermediate tract, between the 



argillaceous district upon Connec* 
ticut river, and the granitic region 
with which it connects upon thft 
east. This tract is in general 
free from stone ; and the soil, al- 
though generally shallow, and ra- 
ther* light, is warm, fertile and 
productive ; being well adapted to 




TOLLAND COUNTY. 



369 



asfis 



the growth of grain, and affords 
great facility of cultivation. The 
eastern section embraces the ex- 
tensive granitic range which ex- 
tends through the State. This 
section is elevated and mountain- 
ous, and some parts of it cold and 
sterile. A considerable proportion 
of it has been suffered to remain 
to forests, which are more exten- 
sive here than in any other part 
of the State. The trees are of 
the deciduous species, and the 
timber is generally of an excellent 
qualitj. The improved lands, in 
this section of the county, afford 
tolerably good grazing ; but in ge- 
neral do not admit of a grain cul- 
ture. Upon some of the streams, 
however, there are small intervals, 
suitable for arable purposes. In 
this section of the county, the ag- 
ricultural productions consist of 
butter, cheese, cattle, sheep, beef, 
pork, and sonie others ; and in the 
western section, rye, corn and 
oats, constitute the staple produc- 
tions. 

The waters of the county con- 
sist of numerous small streams, 
and are principally embodied, in i 
the. eastern section, in the Willi-; 
mantic and Hop rivers. These! 
rivers and their numerous branch- 
es intersect and water a considerar 
ble proportion of the county. In 
the western and southern sections, 
the waters are principally embo- 
died in the l^antic, Hockanum and 
Salmon rivers. The former of 
these streams has considerable 
tracts of d.llttvial, and the others 
afford many water privileges. 

The manufacturing interests of 
the county are flourishing, and 
constantly extending ; developing 



new fields for industry and nevt 
sources of wealth. Domestic ma- 
nufactures receive universal atten- 
tion, and are an important source 
both of industry and economy ; the 
inhabitants being remarkable for 
their hardy and persevering habits 
of industry. Of the manufac- 
tures, those of cotton and iron are 
the most important. There are 
9 Cotton Factories, 2 Forges and 
3 Furnaces, most of which are up- 
on a considerable scale. There 
are 1 1 Fulling Mills, 20 Carding 
Machines, 4 Woolen Factories, 36 
Grain Mills, 2 Glass Factories, 3 
Paper Mills and 2 Oil Mills. Re- 
cently, the manufacture of straw 
braid has been introduced, and re* 
ceives great attention in some 
towns in the county. This busi^ 
ness is the more important, as it 
contributes to the aggregate indus*^ 
try ; the labour being performed 
by those persons whose services 
are not usually profitably employ- 
ed, and thereby avoids any inter- 
ference with other departments of 
labour. 

There are, in this county, 25 
Religious Societies of every des- 
cription, 14 School Societies, divi- 
ded into a suitable number of 
School Districts, of which there 
are 100, and 10 Social Libraries. 

There are about 40 Mercantile 
Stores. 

The population of this county, 
in 1810, was 13,770; and the 
amount of taxable property and 
polls, in 1817, was $327,282. 

This county originally belonged 
to the counties of Hartford and 
Windham, and was incorporated 
in 1786. 



37 



290 



TOLLAND. 



TULLANt)', the seat of justice 
for the county, is situated 18 miles 
east from Hartford, 52 northeast 
from New-Haven, and 42 north- 
west from New -London. It is 
boui;ided east on the WilUmantic 
river, which separates it from Wil- 
lington, west by Vernon and El- 
lington, south by Coventry, and 
north by Ellington. It contaii s 
about 36 square miles ; being more 
than 6 miles in length, and 5 and 
a half miles in breadth. 

The town is uneven and rough, 
being mountainous and stony. The 
soil is. gravelly ; bat some of the 
valleys and borders of streams 
consist of loam which ik warm and 
fertile. 

The lands are best adapted to 
grazing, being too rough and sto- 
ny for plowing, although some 
corn, oats, rye and flax are raised. 

The forests, which are exten- 
sive, consist principally of oak and 
chesnut ; comprising, however, va- 
rious other deciduous trees. 

The geological structure con- 
sists of granite, schistus and other 
rocks of a primitive formation. 
Large masses of granite appear 
upon the surface, some of which 
are detached and insulated, others 
of a connected stratum. Iron ore 
is found in many place^ in this 
range of mountains ; but we have 
not ascertained that any has been 
discovered within this town. 

There is a mineral spring in the 
town, the waters of which possess 
similar medicinal qualities to those 
of Stafford ; but it has not acquir- 
ed any celebrity abroad. 

The town is watered by the 
Wiilimantic and the Skungamug 
rivers, and innumerable small 
streams* There are three bridg- 



tmtmm^ 



■nr* 



•♦**■ 



es across the former, and four 
across the latter of these rivers. 

Snipsick pond is a large body of 
water, being 2 miles in lengtb, 
and 100 rods in widtii. There is 
also a pond called Skungamug i& 
the town. 

The civil divisions of the town 
are 1 located or Congregational 
Society and 1 3 School Districts. 

In the centre of the town is a 
pleasant village, having an eleva^ 
ted and prospective situation. It 
is about half a mile in length, and 
contains a Court House and Gaol, 
for the county, 2 Churches, a Post 
office, and about 30 Dwelling hou- 
ses, some of which are neat and 
handsome buildings. 

There are several turnpike roads 
which pass through this town; 
Hartford and Tolland turnpike, 
leading from the former to the lat- 
ter place, and from thence to Bos- 
ton ; Stafford turnpike, and Tol- 
land county turnpike. 

There were, in 1810, 1610 in- 
habitants in the town. There a^;e 
now 250 qualified Electors, 3 com- 
panies of Militia and about 30a 
Dwelling houses. 

There is 1 Furnace, for casting 
iron, 3 Grain Mills, 3 Saw Millsy 

3 Distilleries, 3 Tanneries, 2 Ful- 
ling Mills, 1 Carding Machine and 

4 Mercantile Stores. 

There are 3 Churches ; one for 
Congregationalists, one for Bap* 
tists and one for Meth^ists, 1 So- 
cial Library, 13 common or Dis* 
trict Schools, 2 Clergyman, 3 At- 
tornies and 4 Physicians., 

The general list of taxable 
polls and estate of the town is 
^37,335. 

Tolland was incorporated as a 
town in the year 1715. 



BOLTON. 



COVENTRY. 



291 



BOLTON is a small post town- 
ship, 14 nriileseast from Hartford ; 
bounded on the north hy Vernon, 
oti the east by Corentry, on the 
south by Hebron, and on the west 
by East-Hartford. The township 
contains an area of 16 square 
miles ; being ipore than 5 miles in 
length atid Sinbreadtb. 

'Fhis town is embraced within 
the grdnitic district of the eastern 
section of the State, has an cle- 
vated situation, .and is hilly and 
stony. The soil is a coarse, hard, 
gravelly loam, rather cold and ste- 
rile. It however affords tolerable 
grazing; and the dairy business is 
the leading agricultural interest. 

The natural growth of timber is 
oak, walnut, maple, chesnut, &c. ; 
and the forests are considerably 
extensive. The farmers, in the 
fall and winter seasons, bring large 
quantities of wood to Hartford 
market. 



A branch of Hop river runs 
through the northeastern section 
of the town, and a branch of Sal- 
mon river through the southwest- 
ern. 

The HaVtford and Norwich turn- 
pike road leads through the centre 
of the town. 

There are, in Bolton, 2 Grain 
Mills, 1 Fulling Mill and Cloth- 
ier^s works, 1 Tannery, 2 Mer- 
cantile Stores and 1 Tavern. V 

The population of the town, in 
ISIO, was 700; and there are 100 
Dwelling houses, 1 Company of 
Militia, and about 120 Electors 

The town forms one located 
Congregational Society ; and there 
is, besides, a small Society of 
Episcopalians. There are 5 School 
Districts and Schools, 1 small So- 
cial Library, 2 Physicians and 1 
Clergyman. 

Bolton was settled in 1716, and 
was incorporated in 1 720, 



COVENTRY. 



COVENTRY is a post town- 
ship, situated 1 8 miles east from 
Hartford ; bounded on the north 
by Tolland, on the south by He- 
bron and Columbia, on the east by 
Mansfield, and on the west by Bol- 
ton and Vernon. 

Its average length is 7 m^es, 
and its average breadth about 6 
and a half miles, comprising about 
45 square miles. 

The surface is uneven, or mo- 
derately hilly, and the soil a gra- 
velly loam. The stones and rocks 
are granite and micaceous schis- 
tus. 

The natural growth consists of 



oak, walnut, chesnut, butternut, 
sumach, &:c. 

The agricultural productions are 
grass, rye,coro, oats,butter,chee8e, 
beef, pork, and some others ; but 
the lands, are best adapted to graz- 
ing, and the dairy business consti- 
tutes the principal agricultural in- 
terest. 

The eastern border of the town 
is washed by the Willimantic, which 
forms its boundary. The Skupga- 
mug runs from north to south thro' 
the town, and, uniting its waters 
with another stream, forms Hop 
river ; which, running eastwardly, 
washes the southern border of the 



"* 



392 



BIOGRAPHY. 



«i 



town, and coQstitutes its boanda- 1 
rT, or south line. It unites its wa- 
ters with the Willimantie, which 
foraas the southeastern corner of 
the township. There are a num- 
ber of bridges across these streams ; 
and they also afford numerous sites 
for mills and other water works, 
many of which are advantageously 
occupied. 

There is a lake or pond in this 
towa, called Wangumbog, a consi- 
derable body of water^ being about 
2 miles in length and 1 in width. 

There are several turnpike and 
mail roads which lead through this 
town. 

The manufactures and mecha- 
nical employments, exclusive of 
those of a domestic character, con- 
sist of 1 Cotton Factory, 2 Paper 
Mills, 1 Glass Factory, 1 Manu- 
factory of Carding Machines, 3 
small Distilleries, 5 Tanneries, 3 
Grain Mills, 6 Saw Mills and 5 Car- 
ding Machines. There are 7 Mer- 
cantile Stores. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1938; and there are 
324 Dwelling houses, 366 Free- 
men or Electors, and 164 Mili- 
tia. 

The town is divided into three 
located Congregational Societies 
or Parishes, in each of which there 
is a small village and a Congrega- 
tional Church. 

It contains 1 1 School Districts 
and Schools, 2 Social Libraries, 
2 Clergymen, I Attorney and 3 
Physicians. 

The general list of the town, 
including polls, is ^52,833. 

Coventry was settled in 1 709 ; 
belonging then, and for a long time 
aftei-wards, to the county of Hart- 
ford, and incorporated in 171 1. 



BIOGRAPHY. Capt. J^than 
Hale^ a celebrated youthful hero, 
and martyr of the revolutionary 
war, was a native of this town. 
Capt. Hale received his educatiea 
at Yale College, where he gradua- 
ted in 1 773. The ardent glow of 
patriotic feeling, and the deep in- 
terest which he to<A in the cause 
of his injured country, induced 
him, at an early period of the re- 
volutionary war, to offer to it his 
services ; and having obtaioed a 
commission, he entered the army 
in the capacity of a captain in the 
Light Infantry regiment comman- 
ded by Col. Knowlton, a very 
brave and distinguished officer, a 
succint account of whom may be 
found in this work, subjoined to 
the town of Ashford. After the un- 
fortunate engagement upon Long 
Island, on the 27th of August, 
1776, an inmiediate retreat to 
New- York was deemed the only 
expedient that could save the en- 
tire American army, consisting of 
about 9000 men, froip falling into 
the hands of the enemy. This 
measure was planned and execute 
ed with great judgment, secrecy 
and success ; all of the American 
forces having heeu' safely convey- 
ed to New- York, before the Bri- 
tish had any knowledge of what 
was going on. Yet the sudden- 
ness of this movement, and the 
surprise which it must have occa- 
sioned with the British, gave Gen. 
Washington great solicitude to be- 
come acquainted with their situa- 
tion subsequently to this unexpect- 
ed event, and of their intended 
movements. 

Gen. Washington communica- 
ted his views and wishes upon this 
subject to Col. Knowlton, whose 



«•■ 



» 



I 



4- 



BIOGRAPHY. 



^3 



regiment formed the van of the ar- 
my, and requested him to devise 
some mode of obtaining the ne- 
cessary information. GoJ. Knowl- 
toB, knowing the intelligence, the 
afdent patriotism, and the bold and 
adventurous spirit of Capt. Hale, 
i^bmitted to him the views and 
wishes of the commander in chief. 
Captk Hale, animated by a sense 
of duty, and pleased at an oppor- 
tunity of signalizing his zeal in the 
cause of his country, he immediate- 
ly oflbred himself as a volunteer 
for this difficult and imminently ha- 
zardous enterprise. Having dis- 
guised himself, he crossed to Long 
Island, explored and examined ev- 
ery part of the British army, and 
obtained the necessary information 
respecting their situation and sub- 
sequent operations. But, although 
successful in accomplishing the 
objects of his enter]f>rise, he was 
not destined to return* He was 
apprehended, and carried be- 
fore Sir William Howe, and cir- 
cumstances afTording such strong 
proof against him, and from the 
characteristic principles of integ- 
rity and honour, which governed 
his conduct, he frankly acknow- 
ledged who he was, and the objects 
of tiie service in which he was en- 
gaged. Sir William Howe imme- 
diately, without even the formality 
of a trial, ordered the provost mar- 
shal to have him executed the next 
morning. This cruel order was 
accordingly executed, under cir- 
cumstances the most distressing, 
and by as ui^feeling a savage as ev- 
er disgraced humanity. 

Thus fell Nathan Hale, in the 
morning of life, and in the dawn 
of high promise, of reputation 
and honour to himself, and of use- 



fulness to his country. Ilie il\|^- 
ner and circumstances of his death 
must ever be abhorrent to the 
feelings of humanity. He was 
treated in the most unfeeling and 
indecent manner ; and every in- 
dulgence, every mark of sympa- 
thy and respect were denied him. 
He desired the attendance of W 
clergyman, which was refused. 
But what was more inhuman, the 
letters which he had written to his 
mother and friends,, were destroy- 
ed on the morning of his execn- 
tioti. This savage outrage upon 
the feelings of humanity could on- 
ly be equalled by the reason which 
was assigned for it ; which was, 
" that the rebels should not know 
that they had a man iii their army 
who could die with so much firm- 
ness," It is difficult to conceive 
of a situation more awful, or that 
in a more eminent degree was cal- 
culated to- overcome the firmest 
mind. Among entire strangers, in 
the hands of his enemies, every 
face presenting the aspect of hos- 
tility, and without a single friend 
to sympathize with him or console 
him in this hour of trial,and subjec- 
ted to contumely and reproach, ha- 
ving the opprobrious epithet of 
rebel bestowed upon him, he had 
nothing but the consciousness of 
his moral innocence, and the just- 
ness of the cause in which he was 
engaged, to sustain him ; and these 
were sufficient. He met his fate 
with the most dignified composure 
and firmness. His last words were, 
"that he only lamented that he had 
but one Hfe to lose for his country." 
Capt. Hale possessed a fine ge- 
nius, had received an excellent 
education, and disclosed high pro- 
mise of future talents and usefulr 



%^ 



c 



294 



BIOGRAPHY. 



ness. He waa open, generous and 
brave, and enthasiaatic in the cause 
of liberty and bis country, in which 
he had engaged, and for which he 
was destined to die an early mar- 
tyr. The fate of Hale, it will be 
observed, was in almost every re- 
spect strikingly similar to that of 
Major Andre. As it respects cha- 
racter, qualifications and personal 
interest. Hale would not suffer 
from a comparison with Andre. 
Yet, strange as it may seem, the 
fate of Andre, even in America, 
has been universally lamented, and 
his memory universally respected ; 
whilst it is scarcely known that 
there was ever such a man as Na- 
than Hale. Andre has had a monu- 
ment erected to his memory by his 
country, and the most distinguish- 
ed honours and rewards conferred 
upon his family ; but what has <mr 
country done for the memory of 
Hale? No stone, however hum- 
ble, has been erected to it ; no me- 
morial has rescued it from oblivi- 
on : and no inscription has preser- 
ved his ashes from insult. Such 
is the influence of books, and the 
evil tendency of importing them, 
thttt while Nathan Hale, an Ame- 
rican, an ardent revolutionary 
patriot, and who offered his life as 
a sacrifice to our liberties, is whol- 
ly unknown, the life, character 
and fate of Andre are familiar with 
almost every individual, however 
humble his situation, or limited his 
intelligence. 

Thus^ while fond virtue vn$h?d in 

vain to save, 
Hale, bright and generous^ found 

a haplesB grave* 
With genius'^ living flame his ho' 

som glowed, 



And science charmed hvm io her 

sweet abode. 
In worth's fair path his feet had 

v€ntur'!d far, 
The pride of ptace, the rising grace 

of war» 
In duty firm, in danger calm as 

er'n, 
To friends unchanging, and sin- . 

cere to heaven. 
How short his course, the prize, 

how early won. 
While iveeping friendship mourns 

her favorite gone. 

DwiGHT. 

The Hon. Samuel Huntington^ 
late Governor of the State of Ohio, 
was a native of this town. He was 
the son of the Rev. Joseph Hunt* 
ington, for several years a settled 
clergyman in this place, and dis- 
tinguished for a posthumous work 
which he wrote,enti tled^Calvinism 
improved," being a treatise upon 
the doctrine of universal salvation. 

Samuel Huntington was educa- 
ted at Yale Collie, where he 
graduated in 1785. In 1801, he 
removed to the State of Ohio, and 
settled near the vilfage of Paines* 
ville, which at that time was a 
wilderness in the county of Geauga, 
upon the border of Lake Erie. 
During his residence in that State, 
he was appointed to a succession 
of important oflices. He was a 
member of the convention which 
framed the constitution of that 
State, and a Senator in the first 
Legislature organized under it. 
He was afterwards appointed a 
Judge of the Superior Court, in 
which situation he continued until 
called to a more exalted station, 
being elected bjr the people Gov- 
ernor of the State. This office he 
held for some, time, and discliarged 



/^ 



• <» 



ELLINGTON. 



HEBRON. 



295 



mmmm 



^umiMmim 



its important and responsible du- 
ties with equal credit to himself, 
and advantage to the interests of 
the State, which was rising rapid- 
ly into importance, and presented 
an extensive field requiring a judi- 



cious direction of authority for the 
developement of its resources, and 
the promotion of necessary im- 
provements. He died at Paines- 
vilie on the 7th of June, 1 81 7, aged 
49 years. 



ELLINGTON. 



ELLINGTON is situated 13 
miles northeast from Hartford. It 
is bounded west by East- Windsor, 
north by Somers and Stafford, east 
by Tolland and Willington, and 
south by Vernon and Tolland. 

The township is equivalent to 
about 34 square miles, butitisof an 
irregular figure, its greatest length 
being 9 miles, and its greatest 
breadth about 6 miles, and it com- 
prises about 21,760 iaicres. 

The township, in its western 
section, is generally level ; a con- 
siderable portion of it being a 
plain, the soil of which is light, 
dry, and inclining to coarse sand 
or gravel, but is feasible, and con- 
siderably fertile. It is best adapt- 
ed to grain, particularly rye, of 
which, when well cultivated, it 
carries good crops. It affords good 
pasturage for sheep, which receive 
considerable attention. 

The eastern section of the town 
is broken, being hilly and stony 5 



the soil of which is hard, coarse 
and gravelly. 

There is a small but pleasant 
village in the centre of the town, 
having a Congregational Church,& 
a number of neat Dwelling houses. 

In 1810, there were 1344 in- 
habitants in the town; and there 
are now about 1 75 Freemen, and 
1 Company of Militia. 

There are 1 Cotton Factory, 1 
Distillery, 1 Grain Mill, 4 Saw 
Mills, 1 Tannery, 1 Carding Ma- 
chine, and 3 Mercantile Stores. 

There are iri the town, 1 local 
or Congregational Society, 1 So- 
ciety of Methodists, 8 District or 
primary Schools, 1 small Social 
Library, 1 Clergyman, 1 Physi- 
cian and 1 Attorney, and 162 
Dwelling houses. 

The list of polls and taxable 
property of the town, is ^34,529. 

Ellington was originally a part 
of the township of East- Windsor, 
and was incorporated in 1786. 



HEBRON. 



HEBRON is a post township, 
situated 20 miles southeastwardly 
from Hartford ; bounded on the 
north by Bolton and Coventry, on 
the east by Columbia and Leba- 
non, in Windham county, on the 
south by Colchester, in New-Lon* 
don county, and on the west by 
Glastenbur}^ and Marlborough, in 



Hartford county. Its average 
length is 9 and a half miles, and 
its average breadth more than 4 
miles, containing 42 square nriiles. 

The township is uneven, being 
moderately hilly and diversified. 
The soil is a gravelly loam, and 
considerably fertile. 

The geological character of the 



d 



296 



SOMERt). 



town is principaliy granitic ; but 
there are some micaceous schis- 
tus, and other rocks of a primitive 
formation. 

The natural growth of timber is 
the same as is common to this re- 
gion. 

In a cultivated state, the lands 
produce corn, oats, some rye and 
flax, and afford tolerably good 
grasnng. 

Hop river washes the northeas- 
tern border of the town, and con- 
stitutes its boundary. This stream 
is a branch of the Wiilimantic. 
There are several small streams, 
which discharge thei^ waters into 
Salmon river, that intersect the 
town. 

North pond, a considerable bo- 
dy of water, is situated partly in 
this town and partly in Lebanon. 

The turnpike road from Hart- 
ford to Norwich leads through 
the east section of this town ; and 
one from Middletown to Provi- 
dence through its centre. 



The population of the town, in 
18^, was 2002; and there ace 
330 Fre^nen or Electors, about 
215 Militia, and 321 DweUiog 
houses. 

The amount of taxable propei^- 
ty, including polls, is $54^569* 

There are in Hebron, 2 Woolen 
Factories, 2 Cotton Factories, bodi 
of which contain about 1000 spin- 
dles, 1 Paper Mill, 8 Cider DistU- 
leries, 1 Tannery, 8 Grain Mills, 
2 Carding Machines, 4 Fulling 
Mills and 7 Mercantile Stores^ 

The town contains 2 located 
Congregational Societies & Chur- 
ches, 1 Episcopal Society and 
Church, and 1 Society of Methor 
dists. It contains 12 School Dis- 
tricts & Schools, & 1 small village^ 
situated in the centre of the town. 

There are 4 Clergymen, 4 Phy- 
sicians and 2 Lawyers. 

Hebron was first settled in 1 704 ; 
belonging then, and for a long tincie 
afterwards, to the county of Hart- 
ford. It was incorporated in 1 707. 



SOMERS. 



SOMERS is situated in the 
northwest corner of the countv, 
being 22 miles northeast from 
Hartford, 12 miles southeast from 
Springfield, in Massachusetts, and 
56 miles west from Providence. 

It is bounded north on Massa- 
chusetts line, south on Ellington, 
cast on Stafford, and west on En- 
field, in Hartford county. 

The township is nearly 6 miles 
in length, with a mean breadth of 
about 5 miles, comprising an area 
of 28 square miles. The western 
section of the town is considerably 
smooth and level, being free from 



stone ; and the surface is diversifi* 
ed with hills of a moderate eleva- 
tion. The soil is a gravelly loam, 
interspersed with some tracts of ar- 
gillaceous loam, rich and fertile, 
and well adapted toa graincultQre« 
The eastern part of the town is 
hilly and mountainous, containing 
some heights of considerable ele- 
vation, alibrding an extensive and 
interesting prospect of Hartford, 
and the beautiful vale upon Con- 
necticut river. 

This mountainous tract is rough 
and stony, containing schistus, gra- 
nite, and other rocks of a primi- 




STAFFORD. 



Sdt 



'rfi iMnji 



riiH 



tive formation. Some iron ore 
has been foitnd, but oot in great 
quaotides. The soil in this part 
of the town is hard and gravelly ; 
but it sustains some good orchards, 
and generally produces excellent 
pasturage. 

The natural growtfi of the fo- 
rests is chesnut, butternut, oak, 
(Jm^ walnut, ash and other decidu- 
ous trees. 

The town is well watered, being 
intersected with numerous small 
streams or broQks ; and Scantic 
river runs ttirough it. This, here, 
is a rapid stream, frequently over- 
flowing its banks, and affords small 
tracts of alluvial. 

Somers and Woodstock turn- 
t»ke road, leading from Enfield 
bridge to Providence, passes thro' 
the centre of the town. 

There were, in 1810, 1210 In- 
habitants ; and there are now 13d 
qualified Electors,! 45 Militiaxom- 
(irising 2 companies, and 200 Dwel- 
ling houses. 

The manufactured of the toWn 
are principally domestic. Most 
of the families manufacture a large 
portion of the coarser cloths for 
their own use, both woolen and 



linen, and also some of cotton. 
Other domestic manufactures re- 
ceive attention, su(ih as household 
furniture, casks, shoes, hats, straw 
bonnets, &c. 

There is one small establish- 
ment of Woolen and Cotton ma* 
nufacture. There are 3 Grain 
Mills, 4 Saw Mills^ 1 Distillery, for 
grain, 6 for cider, 1 smaM Forge, 
2 Tanneries, 1 Carding Machine 
and Clo&ier's works, 6 Mercantile 
Stores and 1 Drusjgist's Store. 

The taxable polls and estate of 
the town, in 1817, was $3 1 ,434. 

Somers forms but one located 
or Ecclesiastical Society, and con^ 
tains one Congregational Church. 
There are a considerable number 
of Baptists^ who, not being formed 
into a Society, are associated with 
the Baptist chufched in the neighs 
bouring towns. 

The town dbniainis 9 School 
Districts, in each of whibh acom^^ 
mon School is maintained ior se- 
veral months in the year. There 
are 2 Social Libraries, 3 At- 
tornies^ 3 Physicisins and 1 Cler^ 
gyman. 

Somers was incorporated as a 
town in 1 734* 



STAFFORD. 



STAFFORD is an elevated 
post township, situated upon the 
northern border of the county and 
State, 26 miles northeasterly from 
Hartford; bounded on the north 
by Massachusetts line, on the east 
by Union and Willington, on the 
south by Willington and Ellington, 
and on the west by Ellington and 
Somers. Its mean length, from 
east to west, is 8 and a half miles, 
and its mean breadth, from north 

38 



to south, n^dre than 6 mile^. Com- 
prising an area of about 53 square 
miles. 

The general character of the 
township is that of an elevated, 
broken and mountainous coutitry * 
but the western section is more 
conspicuously marked with these 
features. v 

Its geological structure is primi- 
tive ; the rocks consisting of gra- 
nite, micaceous schistus^ and some 



r 



298 



STAFFORD. 



t'^ 



m 



other original formations. The 

Erevailing soil is a graved loam, 
ard and dry, but affording very 
good grazing.. 

There are several minerals in 
the town, of which iron ore is 
the most important, and aboands 
in various places. Several mines 
of it have been opened, which 
supply the furnaces that have been 
erected in the town. The ore us- 
ed most, is called bog ore, and is 
of an excellent quality for casting. 

In the northerly section of the 
township, there is a valuable quar- 
ry of white fire proof stone, ad- 
mirably calculated for furnace 
hearths ; for which purpose it has 
been an article of exportation. It 
is a source of wealth to the pro- 
prietor, as well as of convenience 
to the public. 

The forests in this town, which 
are considerably extensive, con- 
sist of oak, walnut, maple, ash, 
ehesnut and other deciduous trees. 

The agricultural productions 
consist of beef, cider, cider bran- 
dy, butter, cheese, wool and some 
others. The lands are best adap- 
ted to grazing ; and consequently 
the cultivation of grain receives 
but little attention. 

The town is well watered by 
the WiUimantic, its branches, and 
Roaring brook, which afford nu- 
merous interesting and valuable 
sites for hydraulic works, of which 
there are several upon the two 
branches of the WiUimantic, in 
the vicinity of the mineral springs, 
that at some future period may 
promote the growth of a manufac- 
turing village. 

The mineral sj^rings in this 
town have justly acquired xonsi- 
di^able celebrity. There are two 



distinct springs, the medicinal qua- 
lities of which are considered as 
essentially difierent. One of them 
contains a solution of iron, sus- 
tained by carbonic acid gas, a por- 
tion of marine salt, some eartiry 
substances, and what has been call- 
ed natron, or a native alkali. This 
spring has been known and used 
for a length of time, and has heen 
pronounced by chytnists to be one 
of the most efficacious chalybeate 
springs in the United States. The 
other spring, the medicinal virtues 
o( which were not known until 
about eight or nine years since, 
contains, according to the opinion 
of Professor Silliman,wfao examifi^ 
ed it in 1810, a large portion of 
hydrogen gas of sulphur, and a 
small proportion of iron. These 
springs were known to4;hc native 
Indians, who used to bathe in them 
and drink the waters. They first 
made them known to the English, 
soon after the settlement of the 
town. But they had not acquired 
much celebrity, until about the 
year 1 765, when a case occurred, 
calculated to establish and extend 
their reputation. It was an effec- 
tual cure of a most obstinate cu- 
taneous complaint, which had 
completely baffled all medicinal 
skill, and resisted all other appli- 
cations. The publicity which was 
given to this case soon raised 
the reputation of these springs ; and 
as a consequence of which, they 
imn^ediately became a place of re- 
sort of persons afflicted with vari- 
ous diseases, and from almost eve- 
ry quarter. Since the reputation 
of tiie springs has been establish- 
ed, they have annually, in the 
summer season, been a place of 
much resort for the purposes of 




■♦» 



STAFFORD. 



2^9 



mssm 



m 



m 



health or pkasare ; and within the 
last five or six years, it has been 
estimated, that the number of vi- 
sitors has annuaUj been from six 
to nine hundred* The accomnmo- 
4ations are aiiq>le and extensive ; 
a very^ large and elegant building 
having been erected, which is oc- 
cupied as a hotel and boarding 
hofuse ; besides which, there are 
several other boarding houses in 
the vicinity. Hitherto, the ar- 
rangements have been upon a scale 
of such liberality and amplitude, 
as to combine all the convenien- 
ces and most of the luiraries which 
are to be found at any watering 
place in the United States. It has 
been estimated, that for some 
years past, the receipts from visi- 
tors have amounted to five or six 
thousand dollars annually* The 
moneys which is thus brought into 
the place from abroad, is a great 
advantage to the town, and one 
from which almost every class i>f 
citizens is in some measure di- 
rectly or indirectly benefited ; the 
farmer finds a market for anal! 
meats, vegetables, butter, poultry 
and other articles of his produce, 
and the mechanic for his industry. 

This town is accommodated with 
several excellent turn{^ke roads. 
The great road from Hartford to 
Boston leads through it. Upon 
this road, the principal mail from 
Washington to Boston is convey- 
ed; and tlie Boston and Hartford 
line of stages daily pass upon it. 
There is also a tumpike leading 
from Somers to Woodstock, and 
another leading from Norwich in- 
to Massachusetts^ which pass diro' 
this town. 

Stafford is considerably celebra- 
ted for its manu&ctures, particu- 



larly those of iron. The ironma- 
nufactures consist of refined iron^ 
various kinds of castings, hollow 
ware, &c. 'There are 2 Forges 
and 2 Furnaces constantly in ope- 
ration. The first lurnace was built 
in 1779, is upon a lai^e scale, and 
annually produces from 80 to ISO 
tons of hollow ware and other cast- 
ings. Cannon, cannon shot or 
balls, and a variety of articles for 
manufacturing and other kinds of 
machinery, are cast at this furnace. 
The other furnace was erected in 
1796, by a Company, of which 
Mr. Nathaniel Hyde is the princi- 
pal. The products of this furnace 
have usually amounted to about 
90 tons annually ; and, with the 
exception of cannon, consist of all 
the varieties that are cast at the 
other furnace. In 1 81 4, the price 
of hollow ware was 60 dollars per 
ton, and solid eastings, 5 cents per 
pound* 

Staffi>rd castings are considered 
of an excellent quality, and es- 
teemed softer and more ductile 
than any other in New-England. 
The ore is obtained from the mines 
witlun the town, is found in vari- 
ous places, and is called l<>wland 
or bog ore. 

Besides &e manufactures of 
iron, there are 2 Cotton Facto- 
ries, 1 Manufactory of Clocks, 3 
Clothiers' works, 2 Carding Ma- 
chines, for customers, STanfieries, 
6 G rain Milk and 1 2 Saw Mills. In 
addition to these more important 
and laborious manufacturing em- 
ployments, there are some which 
are attended to exclusively by fe- 
males, of which the manufacture 
of straw braid is the most im- 
portant. Large quantities of straw 
braid and bonnets are jnade and 



C 



300 



UNION, 



sent abroad for a market, which 
is equally important, regarded 
as a source of profit, or as 
a means of prprnqting female in- 
dustry and habits of attention to 
business, and a consequent ab- 
straction from light ^nd ilrivolous 
occupations and amusements, or 
the more uDwarrantat>le employ- 
ment of local detractiopt This ma- 
nufacture is of recent date ; and it 
has been estimated, that it already 
produces from 8 to ^1 0,000 per ann. 

The population of Stallbrd, in 
181Q, was 2355; and there are 
about 320 Dwelling house3^ 300 
Freemen or Elpctors, and 3 Cpm- 
panies of Militi^. 

The amount of taxable prpper- 
ty, as rated in the lists, in 1816, 
was g39,293. 

The civil divisions of the town 
are 2 located Ecclesiastical Socie- 
ties or Parishes, and 19 School 
Districts. Besides the located, 
there js a Society of baptists, a 



Society of Methodists and one of 
Universalists. These several So* 
cieties are all accommodated with 
houses for public worship. There 
is a primary or common School 
maintained in each of the School 
Districts for a suitable portioii of 
the year. 

There are, in the town, 6 Mer- 
cantile Stores, 9 Taverns, 2 Social 
Libraries, 3 Clergymen, 4 Physi- 
ciaMs and 2 Attornies. 

The settlement of this town 
commenced about the year 171Ct, 
having been surveyed that yean 
Of the tirst settlers, two were from 
Europe, Mr. Matthew Thompson 
and Mr- Robert White ; the rest 
were from Hadley and Wohurn, 
Dedham and Weymouth, in Mas* 
sacl^usetts, Haverhill, in JNew- 
Hampshire, Windsor, Entieldand 
Preston, in this State. The first 
minister was settled in the town 
in 1723. 



UNION, 



UNION, tin elevated interior 
township, is situated 33 miles 
northeasterly from Hartford, and 
67 from New-Haven. It is bound- 
ed on the north by Massachusetts 
line, on the east by Woodstock, on 
the south by Ashford and Willing- 
ton, and on the west by Staiibrd. 
Its extent, froin east to west, is be- 
tween 5 and 6 miles, and from north 
to south about the same ; contain- 
ing nearly 30 square miles, or about 
19,000 acres. 

The surface is broken, being 
hilly and rocky. Its geological 
structure consist^ of granite, mi- 
caceous schistus, and other primi- 
tive rocks, being a part of the gran- 



itic region comiposing the elevated 
tract in the eastern part of th^ 
iState. Iron ore has been found in 
considerable quantities, but the 
mineralogy of the town has not 
been explored by the skilfulness 
of art, ojr with the judgment of 
scientific knowledge. 

The soil is a mixture of loa.n^ 
and gravel. Its natural growth is 
oak, chesnut, walnut, beech, maple, 
ash, birch, wild cherry, pine and 
Qther perennial trees. The lands, 
when first cleared and cultivated, 
produce one heavy crop of rye, 
or wheat, and afterwards m^ake 
good pasturing or niowing. They 
are also adapted to the growth of 



/ 




UNION. 



301 



i.iniiiiifiiiiintiwai 



m 



m 



t)mt0m0i»timmtSk 



€om^ oats, buck wheat, barley, flax, 
potatoes, &c. The apple tree 
iouiishes well, and there are some 
orchards in the town. 

Quinibaug river, (erroneously 
con^dered by most geographers 
to rise in Brimfield, in Massachu^ 
setts,) has its principal sources from 
two ponds, Ma8hapaug& Break- 
neck, both situated wholly within 
the town of Union. 

The Mashapaug branch of the 
Quinibaug river receives the wa- 
ters of several small streams, having 
their sources within this town, and 
greatly exceeds, both in its size and 
the length of its course, the Brim- 
field branch. The Breakneck 
branch is also larger than that, 
having its source in Brimfield, and 
unites with the Mashapaug in 
Sturbridge# 

Roaring river, a considerable 
branch of the Willimantic, and 
Bigelow and Still rivers, which 
unite in Ashft»rd and form a con- 
siderable branch of the Shetucket, 
all have their sources in this town. 
These streams are plentifully 
stocked with trout, and afford ma- 
ny sites and privileges for mills and 
hydraulic works. The Masha- 
paug and Breakneck ponds alluded 
to ^re considerable bodies of wa- 
ter. They afford- plenty of pike 
and perch; these excellent fish are 
also taken in a mill pond upon the 
Bigelow river. 

The Mashapaug is a beautiful 
expanse of water, covering an area 
of 800 actes, and embosoms a small 
isladd, of about an acre, covered 
with wood, and having a charac- 
ter peculiarly rofnantic. Break- 
neck is of an oblong form, extend- 
ing from north to south, about 
tt^ree fourths of a mile, having an 



6utlet fr^m its not thern ^xtrertiity^ 
surrounded 6n all sides b^ its na- 
tive forests. Ftbm the easterfi 
side of this pond, the land rises 
with a gradual ascent, and is co- 
vered with valuable titrtber, form- 
ing a part of the extensive forests 
which the town contains. Its wes- 
tern borders are surrounded by a 
narroSt skirt of meadow, thickly 
covered with spruce and cedar, 
behind which rises a bold, craggy 
ridge, bearing the name of the 
pond which it overlooks, covered 
with venerable oaks and pines ; 
and was famous in former times, 
as being the haunt of wild beasts, 
and the noxious abode of the en^ 
venomed rattlesnake. 

The town is accommodated with 
several good public roads ; and 
Somers and Woodstock turnpike 
passes through it. 

Union, in 1810, contained 752 
inhabitants ; and there are now 
about 100 qualified Electors, 1 
Company of Militia and 120 Dwel- 
ling houses. 

There are 2 Mercantile Stores, 
9 Saw Mills, 1 Grain Mill and 
1 Tannery. 

There is 1 Congregational So- 
ciety and Church, and 1 Society 
of Methodists, having a house for 
public worship, 6 District Schools 
and 1 Social Library. There is 
one Physician, who is the only pro- 
fessional character in the town, 
there being no Clergymen or Law- 
yers. 

This town furnishes a strikitjg 
example of the ineguality and in- 
justice of the principle of repre- 
sentation in this State, and of the 
prevalence of the "borough sys- 
tem" of England. Union, with a 
population of 752, and witli a list 



CI 



S03 



VERNON. 



of 17,000 dollars,, has an equal 
representation with New*Haven, 
which has a population of more 
than 7000, and a list of $ 1 33,000 ; 
haviogimore tlian nine times the 
inhabitants of Uni<m, and paying 
nearly eight times the amount of 



taxes ; and upon a more just prin- 
ciple of taxation, the difference in 
this respect would be more con* 
spicuous. « 

Union was incorporated as a 
town in 1734. 



VERNON. 



VERNON, a small post town- 
ships is situated 12 miles north- 
east from Hartford. It is bounded 
on the north by Elbni^on, on the 
east by Tolland and Coventry, on 
the south by Bolton and Eaft-Hart- 
ford, and on the west by East- 
Windsor and East-Hartford. 

The town comprises an area of 
about 5 miles in length, and more 
than 3 and a half in breadth, con- 
taining 18 square miles. 

The principal part of the town 
is uneven, being agreeably diver- 
sified witii hill and dale. The 
eastern part is broken and moun- 
tainous, extending upon thatllioun- 
tainous range of country which 
constitutes the height of land be- 
tween the Thames and Connecti- 
cut rivers, and directs the course 
of the streams. This mountain 
consists of granite, scbistus and 
other original rocks. In the south- 
east part of this town, are quarries 
of a greyish slate stone, admitting 
of a smooth and even surface. 
These stones are well calculated 
to flag the side-walks in cities, 
and have been carried to Hart- 
ford for that Durpose. The stone 
is a micaceous schistus, or mica 
slate, being composed of mica and 
quartz, and has a slaty structure. 
It is not found frequently upon the 
summit of the mountain, but upon 



its sides, forming gentle acclivi'^ 
ties. When these rocks are found 
upon the summit of hills, they are 
generally round. 

The soil is in general a gravelly 
loam, somewhat stony, yet coasi- 
derablj fertile. 

Its natural and agricultural pro- 
puctions are similar to those of 
other towns in the county, and 
like them, agriculture is the prin- 
cipal employment of the inhabit- 
ants. 

The most considerable streams 
in the town are HdMkanum and 
Tankerooson, which are fine mill 
streams, and contain many good 
water privileges. 

The Stafford and Tolland turn- 
pike, which is a part of the great 
post road from Hartford to Boston, 
passes through the centre of this 
town. 

The population of this town, in 
1810^ was 827 ; and there are now 
135 Dwelling houses, one entire 
company of Militia and parts of 
several others. 

There arc 1 Woolen Factory, 
2 Cot4;0n Factories, one of which, 
it is beBeved, was the first estab- 
lishment in the State, 3 Grain 
Mills, 6 Saw Mills, 2 Oil Mills, 1 
Distillery, 1 Tannery, 4 Carding 
Machines and 1 Mercantile Store 
in the town. 







^' 



WILLINOTON. 



30^ 



There are 6 District Schools, 
1 Congregational Society and 
Chorch, 2 Social Libraries, 1 Cler- 
gyman and 2 Physicians. 

The amountof the general list of 




rateable polls andestate,is^27'; 

Vernon was first settled ffbm 
East-Windsor, in 1716, being then 
a part of Bolton* It was incorpo- 
rated as a towrfirt%ct. 1808- ' 



WILLINGTON. 



WILLINGTON is situated 24 
miles east from Hartford. It is 
bounded east on Ashford, west on 
Tolland, north on Stafibrd and Un- 
ion, and south on Mansfield. It is 
nearly 8 miles in length, from north 
to south, and 4 and a half miles 
in breadth, from^east to west, com- 
prising about 35 square miles. 

The surface is hilly and bro- 
ken, and the soil a bard gravelly 
loam, abounding with stone. 

This town lies within the grani- 
tic district of theeastern partof the 
State, which commences at Had- 
dam, and extends through the State 
into Massachusetts. 

The summit of the mountains 
and hills is generally covered 
with granite and micaceous schis- 
tus, and other rocks of a primi- 
tive formation also abound* Some 
of these stones contain large quan- 
tities of mica ; and beds of iron ore 
have been discovered in this town.' 

The lands are best adapted to 
grazing, and afibrd many forests 
of good timber. 

The.Willimantic river, a lively 
mill stream, waters the western 
borders of the town, and divides 
it from Tolland. The Fenton is 
the next most considerable stream, 
within the townshi{^. Across these 
two rivers tliere are a number of 
bridges. 



The turnpike road, leading from 
Providence to Enfield bridge, pass- 
es throu^ the centre of the town. 
The turnpike leading from Nor- 
wich to Monson, in Massachusetts, 
passes through the towiu 

It is a singular fact, that salmon, 
which have wholly deserted Con- 
necticut river, are taken in the. 
Willinoantic, ai^raall stream; but 
the course of this river, being ra- 
pid, its waters limpid, and its bed 
of stoneandgravel,render it an in- 
viting retreat for this excellent fish. 

The population of the town, in 
1810, was 1150; and there are 
now about 200 Freemen, 100 Mi- 
litia and 200 Dwelling houses. 

The* manufactures of the town, 
in addition to those of a domestic 
character, are 1 Woolen Factory, 

1 Glass Factory, 6 Grain Mills, 3 
Tanneries, 5 Saw Mills and 3 Car- 
ding Machines. 

The town contains 1 located 
Congregational Society, 1 Society 
of Baptists,and 1 1 District Schools. 
There are 3 Mercantile Stores, 

2 Churches, 1 Social Library, 2 
Clergymen and 2 Physicians. 

The amount of the.taxable polls 
and estate of the town is ^26,27:^4 
and the valuation of i'eaheB^|||P|^ 
^230,400. , . ^^g^:^.^ 

The first settlement of the Town 
was in 1 720, if- 






n 



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V, 



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._,, . T^-T /►•.' ■^ » 



t 



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S sA. C IT 



K jcB:ErD o:si bk ill, 



» UJawd tr IVovt^jiiy l';tit»ti«ia«. 




U T T S 



OF 

R'ovi^lBrLce JPlantations; 
uv/// ma//y m/r/i/ioMs: 



'omy^'t?^/^/ 



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\. 



GENERAL GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL VIEW 



or 



THE STATE OF 

RHODE-ISLAND. 



The State of Rhode-Island is situated between 41 and 42^ north 
lat. and between 3^ 1 1 'and 4^ east Ion. ; and is bounded on the north and 
east by the State of Massachusetts, on the south by the Atlantic ocean, 
and on the west by the State of Connecticut* The average length of 
we State, from north to south, is more than 42 miles, and its mean 
Veadth is about 29 miles^ comprising an area of 1225 square miles, 

Jusive of the waters of Narragansett bay, which comprise about 

square niiles. 

The following Table exhibits a view of the counties in the State ; 

^ square miles in each ; the number of towns ; the seats of justice ; 

^ principal villages, &c« 



bounties. 

Widence. 
I %port. 
I toL 



Square 
miles* 



Number of Seats of 

justice* 

Providence. 

Newport. 

Bristol* 



186 



Principal towns and 
villages. 
( Providence, and 
( Pawtucket vill. 
Newport. 
Bristol,and War- 
ren village. 



Greenwich, Ap- 
E. Greenwich. -^ponaugandPaw- 

tuxet vil] 




N 



/ 



r 



j^ff S M"niA /hret (rf/ :i^/frr/' o.' /iA0tl0liiflanfl^^tg2_ 



s ^ c h: 



s :e T T s 



• t 






ti»n Line o/ MA«»4ictm 



T TIa JK^ 



^*i 



v«J*V 



<■ 



£ 8 



^ 4 



J 



juiJ* 



» 



Hope 



^•dAIsland /tic^ 



{•^ 



[>fB 



k/(»)VS 



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lar 



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i 



<^3^^t 






\; 



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^i-^ 



sfc. 



r\ 



'% 



2*JSLAy^ 



OJ^ 



JO] 



iB««i 



^n 



R™(ferLce Plantation^ 



:4 



><6 



^^ 



04»1 



^' 






k\ 






' via 



^«^-a-irAfsir' 



Funa.1 



s. 



>. 



lY 



'^I'^^B. 



fc'^KL 



!•.">: 






ttltntirJrttlM 



iiiii 



], 







r /'r'€/fr7 r^ /^^ ^^ 2/^^^^^ 




' M/fCr/r-^J^frfffffA 



Hartfcrd, TUmUk.d fy ^n, S'.Man^. ^or u O^xOteer^ rf Jthcde-Mand jm. 



'I 




s o/tt t 



r :iA 




GENERAL GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL VIEW 



OF 



THE STATE OF 

RHODE-ISLAND. 



The State of Rhode-Island is situated between 41 and 42^ north 
iat, and between 3° 1 1 'and 4** east Ion. ; and is bounded on the north and 
east by the State of Massachusetts, on the south by the Atlantic ocean, 
and on the west by the State of Connecticut. The average length of 
the State, from north to south, is more than 42 miles, and its mean 
breadth is about 29 miles, comprising an area of 1225 square miles, 
inclusive of the waters of Narragansett bay, which comprise about 
130 square niiles. 

The following Table exhibits a view of the counties in the State ; 
the square miles in each ; the number of towns ; the seats of justice ; 
the principal villages, &c« 



Counties. 



Providence. 


381 


10 


Newport. 


136 


7 


Bristol. 


25 


3 



Bristol. 



Kent. 



Washington. 367 



Square Number of Seats of Principal towns and 
miles. towns. justice. villages. 

ProvidpnrP ^ Providence, and 

( Pawtucket vilL 

Newport. Newport. 

Bristol,and War- 
ren village. 
Greenwich, Ap- 

E. Greenwich. ^ ponaug and Paw- 

tuxet villages. 
Wickford, Paw- 
catuck and Little 
RestHillvillages. 



186 



S. Kingston. 



Total 1095 square miles. 



^ The na4:ural features of this State are in some respects very pecu- 
liar. By casting a glance at the map,, it will be perceived that the pro- 
portion which the waters bear to the land is much greater than in any 
Other State in the Union ; about one tenth part of the territorial limits 
of the State being water. 

Toe continental part of the State possesses considerable uniformi- 
ty, as it respects surface, soil and geological structure. There are no 
ranges of mountains in this section, or in any other part of the 

39 



i 



306 GENERAL VIEW 



State, nor any mountainous tracts ; yet, with the exception of the im* 
mediate borders of Narraganset bay, and the Atlantic ocean, and some 
intervales upon the streams, it is somewhat of a rough country, being 
considerably hilly and rocky. This part of the State, exhibiting great 
uniformity, possesses a similar geological character ; the rocks con- 
sisting of granite and other original formations* There are some level 
tracts upon the borders of Narragansett river, and some flats upon the 
shores of the Atlantic, in the southwest section of the State. 

The most considerable eminences are Mount Hope, in Bristol, Hop- 
kins' Hill, in West-Greenwich, and Woonsoket Hill, in Smithfield.. 
There arc also some hills of considerable elevation in Exeter. Rhode- 
Island, and most of the other islands in the Narragansett bay, disclose 
a geological structure, of the transition character, and present a sur- 
fece generally undulating, and often highly picturesque and beautifuL 

The mineral treasures of the State have not been explored by the 
lights of science, or the unerring hand of practical knowledge ; but 
so far as they are kno^vn, they are not extensive or valuable. Iron 
ore is the most important mineral. » It is found in Cranston, of an ex- 
cellent quality, and in some other places in the county of Providence. 
Mineral coal is found at Portsmouth, upon Rhode-Island. Limestone 
abounds in the northeastern section of the State ; and in these calca- 
reous strata there are some excellent quarries of marble. Serpen- 
tine marble is also found at Newport ; and there are in various places 
extensive quarries of freestone, valuable for building and other uses. 
Those in Johnston are the most important. 

This State, considering the smallness of its dimensions,possesses am- 
ple resources for agricultural opulence. The soil, according to the 
operation of the established laws of nature, corresponding with the 
geological structure, exhibits considerable uniformity; being, in the 
continental section, generally, a primitive gravelly loam, which is 
deep, strong and fertile, but does not afford very great facilities of cul- 
tivation. It requires industry, arid seems to bear the impress, illus- 
trative of fee justness of the declaration, th^it by the " sweat of the 
brow'' man shall earn his bread. Upon Rhode-Island, the soil is of 
^ shistic or slaty character, generally very fertile. In the county of 
Bristol, it is a rich garden mould ; and in the northwestern sectioa 
of the State there are some tracts possessing a soil which is hard, dry 
and sterile. There are some small tracts of sandy loam interspersed 
in various parts of the State, and some few pine plains. The pro- 
portion of alluvial is very inconsiderable ; and there are no calcare- 
ous districts of any extent, and few argillaceous ; although there are 
some small sections of the latter upon the borders of the rivers. 

Natural and Agricultural Productions. — There are no extensive fo- 
rests in the State ; but what there are, are almost exclusively of the 
deciduous species of trees, of which, oak of the various kinds, ches- 
nut and walnut are the most prevalent and important. There are, 
however, some small tracts of pine, and some of cedar. A great pro* 



^ 



OF RHODE-^LAND. 307 



i^HHBBBB 



MTiigti ' " ■ 



portion of the forests are in the northwest section of the State, vbtch 
affords a great supply of timber for ship building and other purples. 
With the exception of some parts of the county <rf Newport, the fo^. 
rests are sufficient to supply the local demand both for timber a^d 
fuel. The islands in the Narragansett bay are mostly destitute of fo- 
rest trees. 

The agricultural productions of the State consist principally of the 
products of the grazing and dairy business. The counties of Washing- 
ton and Newport will rank among the first grazing districts in the Uni- 
ted States ; the soil in these counties beiiig generally a moist loam, 
which is deep, strong and fertile, afibrding abundant crops of grass and 
rich pasturage. These counties are distinguisheid for the extent and 
excellency of their dairies ; they are ako celebrated for their cattle and 
sheep. The farmers generally keep l^vge stocks of valuable neat cat* 
tie, and have long paid great attention to the raising of sheep ; and a 
peculiar and valuable breed of horsed formerly were an obje^ct of conr 
jsiderable attention in the eastern .section of Washington county. The 
various objects of the dairy businesp, and the raising of cattle and sheep, 
also formi the leading agricultural interests in the northwestern section 
of the State. 

Of the different kinds of grain cultivated, Indiaii com, barley, oats 
and rye are principally attended to. Indian corn is cultivated Jn eve* 
ry part of the Sta^te, and barley extensively in the counties of Newport 
and Washington. The best townships for the cultivation of grain, are 
Middletown and Little-Compton, iu Newport county; North and 
South-Kingston, in Washington county; Cranston, Smithfield and 
North-Providence, in Providence county ; Warwick, in Kent county^ 
mxd fiarrington, in Bristol county. The^e and some other towns have 
a considerable proportion of arable land, which is well adapted to a 
grain culture, and is in a tolerable state of cultivation. In BrisCoJi 
county, largf quantities of onioDS are raised for expprti|tion. In most 
sections of the State^ the great convenience and v^ue of fruit is duly 
appreciated, and is an object of pmper attention* The most exten- 
sive and valuable apple orchards are in tbe towns of Smithfield, John- 
ston and Cranston,in Providence county; Miiddletow^n and Portsmouth, 
in Newport county ; Warwick and Greenwich, in Kent county ; and 
Hopkinton, in Washington county. #^ 

miters. — The waters of Rhode-Island are abiuidant, and afford more 
extensive navigable advantages, than those of any other State in the 
Union. The Narragansett bay is one of the most beautiful sheets of 
water in the United States ; is unrivalled for its navigi^ble advantages, 
affording at all times a safe and ready Gommunication with the ocean ; 
and its shores, which are indented with innumerable bays and inlets, 
containing many excellent harbours. This bay also ^fords important 
advantages for the fishing business; it-extends moire than 30 miles into 
the interior of the State, and for this distance^ affords, superior advan- 
tages for ship navigation. The whole e^^tent of the bay and river, from 



'\ 



308 GENERAL VIEW 



Point Jadith to Providence, is about 36 noiles. The average breadth 
ofthe lower section, of the bay is nearly ten miles; but the upper part 
is narrow. Exclusive of the islands, of which there are about fifteen in 
number, and some of considerable extent, the waters of the bay com- 
prise an area of about 1 30 square miles. The principal harbours are 
Newport, which is one of the best in the world, Bristol, Providence," 
Wickford, Greenwich, Warren, Tiverton, Apponaug, Pawtuxet and 
Paw(»tuck« These harbours afford facilities to the commercial inter- 
ests of almost every part of the State. 

The interior of the State is watered by numerous small rivers ; the 
largest of which is the Seekonk, in the northeastern section. The prin- 
cipal branch of this river is the Pawtucket, a lively and Valuable mill 
stream, affbrding numerous sites for hydraulic works, which are occu- 

Sied to great extent. The Pawtuxet discharges its waters into tiie 
Farragansett, 5 nitles below Providence. This stream h also distin- 
guished for its numerous sites for mills and manufacturing establish- 
ments, and is unrivalled for the number of cotton factories erected up-^ 
on it ; there being forty upon this stream anditsbranches, and all with- 
in the distance of a few miles. This stream and its branches water 
a large proportion of the interior of the State. The Pawcatuck,wh]ch, 
near its mouth, is a considerable river, being navigable for vessels 
for five or six miles, together with its numerous branches, waters the 
southwestern section of the State. Its principal branches are the Wood 
and Charies rivers, which are convenient mill streams. The latter 
has its source in Warden's pond, a considerable body of water; be-^ 
i»ides which, there are numerous other fre^ water ponds, which are 
generally well stored wi^h fish. 

The shores of die Narragansett bay, and the Atlantic border of the 
State, are indented with numerous inlets and salt water ponds, which 
are well stored with fi^sh, and afford great facilities to the fishing business* 
C/tma^e.-<-*Rhode'> Island enjoys a salubrious dimat^, favourable to 
faealtb and longevity. Being in the same parrallel of latitude, it cor- 
responds with the climate of the Slate of Connecticut, in the vale of 
Connecticut river; althou^, perhaps, the islands and borders of 
the Narragansett bay may be somewhat milder. Hie winters in the 
maritime sections ^re evidently milder, and the seasons more uniform 
and temperate, than in the interior of New-England, in the same pap- 
rallel of latitude ; and in these sections^ the extreme heat of summer 
is allayed by the refreshing sea breezes. There is probably no sec- 
tion of the United States, that possesses a climate more favourable to 
health and humah ccMiifort, than the islands and borders of the Natra-^ 
gansett bay; and none, perhaps, affords a more agreeable residence, 
than some of the towns which line this beautiful sheet of water. New- 
port, from the salubrity of its climate, the beauty of its situation, and 
the various interesting objects and advantages which its maritime situa* 
tion affords, is aplaceoi extensive resort in the summer season, for 
the purposes of health and pleasure. ^ 



> 



OP RHGDE-ISLAND. 309 



^BW^f^pw^w'^wiww^^BBBgeagaa— BB^g'^wpw'i 



I II I ' ll r - 1 ,-7 — I a- -n i ff . Ml - II. T i gami i I .i l , > i , ■ r -n r ., ■ ■ mm i m mn n m ■ .— t i, , iii n I I. T I T — m 1 1 1- 1— i r ■ i l ■■ ., . - i M-ni i.* . r . i. ■■ . . 

Roads and Bridges. — The roads of the State have , been greatly im- 
proved within the last thirty years. In addition to the public roads, 
there are a number of good turnpikes, and several others in contem- 
plation* Of these, the most* important are a turnpike leading to Bos- 
ton through Pawtucket village; one leading to Worcester county; one 
to Connecticut through Chepachet; one to Hartford, and one to Nor- 
wich. A turnpike is about to be constructed from Providence to Paw- 
catttck, and several other turnpikes are contemplated. There are 
good public roads from Providence to Bristol, Newport and Greenwich, 
and others in various parts of the State* 

The most important and extenaive bridge inthe State is tbat which 
connects Portsmouth with Tiverton, at Ho wjand's feiry. This bridge 
is constructed of stone, and i& nearly 1000 feet in length. The next 
Hiost important is Waybossett bridge, connecting the two divisions of 
the town of Providence. India and Central bridges across the Seekonk 
river, are considerable bridges. Brides these, there are numerous 
convenient bridges upon the different streams in every part of ttie 
State, ajBTording to travelling and intercourse every facility and accom- 
modation. 

Fisheries* — The waters of the Narragansett, and its numerous bays, 
kilets and coves, afiford a great variety of excellent and valuable &b, 
lidiich IB general are taken with gr^at facility and success. The fish- 
ing bu^ness already employs considerable industry, and is capable of 
great extension. There are few sections in the United Slates which 
enjoy equal advantages for the fishing business ; and by the direction 
of enterprise and industry to <liis channel, it might be rendered an 
important business, affording extensive employment, and become a 
source of great profit and wealth. The fishing business is carried on 
most extensively by tibte inhabitants of Block-Island, Wickford, Green- 
vfich and Pawcatuck* At these places, considerable quantities are 
taken for exportation* Thirty-three boats, belonging to Block-Island, 
are engaged in the cod and mackerel fisheries. In addition to wha(t 
are expoited, large supplies are taken, not only at the aforesaid pla- 
ces, but by tl^ inhaUtants of all the tpwns and villages upon the shores 
of Narragansett bay and the borders of the Atlantic. These supplies 
comprise almost every variety of eatable fish, bath of fin and shell, 
aad contribute greatly to the means of subsistence, as well as to the 
luxuries of the table. Thfe waters of the ocean form the great " com- 
mon" of mankind, who^e treasure&are alike free to all. 

Cammetce and NavigtUiofu — ^Althoogh Rhode-^Island is the smallest 
State in the Union, she claims a conspicttous raidc, for mercantile in- 
dustry and commercial enterprise. In no other State have the mer- 
chants engaged in foreign trade with more ardour, sagacity or intelli- 
gence ; and no where have their effints been crowned with greater 
success. Hence the immense accumulati<m of commercial capital in 
the maritime towns, which exceeds that of most other towns of their 
size. The foreign -trade is not confteied to any. particular direction, 



1 



10 GENERAL VIEW 



but is carried on with almost every part of the woflij that oSers a field 
for commercial enterprise. Considerable trade is carried on with the 
£ast Indies, South America, the Baltic and Mediterranean, and an ex- 
tensive one with the island of Cuba. In addition to thesQ, there. 
is a brisk and profitable coasting, trade maintained with the middle and 
southern States. The whole amount of tonnage belonging to the 
State, in 1.819, was 39,044 tons, which is believed to be a greater 
amount, in proportion to the population, than is owned by any other 
State in the Union, with the exceptioa of Massachusetts. There are 
now (1819,) about 670 mercantile stores of every description in the. 
State ; a great number, for its size and population. 

Manufactures. — In taking a view of the manufactures of this State^ 
the cotton business claims the first attention. In the cotton manufac- 
lure, this, although the smallest State in the Union, ranks before any 
other. Considering the small beginning of this business and the diiB^ 
culties which it has had to encounter, the progress which it has Qiade. 
and its present extension cannot but be regarded as a satisfactory evi- 
dence of its ultimate success, and must afford great gratification to the . 
friends of American manufactures. Although it is nearly thirty year^ 
since the cotton spinnir^ business was first commenced in this State, 
yet its progress, for a number of years, was extremely slow ; and it did 
not receive much attention until about fifteen years ago. Since that 
period, although it has experienced various vicissitudes and several 
severe depressions, and at all times has had to contend with the most 
formidable foreign competition,8upported by immense capitals,and aided 
by the general policy of thegovernment, it has acquired a degree of ma- 
turity and iinport9;nce, which authorize a belief that the business jnay 
be considered as permanently established. There are now metre than 
90 cotton mills or manufacturing establishments in the State. Many 
of these establishments are very extensive, and afford employment to 
a vast as;gregate of industry ; some of them containing 6 or 700P spin- 
dies. The fabrics manufactured at these establishments have becanie 
greatly improved within a few years, from experience and practical 
skill, and at present sustain not only a high reputation for their firmness 
of texture and durability, but also for the elegance of the style of 
manufacture. The amount of cotton goods naanufactured at the va- 
rious establishments in this State is immensely great^ and constantly 
increasing. They are conveyed by land and water to mostparts of 
the United States, and are constantly overcoming the prejudices of 
our citizens, and extending their reputation. Such is the condition of 
the cotton manufactures of this State, which yet are to be considered as 
in their infancy. As many, even at this time, are sceptical upon the 
subject of the pernianent establishment of manufactures in this country, 
it may, perhaps, throw some Ught upon this subject, by comparing this , 
view of thQ rise and progress of the cotton manufacture here with , 
that of the same ou^nufacture in Great-Britain. From the estaT)lish-! 
msnt of the first cotton mill propelled by water-power^ by Sir Rich- 




OP imODE-ISLAND. 3ii 

ard Arkxrright, at Cromford, in Derbyshire, from the year 1771 to 
1788, a period of 17 years^ the number, in England, had increased 
only to 114. In Scotland, the first mill was erected in or about the 
year 1780 ; and in 1788 there were but 19. From these statements, 
it appears that the progress of the business was very slow in Great* 
Britain, for the first 17 years; and that, at tiiis period, there were but 
few more 'water-power cotton mills in all England than there are now 
in Rhode^lsland* When we consider the rapid extension which this 
business baa received in Great-Britain, since 1788, forming at this 
time a great national interest, upon which a considerable proportion 
of the population of the country depends ; may we not, without in- 
dulging the expectation of a progress equally rapid in this country, 
confidently rely upon the sure and steady advancement of this manu- 
facturing interest, so important to our national prosperity and inde- 
* prudence* If thirty years have produced such surprising results in 
Great-Britain, some of her largest towns having grown up with this 
business, may we not expect that the lapse of the same period will 
give to the manufactures of this country a vast extension ; and that 
the manufacturing districts, particularly some sections of this State^ 
will contain large and fiouriehing manufacturing towns, the seats of 
immense population, business and wealtii. The woolen manufactur- 
ing business h&s received some attention in this State, although it holds 
but a very subordinate station, compared with the cotton business, * 
There are at this time about 20 woolen foctories in the State, and 27 
clothiers' woiics, for customers. Considerable attention is given to 
the various branches of the iron manufacture, in some sections of the 
State. There are three furnaces, one of which has been distinguished 
for the excellency of its castings, particularly cannon, two forges, three 
anchor shops and one gun &ctory. Considerable attention is also 
given to the manufacture of nails, scythes and some other articles in 
^e iron business, in the northeastern section of Providence county. 
The distillation of spirit, both from domestic and foreign materials, 
is an important business in various parts of the State, particularly at 
Newport, where large quantities of rum are distilled for exportation.